Publications by authors named "Koichi Tanda"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clinical manifestations and epilepsy treatment in Japanese patients with pathogenic CDKL5 variants.

Brain Dev 2021 Apr 9;43(4):505-514. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Objective: Patients with pathogenic cyclin-dependent kinase-like-5 gene (CDKL5) variants are designated CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD). This study aimed to delineate the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with CDD and elucidate possible appropriate treatments.

Methods: We recruited patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CDKL5 variants from a cohort of approximately 1,100 Japanese patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, who underwent genetic analysis. We retrospectively reviewed clinical, electroencephalogram, neuroimaging, and genetic information.

Results: We identified 29 patients (21 females, eight males). All patients showed severe developmental delay, especially in males. Involuntary movements were observed in 15 patients. No antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) achieved seizure freedom by monotherapy. AEDs achieving ≥ 50% reduction in seizure frequency were sodium valproate in two patients, vigabatrin in one, and lamotrigine in one. Seizure aggravation was observed during the use of lamotrigine, potassium bromide, and levetiracetam. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was the most effective treatment. The ketogenic diet (KD), corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation did not improve seizure frequency in most patients, but KD was remarkably effective in one. The degree of brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reflected disease severity. Compared with females, males had lower levels of attained motor development and more severe cerebral atrophy on MRI.

Conclusion: Our patients showed more severe global developmental delay than those in previous studies and had intractable epilepsy, likely because previous studies had lower numbers of males. Further studies are needed to investigate appropriate therapy for CDD, such as AED polytherapy or combination treatment involving ACTH, KD, and AEDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2020.12.006DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficient detection of copy-number variations using exome data: Batch- and sex-based analyses.

Hum Mutat 2021 Jan 11;42(1):50-65. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Many algorithms to detect copy number variations (CNVs) using exome sequencing (ES) data have been reported and evaluated on their sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, and precision. However, operational optimization of such algorithms for a better performance has not been fully addressed. ES of 1199 samples including 763 patients with different disease profiles was performed. ES data were analyzed to detect CNVs by both the eXome Hidden Markov Model (XHMM) and modified Nord's method. To efficiently detect rare CNVs, we aimed to decrease sequencing biases by analyzing, at the same time, the data of all unrelated samples sequenced in the same flow cell as a batch, and to eliminate sex effects of X-linked CNVs by analyzing female and male sequences separately. We also applied several filtering steps for more efficient CNV selection. The average number of CNVs detected in one sample was <5. This optimization together with targeted CNV analysis by Nord's method identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs in 34 patients (4.5%, 34/763). In particular, among 142 patients with epilepsy, the current protocol detected clinically relevant CNVs in 19 (13.4%) patients, whereas the previous protocol identified them in only 14 (9.9%) patients. Thus, this batch-based XHMM analysis efficiently selected rare pathogenic CNVs in genetic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24129DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal clinical manifestations in individuals with variants.

J Med Genet 2020 Jul 30. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan

Background: Variants in the type IV collagen gene () cause early-onset cerebrovascular diseases. Most individuals are diagnosed postnatally, and the prenatal features of individuals with variants remain unclear.

Methods: We examined in 218 individuals with suspected /2-related brain defects. Among those arising from variants, we focused on individuals showing prenatal abnormal ultrasound findings and validated their prenatal and postnatal clinical features in detail.

Results: Pathogenic variants were detected in 56 individuals (n=56/218, 25.7%) showing porencephaly (n=29), schizencephaly (n=12) and others (n=15). Thirty-four variants occurred de novo (n=34/56, 60.7%). Foetal information was available in 47 of 56 individuals, 32 of whom (n=32/47, 68.1%) had one or more foetal abnormalities. The median gestational age at the detection of initial prenatal abnormal features was 31 weeks of gestation. Only 14 individuals had specific prenatal findings that were strongly suggestive of features associated with variants. Foetal ventriculomegaly was the most common initial feature (n=20/32, 62.5%). Posterior fossa abnormalities, including Dandy-Walker malformation, were observed prenatally in four individuals. Regarding extrabrain features, foetal growth restriction was present in 16 individuals, including eight individuals with comorbid ventriculomegaly.

Conclusions: Prenatal observation of ventriculomegaly with comorbid foetal growth restriction should prompt a thorough ultrasound examination and gene testing should be considered when pathogenic variants are strongly suspected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-106896DOI Listing
July 2020

Pontine and cerebellar injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: MRI features and clinical outcomes.

Acta Radiol 2020 Oct 24;61(10):1398-1405. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of death and disability in infants. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is valuable for predicting the outcome in high-risk neonates. The relationship of pontine and cerebellar injury to outcome has not been explored sufficiently.

