Publications by authors named "Koji Iida"

78 Publications

Mechanisms underlying the prokinetic effects of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 in the rat proximal colon.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 12 13;321(6):G617-G627. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Cell Physiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a well-known insulin secretagogue, is released from enteroendocrine L cells both luminally and basolaterally to exert different effects. Basolaterally released GLP-1 increases epithelial ion transport by activating CGRP-containing enteric afferent neurons. Although bath-applied GLP-1 reduced the contractility of colonic segments, GLP-1-induced stimulation of afferent neurons could also accelerate peristaltic contractions. Here, the roles of endogenous GLP-1 in regulating colonic peristalsis were investigated using isolated colonic segments. Isolated segments of rat proximal colon were placed in an organ bath, serosally perfused with oxygenated physiological salt solution, and luminally perfused with degassed 0.9% saline. Colonic wall motion was recorded using a video camera and converted into spatiotemporal maps. Intraluminal administration of GLP-1 (100 nM) stimulating the secretion of GLP-1 from L cells increased the frequency of oro-aboral propagating peristaltic contractions. The acceleratory effect of GLP-1 was blocked by luminally applied exendin-3 (9-39) (100 nM), a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. GLP-1-induced acceleration of peristaltic contractions was also prevented by bath-applied BIBN4069 (1 μM), a CGRP receptor antagonist. In colonic segments that had been exposed to bath-applied capsaicin (100 nM) that desensitizes extrinsic afferents, GLP-1 was still capable of exerting its prokinetic effect. Stimulation of endogenous GLP-1 secretion with a luminally applied cocktail of short-chain fatty acids (1 mM) increased the frequency of peristaltic waves in an exendin-3 (9-39)-sensitive manner. Thus, GLP-1 activates CGRP-expressing intrinsic afferents to accelerate peristalsis in the proximal colon. Short-chain fatty acids appear to stimulate endogenous GLP-1 secretion from L cells resulting in the acceleration of colonic peristalsis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) activates CGRP-containing intrinsic afferent neurons resulting in the acceleration of colonic peristalsis. Short-chain fatty acids stimulate the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 from L cells that accelerates colonic peristalsis. Thus, besides the well-known humoral insulinotropic action, GLP-1 exerts a local action via the activation of the enteric nervous system to accelerate colonic motility. Such a prokinetic action of GLP-1 could underlie the mechanisms causing diarrhea in patients with type-2 diabetes treated with GLP-1 analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00175.2021DOI Listing
December 2021

Seizure Deterioration with Increased Levetiracetam Blood Concentration During the Postpartum Period in Refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Intern Med 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Japan.

We evaluated a 39-year-old pregnant woman with right temporal lobe epilepsy. During the second trimester, seizure deterioration was responsive to an increased daily dose of levetiracetam (LEV). However, immediately after delivery, new non-habitual seizures emerged along with a sharply increased LEV concentration. The frequency of habitual seizures also slightly increased. The non-habitual seizures completely disappeared, and the frequency of the habitual seizures improved to the baseline level after the LEV dosage was reduced. Thus, a paradoxical effect of an increased LEV blood concentration was assumed to be a potential cause of these events. Peripartum pharmacokinetic fluctuations in LEV levels should be monitored carefully.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.8173-21DOI Listing
October 2021

A case of repetitive seizures following immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy as a feature of autoimmune encephalitis.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Oct;23(5):733-738

Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan, Epilepsy Center, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan.

Pembrolizumab, an immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI), is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to programmed cell death-1 receptor (PD-1) and thereby inhibits binding to its ligand, which inhibits the suppression of activated T cells by cancer cells, resulting in enhancing antitumour immunity. Although several cases of encephalitis have been reported as immune-related adverse effects of ICIs, epilepsy has not been reported following ICI treatment. We describe the case of an elderly woman with bladder carcinoma who experienced two episodes of generalized seizures after treatment with pembrolizumab. The episodes were atypical of encephalitis, because the seizures were completely responsive to AEDs and the CSF parameters normalized completely without immunotherapy. Since interictal EEG revealed persistent epileptic discharges after the seizures, pembrolizumab was considered to have induced a chronic state of epileptogenicity as the possible pathology, with a clinical picture similar to that of autoimmune epilepsy. The possibility that ICIs may cause an immune-related adverse effect, such as a chronic epileptic condition, should be considered, since ICIs are used widely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2021.1319DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparison of seizure outcomes and ADL recovery period after total or anterior corpus callosotomy in adolescent and young adults with drop attacks and severe mental retardation.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Oct 30;176:106706. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Epilepsy Center, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima City, 734-0037, Japan; Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima City, 734-0037, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate seizure outcomes and postoperative neurologic complications, with an emphasis on the recovery period of activities of daily living (ADL) between anterior partial corpus callosotomy (ACC) and total corpus callosotomy (TCC) in adolescent and young adults with drop attacks and severe mental retardation.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy who underwent corpus callosotomy (CC) for drop attacks between 2010 and 2019 in the Department of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima University hospital, with a minimum follow-up of one year. Inclusion criteria of this study were 1) age at surgery: 11-39 years, 2) preoperative intelligence quotient <35, and 3) preoperative Barthel index (BI) ≥30. Postoperative full ADL recovery was defined as complete recovery to the preoperative BI score. We compared the postoperative days required for 1) recovery of oral intake ability, 2) discharge from our hospital, 3) returning home from any hospital, 4) returning home with full ADL recovery, and 5) seizure outcomes in patients with ACC versus those with one-stage TCC.

Results: Ten patients with ACC and 14 patients with one-stage TCC met the inclusion criteria. The period for returning home with full ADL recovery was a median of 15 days (range 9-45 days) after ACC, while the median was 21.5 days (range 10-62 days) after one-stage TCC (p = 0.2904). Although there was a tendency for the ADL recovery period to be longer after one-stage TCC, there were no statistically significant differences in any category of ADL recovery period. Eleven of 14 (78.6 %) patients who received a one-stage TCC showed favorable seizure outcomes, with drop attack cessation, which was significantly better than 1 of 10 (10 %) patients with ACC (p = 0.0009).

Conclusions: From the viewpoint of postoperative seizure outcomes and ADL recovery period, one-stage TCC is preferred to ACC for adolescent and young adults with severe mental retardation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2021.106706DOI Listing
October 2021

Socio-economic impact on epilepsy outside of the nation-wide COVID-19 pandemic area.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 04 11;117:107886. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Japan; Epilepsy Center, Hiroshima University Hospital, Japan.

Objective: To identify people with epilepsy (PWE) who required extensive care before the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that had world-wide impacts on medical care and on socio-economic conditions.

Methods: Consecutive PWE who were treated at the epilepsy center of Hiroshima University Hospital, which was located in the COVID-19 non-pandemic area, between March 2019 and August 2020 were enrolled. We evaluated clinical and socioeconomic factors that were associated with seizure exacerbation (an increase in seizure frequency) during the first 6 months after the COVID-19 pandemic started compared with the previous 6 months.

Results: Among the 196 PWE who were evaluated (mean age was 37.8 ± 16.2 years), there were 33 PWE (16.8%) whose seizure frequency had increased after the pandemic began. People with epilepsy with a seizure increase showed a significant association with living alone (p < 0.001), a higher seizure frequency (p < 0.001), negative findings on MRI (p = 0.020), history of dissociative seizure (p < 0.001), mood disorders (p < 0.001), insomnia (p < 0.001), and high psychological stress levels (p = 0.024) at baseline compared with PWE without seizure exacerbation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that "living alone" (odds ratio (OR) 3.69; 95%CI 1.29-10.52), "high seizure frequency at baseline" (OR 4.53; 95%CI 1.63-12.57), and "comorbidity of insomnia" (OR 9.55; 95%CI 3.71-24.55) were independently associated with seizure exacerbation.

Conclusions: Even in the non-pandemic area, PWE had seizure exacerbation, suggesting that clinicians should screen patients' mental health before the outbreak to provide care, reduce the burden, and prevent social isolation in PWE. This should be addressed particularly in patients with medically refractory seizures with insomnia who live alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107886DOI Listing
April 2021

Initiating an epilepsy surgery program with limited resources in Indonesia.

Sci Rep 2021 03 3;11(1):5066. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang City, Central Java Province, Indonesia.

To share the experiences of organizing the epilepsy surgery program in Indonesia. This study was divided into two periods based on the presurgical evaluation method: the first period (1999-2004), when interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used mainly for confirmation, and the second period (2005-2017), when long-term non-invasive and invasive video-EEG was involved in the evaluation. Long-term outcomes were recorded up to December 2019 based on the Engel scale. All 65 surgical recruits in the first period possessed temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), while 524 patients were treated in the second period. In the first period, 76.8%, 16.1%, and 7.1% of patients with TLE achieved Classes I, II, and III, respectively, and in the second period, 89.4%, 5.5%, and 4.9% achieved Classes I, II, and III, respectively, alongside Class IV, at 0.3%. The overall median survival times for patients with focal impaired awareness seizures (FIAS), focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures were 9, 11 and 11 years (95% CI: 8.170-9.830, 10.170-11.830, and 7.265-14.735), respectively, with p = 0.04. The utilization of stringent and selective criteria to reserve surgeries is important for a successful epilepsy program with limited resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84404-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930083PMC
March 2021

[Ictal electroencephalography (EEG) activity and cerebral blood flow dynamics as potential pathological indicators: a case of anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2020 Nov 27;60(11):778-785. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Neurology, Hiroshima University Hospital.

A 29 year-old, right-handed woman was admitted to our hospital due to her headache with fever elevation lasting for two months followed by a prolonged loss of awareness with an involuntary movement in her left hand and mouth. This movement appeared very frequently, and the duration was very short, so called "faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS)". Some of FBDS were followed by prolonged loss of awareness. Brain MRI fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image revealed high intensity lesion in the left mesial temporal lobe. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) image indicated hyper perfusion in this lesion and also the lateral temporal region. No ictal electroencephalography (EEG) change was observed before the onset of FBDS. FBDS was often followed by focal impaired awareness seizure (FIAS) in which ictal EEG showed rhythmic alpha activity arising from left mid-temporal region. This EEG seizure pattern was clearly visible in the time-frequency analysis. Given these clinical findings, along with an evidence of serum anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody positive, she was diagnosed with anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Immunotherapy (methylpredonisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin) with a multiple anti-epileptic drugs therapy (lacosamide, perampanel, and lamotrigine) was highly responsible to her symptoms. Although the high intensity lesion in FLAIR image still remained after the treatment, findings of ASL and EEG showed clear correlation to her cognitive function and seizures, respectively. Temporal change in ASL imaging suggested that the hyper perfusion in ASL during the acute stage could be provided by inflammation of the encephalitis its self and also the seizures activities (FBDS and FIAS). The pathophysiological indication of anti-LGI1 encephalitis was limited in terms of the therapeutic strategy, however, our findings collectively suggested that the combination analysis of EEG activity and cerebral blood flow dynamics (ASL) could be the potential candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001460DOI Listing
November 2020

Secondary epileptogenesis on gradient magnetic-field topography correlates with seizure outcomes after vagus nerve stimulation.

Epilepsy Res 2020 11 12;167:106463. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; Epilepsy Center, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine the correlation between secondary unilateral or bilateral spreading on gradient magnetic-field topography (GMFT) before and after vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and postoperative seizure outcomes.

Methods: We analyzed pre- and post-VNS magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 15 patients with VNS implants. We applied McHugh classification to evaluate seizure outcomes. GMFT visualized the spatiotemporal spread of the gradient magnetic field from MEG (>300 fT/cm) before and after the spike peak. We compared the proportion of bilaterally spreading (PBS) MEG spikes and seizure outcomes. We also compared the interhemispheric time difference (ITD) between patients with and without corpus callosotomy.