Purpose: To characterize MRI features of pontine and cerebellar injury and to assess the clinical outcomes of these neonates.

Material And Methods: The retrospective study included 59 term neonates (25 girls) examined by MRI using 1.5-T scanner in the first two weeks of life between 2008 and 2017. Involvement of the pons and cerebellum was judged as a high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted image (DWI) and a restricted diffusion on an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map.

Results: Pontine involvement was observed in the dorsal portion of pons in eight neonates and cerebellar involvement was observed in dentate nucleus (n = 8), cerebellar vermis (n = 3), and hemisphere (n = 1) in 11 neonates. Combined pontine and cerebellar involvement was observed in eight neonates and only cerebellar involvement in three. The pontine and cerebellar injuries were always associated with very severe brain injury including a basal ganglia/thalamus injury pattern and a total brain injury pattern. In terms of clinical outcome, all but four lost to follow-up, had severe cerebral palsy.

Conclusion: Pontine and cerebellar involvement occurred in the dorsal portion of pons and mostly dentate nucleus and was always associated with a more severe brain injury pattern as well as being predictive of major disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0284185119900442DOI Listing
October 2020

Magnetic resonance imaging features of four neonates with total brain injury.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 06 21;36(6):1223-1229. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, kawaramachi-tori 465 kajii-cho hirokoji agaru kamigyo-ku, Kyoto City, 602-0841, Japan.

Purpose: The most severe form of profound asphyxia in neonates is now known as "total brain injury," which forms part of the clinical spectrum of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Although the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of total brain injury remain to be determined, a widespread hyperintensity of the supratentorial brain, known as the "white cerebrum sign," has been reported in diffusion-weighted images (DWI).

Methods: We examined four neonates who developed severe profound asphyxia.

Results: In the first week of life, all neonates showed the white cerebrum sign on DWI. A follow-up of these cases over a period of 1 month revealed diffuse bilateral multicystic encephalomalacia (MCE) as well as shrinkage of the basal ganglia and thalami (BG/T). These MR findings were common to all neonates, and all the neonates had severe adverse clinical outcomes.

Conclusion: Neonates, who exhibit the white cerebrum sign on MR imaging due to profound asphyxia, develop major disabilities, and MCE with shrinkage of the BG/T suggests miserable outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-019-04457-wDOI Listing
June 2020

Genetic landscape of Rett syndrome-like phenotypes revealed by whole exome sequencing.

J Med Genet 2019 06 6;56(6):396-407. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a characteristic neurological disease presenting with regressive loss of neurodevelopmental milestones. Typical RTT is generally caused by abnormality of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (). Our objective to investigate the genetic landscape of -negative typical/atypical RTT and RTT-like phenotypes using whole exome sequencing (WES).

Methods: We performed WES on 77 -negative patients either with typical RTT (n=11), atypical RTT (n=22) or RTT-like phenotypes (n=44) incompatible with the RTT criteria.

Results: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic single-nucleotide variants in 28 known genes were found in 39 of 77 (50.6%) patients. WES-based CNV analysis revealed pathogenic deletions involving six known genes (including ) in 8 of 77 (10.4%) patients. Overall, diagnostic yield was 47 of 77 (61.0 %). Furthermore, strong candidate variants were found in four novel genes: a de novo variant in each of ATPase H transporting V0 subunit A1 (), ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 () and microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase 3 (), as well as biallelic variants in nuclear receptor corepressor 2 ().

Conclusions: Our study provides a new landscape including additional genetic variants contributing to RTT-like phenotypes, highlighting the importance of comprehensive genetic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105775DOI Listing
June 2019

Diffusion pseudonormalization and clinical outcome in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Pediatr Radiol 2018 06 7;48(6):865-874. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Department of Radiology, Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, 15-749 Hon-machi, Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto, 605-0981, Japan.

Background: Pseudonormalization of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can lead to underestimation of brain injury in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), posing a significant problem. We have noticed that some neonates show pseudonormalization negativity on diffusion-weighted imaging.

Objective: To compare pseudonormalization negativity with clinical outcomes.

Materials And Methods: Seventeen term neonates with moderate or severe HIE underwent therapeutic hypothermia. They were examined by MRI twice at mean ages of 3 days and 10 days. We evaluated the presence of restricted diffusion, and also the presence or absence of pseudonormalization, by diffusion-weighted imaging at the time of the second MRI, and correlated the results with clinical outcome.