Results: We allocated patients with favorable seizure outcomes of class I and II to group A (9 patients) and poor outcomes of class III-V to group B (6 patients). The number of post-VNS MEG spikes was significantly reduced compared to pre-VNS MEG spikes in group A, but not in group B. Group A showed significantly higher preoperative PBS than group B. Postoperative ITD significantly decreased in 5 patients who underwent corpus callosotomy compared to 10 patients without.

Conclusion: GMFT can detect the inter- and intrahemispheric spreading of spikes with high spatiotemporal resolution on the brain surface. Frequent interictal MEG spikes propagating bilaterally on GMFT may reflect a favorable seizure outcome after VNS. GMFT can identify dependent secondary epileptogenic spikes responding to VNS, which may be used to control generalized seizures in a subset of patients with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106463DOI Listing
November 2020

Preoperative sensory aura predicts risk for seizure in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 10 24;111:107255. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Indonesia.

Background: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often report viscerosensory and experiential auras, with substantial epilepsy localization. However, few previous studies have investigated the epileptic preoperative aura, particularly with regard to its effect on surgical outcomes in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Objective: This study investigated the potential role of preoperative aura in predicting outcomes after surgery for TLE.

Material And Methods: This study included consecutive patients diagnosed with TLE who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for drug-resistant TLE during the period from January 1999 to December 2017. Data pertaining to patient age at the time of surgery, sex, age at initial seizure onset, duration of epilepsy, presence of preoperative aura, comprehensive clinical semiology, side of surgery, and type of pathology were analyzed. Preoperative auras were classified as autonomic, sensory, mental and affective, or multiple manifestations. Patients were followed at 3 and 12 months after surgery and at regular intervals thereafter.

Results And Conclusions: A total of 498 patients were included in the study. Positive preoperative aura was observed in 386 patients (77.51%). The correlation of each variable with seizure outcomes was analyzed, and the only variable found to correlate with seizure outcome was the presence of preoperative aura. Compared with those with negative preoperative aura, those with positive preoperative aura were 1.74-fold more likely to be seizure-free after surgery for TLE. The analysis of patient data suggested a later onset of initial seizure in those with positive preoperative aura, compared with those without (p = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-3.24). Patients with a shorter duration of disease prior to TLE surgery were more likely to achieve seizure-free status postoperatively. Preoperative sensory aura was a good predictor that a patient would be seizure-free during follow-up (p = 0.022).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107255DOI Listing
October 2020

Efficacy and safety of perampanel monotherapy in patients with focal-onset seizures with newly diagnosed epilepsy or recurrence of epilepsy after a period of remission: The open-label Study 342 (FREEDOM Study).

Epilepsia Open 2020 Jun 7;5(2):274-284. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Korea University Guro Hospital Seoul Republic of Korea.

Objective: Our study assessed perampanel monotherapy in patients (aged ≥12 years) with focal-onset seizures (FOS) with or without focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS) in Japan and South Korea.

Methods: Study 342 (NCT03201900; FREEDOM) is a single-arm, open-label, Phase III study. Patients initially received perampanel in a 32-week 4-mg/d Treatment Phase (6-week Titration; 26-week Maintenance Periods). If they experienced a seizure during the 4-mg/d Maintenance Period, they could be up-titrated to 8 mg/d across an additional 30-week Treatment Phase (4-week Titration; 26-week Maintenance Periods). Primary endpoint was the seizure-freedom rate during the Maintenance Period (4 mg/d and last evaluated dose [4 or 8 mg/d]). Secondary endpoints included time to first seizure onset and to withdrawal during Maintenance. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were monitored.

Results: At data cutoff (February 28, 2019), 89 patients with FOS (84 [94.4%] with newly diagnosed epilepsy and 5 [5.6%] with recurrence of epilepsy after a period of remission) had received ≥1 perampanel dose; 16 patients discontinued during the 4-mg/d Titration Period, meaning 73 patients entered the 4-mg/d Maintenance Period and were included in the primary analysis set for efficacy. Seizure-freedom rate in the 26-week Maintenance Period was 46/73 (63.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.9-74.0) at 4 mg/d and 54/73 (74.0%; 95% CI: 62.4-83.5) at 4 or 8 mg/d. Cumulative probability of seizure-onset and withdrawal rates during Maintenance was 30.8% (95% CI: 21.5-43.0) and 23.7% (95% CI: 15.4-35.3) at 4 mg/d, and 18.2% (95% CI: 11.0-29.3) and 23.3% (95% CI: 15.2-34.8) at 4 or 8 mg/d. Perampanel was generally well tolerated, and the most common TEAE was dizziness.

Significance: Perampanel monotherapy (4 to 8 mg/d) was efficacious and consistent with the known safety profile up to 26 weeks in patients (≥12 years) with primarily newly diagnosed FOS with or without FBTCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/epi4.12398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278556PMC
June 2020

Surgery for Radiologically Normal-Appearing Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in a Centre with Limited Resources.

Sci Rep 2020 05 18;10(1):8144. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Jl Prof. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia.

Approximately 26-30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases display a normal-appearing magnetic resonance image (MRI) leading to difficulty in determining the epileptogenic focus. This causes challenges in surgical management, especially in countries with limited resources. The medical records of 154 patients with normal-appearing MRI TLE who underwent epilepsy surgery between July 1999 and July 2019 in our epilepsy centre in Indonesia were examined. The primary outcome was the Engel classification of seizures. Anterior temporal lobectomy was performed in 85.1% of the 154 patients, followed by selective amygdalo-hippocampectomy and resection surgery. Of 82 patients (53.2%), Engel Class I result was reported in 69.5% and Class II in 25.6%. The median seizure-free period was 13 (95% CI,12.550-13.450) years, while the seizure-free rate at 5 and 12 years follow-up was 96.3% and 69.0%, respectively. Patients with a sensory aura had better seizure-free outcome 15 (11.575-18.425) years. Anterior temporal lobectomy and selective amygdala-hippocampectomy gave the same favourable outcome. Despite the challenges of surgical procedures for normal MRI TLE, our outcome has been favourable. This study suggests that epilepsy surgery in normal MRI TLE can be performed in centres with limited resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64968-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235248PMC
May 2020

High Frequency of Mutations in Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinomas of Japanese Patients.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2019 Dec 27;10(1). Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shimane University School of Medicine, Izumo 6938501, Japan.

The frequency of mutations associated with low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSC)/serous borderline tumors (SBTs) in Japan is unknown. We aimed to identify genetic variations in , , , and in LGSC/SBT/serous cystadenomas (SCAs) in a Japanese population. We performed a mutation analysis (by Sanger sequencing) of 33 cases of LGSC/SBT/SCA and 4 cases of LGSC with synchronous SBTs using microdissected paraffin-embedded sections. Immunohistochemistry of p53 and ARID1A was also performed. The frequency of oncogenic mutations in was 60.0% (6/10) in LGSCs, 63.6% (7/11) in SBTs, and 8.3% (1/12) in SCAs. All cases harbored wild-type . The frequency of mutations was 20.0% (2/10) in LGSCs, whereas all SBTs and SCAs harbored the wild-type allele. The frequency of mutations was 30.0% (3/10) in LGSCs, 0.0% (0/11) in SBTs, and 16.7% (2/12) in SCAs. ARID1A staining was positive in all cases. p53 staining was positive in 0% (0/10) LGSCs, 9.1% (1/11) SBTs, and 0.0% (0/12) SCAs. One LGSC case had two mutations (G1633A and G3149A) in both LGSC and SBT lesions, but a mutation was detected only in an LGSC lesion. These results suggest that, compared with the values in Western populations (16-54%), the mutation frequency in LGSCs/SBTs is lower and that of mutations in LGSCs/SBTs is much higher in Japanese populations. Therefore, the main carcinogenesis signaling pathways may be different between Japanese and Western LGSCs. Molecular therapies targeting the PIK3CA/AKT pathway may be effective in LGSCs in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10010013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168240PMC
December 2019

Hemispherotomy for drug-resistant epilepsy in an Indonesian population.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2019 5;12:100337. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Indonesia.

Hemispherotomy is a surgical treatment indicated in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy due to unilateral hemispheric pathology. Hemispherotomy is less invasive compared with hemispherectomy. We reviewed our experience performing 24 hemispherotomy and report the results of 16 patients with prolonged follow-up of this relatively uncommon procedure in two centers in Indonesia. This is a retrospective observational study conducted from 1999 to July 2019 in two epilepsy neurosurgical centers in Semarang, Indonesia. Surgical techniques included vertical parasagittal hemispherotomy (VPH), peri-insular hemispherotomy (PIH), and modified PIH called the Shimizu approach (SA). The postoperative assessment was carried out using the Engel classification system of seizure outcome. Seizure freedom (Engel class I) outcome was achieved in 10 patients (62.5%), class II in 3 patients (18.7%), class III in 2 patients (12.5%), and class IV in 1 patient (6.3%) with follow-up duration spanning from 24 to 160 months. To the best of our knowledge, this series is the most extensive documentation of hemispherotomy in an Indonesian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebr.2019.100337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6888712PMC
November 2019

Treatment Risk for Elderly Patients with Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm from a Nationwide Database in Japan.

World Neurosurg 2019 Dec 10;132:e89-e98. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: This study aimed to clarify the risk factors of treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms (UCAs) in elderly patients by comparing the morbidity at discharge between surgical clipping and endovascular coiling in nonelderly (<65 years) and elderly (≥65 years) patients based on a national database in Japan.

Methods: A total of 36,017, including 15,671 patients with UCA after exclusion of unknown location, were registered in the Diagnosis Procedure Combination, the nationwide database, from 2010 to 2015 in Japan. Outcome of Barthel Index at discharge was investigated and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for morbidity of Barthel Index <90 at discharge in nonelderly and elderly patient groups.

Results: Risk factors for morbidity at discharge were basilar artery aneurysm compared with internal carotid artery (ICA), diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 2.0-2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.7), antiplatelet drug, and anticoagulation drug; however, highest hospital volume compared with lowest was an inverse risk factor in both age groups. Endovascular coiling (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5) was a significantly inverse risk in the elderly group. Anterior communicating artery aneurysm compared with ICA was a significant risk (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.6) in the nonelderly group; on the other hand, anterior communicating artery aneurysm (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.95) and middle cerebral artery aneurysm (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8) compared with ICA were significantly inverse risks in the elderly group.

Conclusions: Endovascular coiling after control of diabetes mellitus was recommended for the treatment of UCA in elderly patients. The ICA location of aneurysm in the elderly should be paid attention as the treatment risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.08.252DOI Listing
December 2019

Preservation of Memory Despite Unresected Contralateral Hippocampal Volume Loss After Resection of Hippocampal Sclerosis in Seizure-Free Patients.

World Neurosurg 2019 Dec 12;132:e759-e765. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To determine postoperative long-term changes of hippocampal volume (HV) correlating with cognitive functions in patients who underwent surgery for hippocampal sclerosis with postoperative freedom from seizures.

Methods: We studied 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging before and after surgery in 24 patients (mean ± SD age, 36.9 ± 11.0 years) with hippocampal sclerosis. We performed serial magnetic resonance imaging at 6 months to 1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, and 3-5 years postoperatively. We compared HVs of 24 patients with HVs of 14 age-matched control subjects. We analyzed correlations between consecutive HVs and seizure duration and age at surgery. We compared consecutive changes in HVs between dominant and nondominant hemispheres with concurrent cognitive functions.

Results: Preoperative HVs of unresected contralateral hippocampus were significantly smaller than HVs of control subjects (P < 0.01). Unresected contralateral HV changes compared with preoperative HVs were -3.6% ± 6.9%, -2.3% ± 8.5%, -3.6% ± 10.2% (P < 0.05), and -5.0% ± 9.5% (P < 0.05) at consecutive postoperative periods. Largest change in HVs at 3-5 years was significantly correlated with older age at surgery (P < 0.05). Unresected contralateral dominant 14 HVs remained consistently smaller than nondominant 10 HVs up to 5 years with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Verbal memory was preserved in 14 patients with unresected contralateral smaller dominant hippocampus.