Results: DWI demonstrated no abnormality in seven neonates. Among the 10 neonates with abnormal diffusion-weighted imaging findings, 2 were positive for pseudonormalization and 8 were negative. Among neonates with normal diffusion-weighted imaging findings and with positivity for pseudonormalization, none had major disability. Among the eight neonates with pseudonormalization negativity, all but one, who was lost to follow-up, had major disability.

Conclusion: Abnormal diffusion-weighted imaging with pseudonormalization negativity might be predictive of severe brain injury and major disability. The second-week MRI is important for the judgment of pseudonormalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-018-4094-zDOI Listing
June 2018

Enhanced stability of hippocampal place representation caused by reduced magnesium block of NMDA receptors in the dentate gyrus.

Mol Brain 2014 Jun 4;7:44. Epub 2014 Jun 4.

Horizontal Medical Research Organization, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

Background: Voltage-dependent block of the NMDA receptor by Mg2+ is thought to be central to the unique involvement of this receptor in higher brain functions. However, the in vivo role of the Mg2+ block in the mammalian brain has not yet been investigated, because brain-wide loss of the Mg2+ block causes perinatal lethality. In this study, we used a brain-region specific knock-in mouse expressing an NMDA receptor that is defective for the Mg2+ block in order to test its role in neural information processing.

Results: We devised a method to induce a single amino acid substitution (N595Q) in the GluN2A subunit of the NMDA receptor, specifically in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in mice. This mutation reduced the Mg2+ block at the medial perforant path-granule cell synapse and facilitated synaptic potentiation induced by high-frequency stimulation. The mutants had more stable hippocampal place fields in the CA1 than the controls did, and place representation showed lower sensitivity to visual differences. In addition, behavioral tests revealed that the mutants had a spatial working memory deficit.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the Mg2+ block in the dentate gyrus regulates hippocampal spatial information processing by attenuating activity-dependent synaptic potentiation in the dentate gyrus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-6606-7-44DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4073519PMC
June 2014

Leigh syndrome with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy: a case report.

Brain Dev 2014 Sep 7;36(8):730-3. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Saitama Medical University Hospital, Japan.

We report the first case of Leigh syndrome (LS) with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD). A neonate suffered from lactic acidosis and subsequently presented with poor feeding, muscle weakness, hypotonia, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, and hydrocephalus. He died at 17 months. The findings of brain magnetic resonance imaging indicated some specific features of both LS and FCMD, and FCMD gene mutation was detected. Decreased mitochondrial respiratory complex I and II activity was noted. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing showed no pathogenic mutation. A case with complex I+II deficiency has rarely been reported, suggesting a nuclear gene mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2013.09.005DOI Listing
September 2014

Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) knockout mice.

Front Behav Neurosci 2012 2;6:58. Epub 2012 Oct 2.

Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University Toyoake, Aichi, Japan ; Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology Kawaguchi, Saitama, Japan.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC(1)). Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC(1) genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO) mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J × 129SvEv) for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage (HC) activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition (PPI) and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction (SI) in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased SI in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on SI in a HC. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze (RM) and the T-maze (TM), while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the TM. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially, working memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462416PMC
October 2012

Adenomatous polyposis coli heterozygous knockout mice display hypoactivity and age-dependent working memory deficits.

Front Behav Neurosci 2011 21;5:85. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University Toyoake, Japan.

A tumor suppressor gene, Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), is expressed in the nervous system from embryonic to adulthood stages, and transmits the Wnt signaling pathway in which schizophrenia susceptibility genes, including T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) and calcineurin (CN), are involved. However, the functions of Apc in the nervous system are largely unknown. In this study, as the first evaluation of Apc function in the nervous system, we have investigated the behavioral significance of the Apc gene, applying a battery of behavioral tests to Apc heterozygous knockout (Apc(+/-)) mice. Apc(+/-) mice showed no significant impairment in neurological reflexes or sensory and motor abilities. In various tests, including light/dark transition, open-field, social interaction, eight-arm radial maze, and fear conditioning tests, Apc(+/-) mice exhibited hypoactivity. In the eight-arm radial maze, Apc(+/-) mice 6-7 weeks of age displayed almost normal performance, whereas those 11-12 weeks of age showed a severe performance deficit in working memory, suggesting that Apc is involved in working memory performance in an age-dependent manner. The possibility that anemia, which Apc(+/-) mice develop by 17 weeks of age, impairs working memory performance, however, cannot be excluded. Our results suggest that Apc plays a role in the regulation of locomotor activity and presumably working memory performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276361PMC
October 2012

Behavioral profiles of three C57BL/6 substrains.

Front Behav Neurosci 2010 14;4:29. Epub 2010 Jun 14.

Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University Toyoake, Japan.