Conclusions: In seizure-free patients after hippocampal sclerosis resection , unresected contralateral HV significantly declined with older age at surgery. Visual memory was preserved regardless of side and volume loss. Despite significantly reduced HVs, verbal memory was preserved with the unresected contralateral dominant hippocampus. Earlier surgical intervention may have lower potential risk for memory decline secondary to postoperative HV loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.08.021DOI Listing
December 2019

Anti-seizure effect and neuronal activity change in the genetic-epileptic model rat with acute and chronic vagus nerve stimulation.

Epilepsy Res 2019 09 2;155:106159. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: VNS showed time-dependent anti-seizure effect. However, the precise mechanism of VNS in acute and chronic anti-seizure effect has not been fully elucidated. Noda epileptic rat (NER) is genetic epilepsy model rat which exhibits spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTC) approximately once per 30 h and frequent dialeptic seizure (DS). We performed acute and chronic VNS on NER to focus on the acute and chronic anti-epileptic effect and neuronal activity change by VNS.

Methods: We performed acute VNS (2 h) on 22 NERs (VNS, n = 11, control, n = 11), then subsequently administered chronic (4 weeks) VNS on 10 of 22 NERs (VNS n = 5, control n = 5). We evaluated the acute and chronic anti-seizure effects of VNS on GTC and DS by behavioral and electroencephalographical observation (2 h every week). We carried out double immunofluorescence for biomarkers of short-term (c-Fos) and long-term (ΔFosB) neuronal activation to map regions in the brain that were activated by acute (VNS n = 6, control n = 6) or chronic VNS (VNS n = 5, control n = 5). Furthermore, we performed chronic VNS (4 w) on 12 NERs (VNS n = 6, control n = 6) with long-term observation (8 h a day, 5d per week) to obtain an adequate number of GTCs to elucidate the time dependent anti-epileptic effect on GTC.

Results: Acute VNS treatment reduced GTC seizure frequency and total duration of the DS. Chronic VNS resulted in a time-dependent reduction of DS frequency and duration. However, chronic VNS did not show time-dependent reduction of GTC frequency. There were significant c-Fos expressions in the central medial nucleus (CM), mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDM), locus coeruleus (LC), and nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) after acute VNS. And there were significant ΔFosB expressions in the lateral septal nucleus (LSV), medial septal nucleus (MSV), MDM, and pontine reticular nucleus caudal (PnC) after chronic VNS. Any decrease in frequency of GTCs by chronic VNS could not be confirmed even with long-term observation.

Conclusion: We confirmed acute VNS significantly reduced the frequency of GTC and duration of DS. Chronic VNS decreased the frequency and duration of DS in a time-dependent manner. The brainstem and midline thalamus were activated after acute and chronic VNS. The forebrain was activated only after chronic VNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.106159DOI Listing
September 2019

Comparative Evaluation of Angioscopy and Intravascular Ultrasound for Assessing Plaque Protrusion During Carotid Artery Stenting Procedures.

World Neurosurg 2019 05 29;125:e448-e455. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Background: Evaluation of plaque protrusion after carotid artery stenting (CAS) is important for predicting periprocedural ischemic complications. In contrast to intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), angioscopy allows direct visualization of the plaque. The aim of this study was to evaluate utility and safety of angioscopy during CAS and compare it with IVUS.

Methods: The study included 13 carotid artery stenosis lesions in 11 consecutive patients (mean age 70.5 years; 10 men) at a single center. During CAS procedure, poststenting plaque protrusion was evaluated with angioscopy and IVUS.

Results: Mean level of internal carotid artery stenosis was 79.2%. Eight lesions were symptomatic, and 5 lesions were predicted to have vulnerable plaque by preprocedural magnetic resonance imaging. A carotid WALLSTENT was placed in all cases. After stenting, angioscopy provided good visualization in all cases. Plaque protrusions were observed in 1 case by IVUS and in 8 cases by angioscopy. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed positive lesions in 3 cases (23%). For 2 of these lesions, plaque protrusions were observed by angioscopy but not by IVUS. All lesions associated with positive diffusion-weighted imaging findings were observed to have yellow plaque on angioscopy.

Conclusions: Angioscopy provided direct visualization of stent lumens after CAS. Angioscopy detected more plaque protrusion than IVUS and allowed clearer observation of plaque characteristics. Angioscopy may be more useful than IVUS for examination of plaque protrusion and plaque evaluation after CAS, especially for plaque identified as potentially vulnerable by preprocedural examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.102DOI Listing
May 2019

Assessing the Speciation of a Cold Water Species, Japanese Sand Lance , in the Northwestern Pacific by AFLP Markers.

Animals (Basel) 2018 Nov 28;8(12). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University, Hakodate 041-8611, Japan.

The use of molecular techniques in biodiversity research increasingly results in the recognition of multiple divergent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages below the morphospecies level. However, the overlapping distribution of multiple divergent lineages raises the question of whether some of these lineages are in fact cryptic species. Assessing the status of these divergent lineages, delimiting evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), and identifying the dominant evolutionary and ecological drivers are critical components of successful wildlife conservation and management strategies. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were applied to characterize the phylogeography pattern of a cold water species, the Japanese sand lance , in warm and cold ocean currents. A total of 211 individuals sampled from 12 populations through the species' range, including samples from Kuroshio Current, Oyashio Current, Tsushima Current, and Yellow Sea, were analyzed. The Bayesian assignment probability test and Neighbor joining (NJ) analysis divided these populations into two genetically and geographically distinct clades (northern and southern clades) characterized by different sea surface temperatures. The incongruence between nuclear clades and previous mitochondrial lineages suggested that is indeed composed of at least two genetically divergent cryptic species. Pleistocene glaciation isolation after secondary contact, local thermal adaptation, and isolation by distance may explain the observed geographic pattern of two cryptic species and genetic structure within clades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani8120224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316128PMC
November 2018

Effective withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in premonitoring admission to capture seizures during limited video-EEG monitoring.

Epilepsia Open 2017 06 2;2(2):172-179. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Division of Neurology Department of Pediatrics The Hospital for Sick Children Toronto Ontario Canada.

Objective: Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is commonly applied to capture seizures in video-EEG (vEEG) monitoring for patients with infrequent but intractable seizures. Because of the half-life of AEDs, AED withdrawal during only vEEG tends to be inadequate to provoke seizures within the vEEG admission. We hypothesize that prewithdrawal of long-half-life AEDs in premonitoring admission (PMA) is safe and effective to capture seizures in the limited time of vEEG. We determined the effect of half-life on the interval between AED withdrawal and seizure occurrence.

Methods: We collected 87 patients with three criteria: (1) seizure occurrence ≤3 per month; (2) AEDs ≥2; (3) AED withdrawal during their admission, among 126 consecutive patients who underwent vEEG in the Department of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima University Hospital between 2011 and 2014. We divided patients into two groups on the basis of half-life of AED: Group A (23 patients) with phenobarbital (PB) and/or zonisamide (ZNS); Group B (64 patients) with other AEDs. In Group A, PB and ZNS were withdrawn during 4-day PMA before vEEG started. Further AED withdrawal was performed during vEEG, depending on the seizure occurrence.

Results: The number of AEDs on admission was significantly higher in Group A (2-6, 3.5 ± 0.9; range, mean ±SD) than in Group B (2-5, 2.8 ± 0.8) (p < 0.01). All 23 Group A patients and 13 (20%) Group B patients underwent AED withdrawal during PMA. Seizures occurred during PMA in two patients in both Group A (9%) and Group B (15%). The first seizure occurred significantly longer after the start of withdrawal in Group A (6.1 ± 2.0 days) than in Group B (2.8 ± 1.3 days) (p < 0.01). Seizures were equally captured between both groups: 96% in Group A and 92% in Group B during vEEG.

Significance: For epilepsy patients who are treated with PB and/or ZNS, we recommend the planning of AED withdrawal during PMA before the start of vEEG to succeed in capturing seizures during the limited time of vEEG monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/epi4.12047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5719858PMC
June 2017

Application of Rubber Band with Hooks on Both Ends for Vagus Nerve Stimulator Implantation.

World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 29;111:258-260. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

Background: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a valuable therapeutic option for many types of drug-resistant epilepsy. Muscle hooks and carotid endarterectomy rings have been used for cervical delamination preceding the implantation of stimulation electrodes. The attachment on both sides of a rubber band of Kamiyama-style hanging needles, as are used for scalp and dural retraction during craniotomy, yields a useful tool for VNS implantation. Here we report our experience with this method.

Methods: We present our method using a rubber band plus hooks and a review of 21 consecutive patients who underwent VNS implantation using our rubber band-plus-hooks method.

Results: None of the 21 patients experienced intraoperative or perioperative complications. Hooks placed in connective tissue around the common carotid artery and jugular vein raised the vagus nerve by elevating the carotid sheath. A single surgeon was able to perform all cervical manipulations under a surgical microscope. The average operation time in this series of 21 patients was 137 minutes.

Conclusions: The use of hooks attached to both sides of a rubber band rendered VNS implantation safer by lifting the vagus nerve and standardizing the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2017.12.133DOI Listing
March 2018

Review of Current Evidence Regarding Surgery in Elderly Patients with Meningioma.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2017 Oct 15;57(10):521-533. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University.

The Japanese population features the highest rate of elderly individuals worldwide. Moreover, Japan has the highest number of computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging devices in the world, which has led to an increase in the incidental detection of meningioma in healthy elderly patients. Many previous papers have discussed the risks and indications for surgery in this patient population, but available information remains insufficient, and the definition of "elderly" has not been standardized. This review tried to clarify the published evidence and challenges associated with elderly meningioma based on a search of the PubMed database using the terms "meningioma," "elderly," and "surgery" for English-language clinical studies and collected related papers published from 2000 to 2016. Twenty-four papers were reviewed and classified by definition of elderly age: over 60, 65, 70, and 80 years old. Six of seven papers that defined the elderly cutoff as over 65 years old were published after 2010, which suggested the consensus definition. Four preoperative grading scoring systems were described and associated with mortality. The 1-year and 5-year mortality rates ranged from 0% to 16.7% and from 7% to 27%, which were comparable with unselected cohorts. Review of risk factor analysis emphasized the importance of considering the preoperative status, presence of comorbidities, and optimum surgical timing during patient selection. Careful choice of patients can also lead to better quality of life. A prospective randomized study considering patient frailty should address the causes and prevention of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.ra.2017-0011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5638779PMC
October 2017

We could predict good responders to vagus nerve stimulation: A surrogate marker by slow cortical potential shift.

Clin Neurophysiol 2017 09 15;128(9):1583-1589. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Department of Epilepsy, Movement Disorders and Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: We investigated whether vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) induces a positive shift of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) in patients with >50% seizure reduction (responders) but not in non-responders.

Methods: We analyzed routine clinical electroencephalograms (EEGs) from 24 patients who were undergoing seizure treatment by VNS. The patients were divided into 2 groups by hardware time constant (TC) of EEG: the TC 10-s group (10 patients) and TC 2-s group (14 patients). We compared SCPs at 5 electrodes (Cz and adjacent ones) between the 2 states of VNS: during stimulation and between stimulations. Seizure reduction was independently judged. Correlation between SCP (positivity or not) and seizure reduction (>50% or not) was estimated.

Results: In the TC 10-s group, the correlation between SCP and seizure reduction was significant (p<0.05) (i.e., both good results in 4 and both negative results in 5). In TC 2-s group, the correlation between SCP and seizure reduction was not significant (p=0.209).

Conclusions: A positive shift of SCP recorded by using a TC of 10s could be a surrogate marker for VNS response.

Significance: SCP could be a biomarker of good responders to VNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2017.05.019DOI Listing
September 2017

Stereoelectroencephalography: Indication and Efficacy.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2017 Aug 20;57(8):375-385. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Neurophysiology Laboratory, Division of Neurology, The Hospital for Sick Children.