C57BL/6 inbred strains of mice are widely used in knockout and transgenic research. To evaluate the loss-of-function and gain-of-function effects of the gene of interest, animal behaviors are often examined. However, an issue of C57BL/6 substrains that is not always appreciated is that behaviors are known to be strongly influenced by genetic background. To investigate the behavioral characteristics of C57BL/6 substrains, we subjected C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C57BL/6C mice to a behavior test battery. We performed both a regular scale analysis, in which experimental conditions were tightly controlled, and large-scale analysis from large number of behavioral data that we have collected so far through the comprehensive behavioral test battery applied to 700-2,200 mice in total. Significant differences among the substrains were found in the results of various behavioral tests, including the open field, rotarod, elevated plus maze, prepulse inhibition, Porsolt forced swim, and spatial working memory version of the eight-arm radial maze. Our results show a divergence of behavioral performance in C57BL/6 substrains, which suggest that small genetic differences may have a great influence on behavioral phenotypes. Thus, the genetic background of different substrains should be carefully chosen, equated, and considered in the interpretation of mutant behavioral phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2010.00029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2912075PMC
July 2011

Comprehensive behavioral analysis of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV knockout mice.

PLoS One 2010 Mar 1;5(3):e9460. Epub 2010 Mar 1.

Genetic Engineering and Functional Genomics Group, Frontier Technology Center, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) is a protein kinase that activates the transcription factor CREB, the cyclic AMP-response element binding protein. CREB is a key transcription factor in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. To elucidate the behavioral effects of CaMKIV deficiency, we subjected CaMKIV knockout (CaMKIV KO) mice to a battery of behavioral tests. CaMKIV KO had no significant effects on locomotor activity, motor coordination, social interaction, pain sensitivity, prepulse inhibition, attention, or depression-like behavior. Consistent with previous reports, CaMKIV KO mice exhibited impaired retention in a fear conditioning test 28 days after training. In contrast, however, CaMKIV KO mice did not show any testing performance deficits in passive avoidance, one of the most commonly used fear memory paradigms, 28 days after training, suggesting that remote fear memory is intact. CaMKIV KO mice exhibited intact spatial reference memory learning in the Barnes circular maze, and normal spatial working memory in an eight-arm radial maze. CaMKIV KO mice also showed mildly decreased anxiety-like behavior, suggesting that CaMKIV is involved in regulating emotional behavior. These findings indicate that CaMKIV might not be essential for fear memory or spatial memory, although it is possible that the activities of other neural mechanisms or signaling pathways compensate for the CaMKIV deficiency.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0009460PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2830479PMC
March 2010

Mice with altered myelin proteolipid protein gene expression display cognitive deficits accompanied by abnormal neuron-glia interactions and decreased conduction velocities.

J Neurosci 2009 Jul;29(26):8363-71

Division of Neurobiology and Bioinformatics, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan.

Conduction velocity (CV) of myelinated axons has been shown to be regulated by oligodendrocytes even after myelination has been completed. However, how myelinating oligodendrocytes regulate CV, and what the significance of this regulation is for normal brain function remain unknown. To address these questions, we analyzed a transgenic mouse line harboring extra copies of the myelin proteolipid protein 1 (plp1) gene (plp1(tg/-) mice) at 2 months of age. At this stage, the plp1(tg/-) mice have an unaffected myelin structure with a normally appearing ion channel distribution, but the CV in all axonal tracts tested in the CNS is greatly reduced. We also found decreased axonal diameters and slightly abnormal paranodal structures, both of which can be a cause for the reduced CV. Interestingly the plp1(tg/-) mice showed altered anxiety-like behaviors, reduced prepulse inhibitions, spatial learning deficits and working memory deficit, all of which are schizophrenia-related behaviors. Our results implicate that abnormalities in the neuron-glia interactions at the paranodal junctions can result in reduced CV in the CNS, which then induces behavioral abnormalities related to schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3216-08.2009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6665647PMC
July 2009

Abnormal behavior in a chromosome-engineered mouse model for human 15q11-13 duplication seen in autism.

Cell 2009 Jun;137(7):1235-46

Osaka Bioscience Institute, Suita, Osaka 565-0874, Japan.