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is a method for invasive study of patients with refractory epilepsy. Localization of the epileptogenic zone in SEEG relied on the hypothesis of anatomo-electro-clinical analysis limited by X-ray, analog electroencephalography (EEG), and seizure semiology in the 1950s. Modern neuroimaging studies and digital video-EEG have developed the hypothesis aiming at more precise localization of the epileptic network. Certain clinical scenarios favor SEEG over subdural EEG (SDEEG). SEEG can cover extensive areas of bilateral hemispheres with highly accurate sampling from sulcal areas and deep brain structures. A hybrid technique of SEEG and subdural strip electrode placement has been reported to overcome the SEEG limitations of poor functional mapping. Technological advances including acquisition of three-dimensional angiography and magnetic resonance image (MRI) in frameless conditions, advanced multimodal planning, and robot-assisted implantation have contributed to the accuracy and safety of electrode implantation in a simplified fashion. A recent meta-analysis of the safety of SEEG concluded the low value of the pooled prevalence for all complications. The complications of SEEG were significantly less than those of SDEEG. The removal of electrodes for SEEG was much simpler than for SDEEG and allowed sufficient time for data analysis, discussion, and consensus for both patients and physicians before the proceeding treatment. Furthermore, SEEG is applicable as a therapeutic alternative for deep-seated lesions, e.g., nodular heterotopia, in nonoperative epilepsies using SEEG-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. We review the SEEG method with technological advances for planning and implantation of electrodes. We highlight the indication and efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of SEEG compared with SDEEG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.ra.2017-0008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566696PMC
August 2017

Progression from Injection to Surgery for Trigger Finger: A Statistical Analysis.

J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol 2017 Jun;22(2):194-199

* Department of Hand Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: The purpose of this study was to identify predictive factors of poor response to intra-flexoral sheath corticosteroid injection, as well as to identify factors associated with patients' decisions to undergo surgical treatment.

Methods: Data from 112 patients who received steroid injection treatment for trigger finger were reviewed retrospectively. Logistic regression was used to assess the prognostic value of factors assumed to affect prognosis (age, sex, underlying disease, history of illness, presence of carpal tunnel syndrome, multiple digit involvement, and pre- and post-operative disability scores).

Results: Multiple digits were affected in 42 patients. Associated and underlying conditions were carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 36), hypertension (n = 23), hyperlipidemia (n = 14), and history of malignant tumor (n = 10). Logistic regression analysis showed that multiple digit involvement and Froimson clinical severity score were factors significantly associated with surgical treatment after intra-flexoral sheath corticosteroid injection treatment. These two factors were also found to be associated with the patients' decisions to undergo surgical treatment.

Conclusions: Although local corticosteroid injection is useful in most cases, providers need to counsel patients with multiple digit involvement and/or severe cases about the possibility of requiring additional surgical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218810417500241DOI Listing
June 2017

Long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery in 85 pediatric patients followed up for over 10 years: a retrospective survey.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2017 May 3;19(5):606-615. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima.

OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment outcomes and social engagement of patients who had undergone pediatric epilepsy surgery more than 10 years earlier. METHODS Between 1983 and 2005, 110 patients younger than 16 years underwent epilepsy surgery at the National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders. The authors sent a questionnaire to 103 patients who had undergone follow-up for more than 10 years after surgery; 85 patients (82.5%) responded. The survey contained 4 categories: seizure outcome, use of antiepileptic drugs, social participation, and general satisfaction with the surgical treatment (resection of the epileptic focus, including 4 hemispherectomies). The mean patient age at the time of surgery was 9.8 ± 4.2 (SD) years, and the mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 15.4 ± 5.0 years. Of the 85 patients, 79 (92.9%) presented with a lesional pathology, such as medial temporal sclerosis, developmental/neoplastic lesions, focal cortical dysplasia, and gliosis in a single lobe. RESULTS For 65 of the 85 responders (76.5%), the outcome was recorded as Engel Class I (including 15 [93.8%] of 16 patients with medial temporal sclerosis, 20 [80.0%] of 25 with developmental/neoplastic lesions, and 27 [73.0%] of 37 with focal cortical dysplasia). Of these, 29 (44.6%) were not taking antiepileptic drugs at the time of our survey, 29 (44.6%) held full-time jobs, and 33 of 59 patients (55.9%) eligible to drive had a driver's license. Among 73 patients who reported their degree of satisfaction, 58 (79.5%) were very satisfied with the treatment outcome. CONCLUSIONS The seizure outcome in patients who underwent resective surgery in childhood and underwent followup for more than 10 years was good. Of 85 respondents, 65 (76.5%) were classified in Engel Class I. The degree of social engagement was relatively high, and the satisfaction level with the treatment outcome was also high. From the perspective of seizure control and social adaptation, resective surgery yielded longitudinal benefits in children with intractable epilepsy, especially those with a lesional pathology in a single lobe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2016.12.PEDS16197DOI Listing
May 2017

Determination of hemispheric language dominance using functional magnetic resonance imaging and the Shiritori (Japanese word chain) task in patients with epilepsy: Comparison with the Wada test.

Epilepsy Res 2016 08 30;124:16-22. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

Purpose: The Wada test has been the gold standard for determining hemispheric language dominance (HLD) in the presurgical evaluation of patients scheduled for neurosurgical procedures. As it poses inherent risks associated with intra-arterial catheter techniques and as it occasionally fails to indicate language dominance, an alternative reliable test is needed. We quantitatively assessed the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using the Shiritori task, a Japanese word chain, to identify the threshold for correctly predicting HLD.

Methods: The subjects were 28 patients with intractable epilepsy scheduled to undergo the Wada test and focus resection. We set the region of interest (ROI) on the bilateral Brodmann areas 44 and 45 (BA 44 and 45). To compare the functional activity at both ROIs we calculated the language laterality index (LI) using the formula: [VL-VR]/[VL+VR]×100, where VL and VR indicated the number of activated voxels in the left and right ROIs, respectively.

Results: As 2 patients were excluded due to the lack of activation in either ROI, the final study population consisted of 26 patients. By the Wada test, HLD was left in 20, right in 3, and equivocal in 3. At a cut-off of LI+50, the predictive sensitivity and specificity for left HLD were 85% (17/20) and 100%; right HLD was predicted in a single patient (sensitivity 33.3%, specificity 100%).

Conclusion: The fMRI using the Shiritori task showed good activation in ROI of BA 44 and 45. At a cut-off of LI+50, LI of BA 44 and 45 predicted HLD identified by the Wada test with high specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2016.04.005DOI Listing
August 2016

Combined surgical intervention with vagus nerve stimulation following corpus callosotomy in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2016 May 15;158(5):1005-12. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan.

Background: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a drug-resistant pediatric epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, including drop attacks (DAs). Palliative procedures such as corpus callosotomy (CC) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may be effective for adequate seizure control in LGS patients who are not candidates for resective surgery. We evaluated the efficacy of the combination of these two procedures for LGS-related seizures.

Method: Ten patients with LGS (age 3-30 years at VNS implantation) underwent CC and subsequent VNS. We evaluated surgical outcomes, particularly with respect to the efficacy of VNS on seizure reduction rates for different residual seizure types after CC. We compared clinical parameters, including sex, age, seizure duration, history, MRI findings, extent of CC, number of antiepileptic drugs, and neuropsychological states, between VNS responders and non-responders to predict satisfactory seizure outcomes with respect to residual seizures after CC.

Findings: VNS was effective for residual seizures regardless of seizure type (except for DAs) after CC in patients with LGS. Six of ten (60%) patients had a satisfactory seizure outcome (≥50% seizure reduction) for all residual seizure types after VNS. Two of ten (20%) patients were seizure-free at 12 months post-VNS. Even those patients that were non-responders, with respect to all seizures including DAs, after prior CC showed favorable responses to subsequent VNS. Compared to VNS, excellent seizure outcomes for DAs were achieved after CC in seven of nine (77.8%) patients with DAs. Among the clinical parameters, only conversation ability before VNS was significantly different between responders and non-responders (p = 0.033).

Conclusion: Combined VNS and prior CC produced satisfactory seizure outcomes in LGS patients with different seizure types, including DAs. Even non-responders to prior CC responded to subsequent VNS for residual seizures, except for DAs. There is a greater likelihood that these procedures may be more feasible in patients who possess conversation ability prior to VNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-016-2765-9DOI Listing
May 2016

Solitary Cranial Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Two case reports.

Hiroshima J Med Sci 2015 Dec;64(4):59-63

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferation of Langerhans cells intermixed with inflammatory cells, in particular eosinophils, that may manifest as a unisystem (unifocal or multifocal) or multisystem disease. We describe the clinical and histologic spectrum of LCH of the orbit and skull in our two cases. Both cases had unifocal erosive skull lesions with a history of trauma. Typical histologic features included numerous histiocytes with varying degrees of giant cell formation and scattered eosinophilic granulocytes. The presence of Langerhans cells was confirmed by CD1a and S100 immunohistochemistry. LCH has an excellent prognosis when treated with surgical resection, steroids and radiotherapy or chemotherapy. One of our patients is disease free at 7 year follow-up and one patient had regression of lesion on follow-up.
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December 2015

Diagnostic Performance of Positron Emission Tomography for the Presurgical Evaluation of Patients with Non-lesional Intractable Partial Epilepsy: Comparison among 18F-FDG, 11C-Flumazenil, and 11C-Flumazenil Binding Potential Imaging Using Statistical Imaging Analysis.

Hiroshima J Med Sci 2015 Dec;64(4):51-7

To compare the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET, 11C-FMZ PET, and 11C-FMZ BP imaging for the evaluation of patients with intractable partial epilepsy whose MRI findings are normal by using statistical imaging analysis. Ten patients underwent comprehensive presurgical evaluation, including PET studies, to assess the epileptic foci. The extent of cortical resection was based on the results of intracranial video-electroencephalography (IVEEG) monitoring and brain mapping under stimulation. The images of 10 patients and 30 controls were spatially normalized to templates generated in-house by non-rigid registration and the standardized images of the patients and controls were statistically compared. Epileptic focus candidates were visualized on a color map of axial images of each template and the focus site was identified in candidates for lobar location. In patients with Engel I postoperative seizure outcomes we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the imaging methods for lobar focus localization. We also compared the concordance scores of patients with Engel I and Engel II-IV postoperative seizures. The sensitivity and specificity for lobar focus localization on 18F-FDG PET scans was 90.0% and 84.8%, respectively; it was 30.0% and 81.4% for 11C-FMZ PET, 40.0% and 66.7% for 11C-FMZ BP images, and 100.0% and 51.4% for 18F-FDG PET/11C-FMZ PET/11C-FMZ BP images. In one patient the epileptic focus not detected on 18F-FDG PET scans was shown on 11C-FMZ BP images. In patients with Engel I post-treatment seizures the concordance scores were significantly higher for 18F-FDG PET than 11C-FMZ PET and 11C-FMZ BP images (p < 0.05). With respect to sensitivity and specificity, 18F-FDG PET was superior to 11C-FMZ PET and 11C-FMZ BP imaging. However, in some patients with normal MRI results, 11C-FMZ BP studies may complement 18F-FDG PET findings in efforts to identify the epileptogenic lobar regions.
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December 2015

Novel Software for Performing Leksell Stereotactic Surgery without the Use of Printing Films: Technical Note.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2016 20;56(4):193-7. Epub 2016 Jan 20.

Gamma-Knife Center, Takanobashi Central Hospital.

Hospitals in Japan have recently begun to employ the DICOM viewer system on desktop or laptop monitors. However, conventional embedding surgery for deep-brain stimulation with the Leksell stereotactic system (LSS) requires printed X-ray films for defining the coordination, coregistration of actual surgical films with the reference coordinates, and validation of the needle trajectories. While just performing these procedures on desktop or laptop monitors, the authors were able to develop novel software to facilitate complete digital manipulation with the Leksell frame without printing films. In this study, we validated the practical use of LSS, and benefit of this software in the Takanobashi Central Hospital and Kagoshima University Hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.tn.2015-0155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831945PMC
May 2017
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