Substantial evidence suggests that chromosomal abnormalities contribute to the risk of autism. The duplication of human chromosome 15q11-13 is known to be the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality in autism. We have modeled this genetic change in mice by using chromosome engineering to generate a 6.3 Mb duplication of the conserved linkage group on mouse chromosome 7. Mice with a paternal duplication display poor social interaction, behavioral inflexibility, abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations, and correlates of anxiety. An increased MBII52 snoRNA within the duplicated region, affecting the serotonin 2c receptor (5-HT2cR), correlates with altered intracellular Ca(2+) responses elicited by a 5-HT2cR agonist in neurons of mice with a paternal duplication. This chromosome-engineered mouse model for autism seems to replicate various aspects of human autistic phenotypes and validates the relevance of the human chromosome abnormality. This model will facilitate forward genetics of developmental brain disorders and serve as an invaluable tool for therapeutic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.04.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3710970PMC
June 2009

Abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity, impaired remote spatial memory, and increased D1-mediated dopaminergic signaling in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

Mol Brain 2009 Jun 18;2:19. Epub 2009 Jun 18.

Genetic Engineering and Functional Genomics Group, Horizontal Medical Research Organization, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in the regulation of a diverse population of intracellular messenger systems in the brain. In humans, abnormal NOS/nitric oxide metabolism is suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Mice with targeted disruption of the nNOS gene exhibit abnormal behaviors. Here, we subjected nNOS knockout (KO) mice to a battery of behavioral tests to further investigate the role of nNOS in neuropsychiatric functions. We also examined the role of nNOS in dopamine/DARPP-32 signaling in striatal slices from nNOS KO mice and the effects of the administration of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist on behavior in nNOS KO mice.

Results: nNOS KO mice showed hyperlocomotor activity in a novel environment, increased social interaction in their home cage, decreased depression-related behavior, and impaired spatial memory retention. In striatal slices from nNOS KO mice, the effects of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297, on the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 at protein kinase A sites were enhanced. Consistent with the biochemical results, intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of SKF81297 significantly decreased prepulse inhibition in nNOS KO mice, but not in wild-type mice.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that nNOS KO upregulates dopamine D1 receptor signaling, and induces abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity and impaired remote spatial memory. nNOS KO mice may serve as a unique animal model of psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-6606-2-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2711944PMC
June 2009

Comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of ryanodine receptor type 3 (RyR3) knockout mice: decreased social contact duration in two social interaction tests.

Front Behav Neurosci 2009 7;3. Epub 2009 May 7.

Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University Toyoake, Japan.

Dynamic regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration is crucial for various neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission and plasticity, and gene expression. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular calcium release channels that mediate calcium-induced calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Among the three RyR isoforms, RyR3 is preferentially expressed in the brain especially in the hippocampus and striatum. To investigate the behavioral effects of RyR3 deficiency, we subjected RyR3 knockout (RyR3-/-) mice to a battery of behavioral tests. RyR3-/- mice exhibited significantly decreased social contact duration in two different social interaction tests, where two mice can freely move and make contacts with each other. They also exhibited hyperactivity and mildly impaired prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition while they did not show significant abnormalities in motor function and working and reference memory tests. These results indicate that RyR3 has an important role in locomotor activity and social behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/neuro.08.003.2009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2691151PMC
December 2009

Alpha-CaMKII deficiency causes immature dentate gyrus, a novel candidate endophenotype of psychiatric disorders.

Mol Brain 2008 Sep 10;1. Epub 2008 Sep 10.

Frontier Technology Center, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Elucidating the neural and genetic factors underlying psychiatric illness is hampered by current methods of clinical diagnosis. The identification and investigation of clinical endophenotypes may be one solution, but represents a considerable challenge in human subjects. Here we report that mice heterozygous for a null mutation of the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII+/-) have profoundly dysregulated behaviours and impaired neuronal development in the dentate gyrus (DG). The behavioral abnormalities include a severe working memory deficit and an exaggerated infradian rhythm, which are similar to symptoms seen in schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric disorders. Transcriptome analysis of the hippocampus of these mutants revealed that the expression levels of more than 2000 genes were significantly changed. Strikingly, among the 20 most downregulated genes, 5 had highly selective expression in the DG. Whereas BrdU incorporated cells in the mutant mouse DG was increased by more than 50 percent, the number of mature neurons in the DG was dramatically decreased. Morphological and physiological features of the DG neurons in the mutants were strikingly similar to those of immature DG neurons in normal rodents. Moreover, c-Fos expression in the DG after electric footshock was almost completely and selectively abolished in the mutants. Statistical clustering of human post-mortem brains using 10 genes differentially-expressed in the mutant mice were used to classify individuals into two clusters, one of which contained 16 of 18 schizophrenic patients. Nearly half of the differentially-expressed probes in the schizophrenia-enriched cluster encoded genes that are involved in neurogenesis or in neuronal migration/maturation, including calbindin, a marker for mature DG neurons. Based on these results, we propose that an "immature DG" in adulthood might induce alterations in behavior and serve as a promising candidate endophenotype of schizophrenia and other human psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-6606-1-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2562999PMC
September 2008