Publications by authors named "Koichi Ohshima"

445 Publications

T1 invasive lung adenocarcinoma: Thin-section CT solid score and histological periostin expression predict tumor recurrence.

Mol Clin Oncol 2021 Nov 10;15(5):228. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011, Japan.

Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and various biomarkers for predicting its prognosis after surgical resection have been suggested, particularly in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. Periostin (also referred to as POSTN, PN or osteoblast-specific factor) is an extracellular matrix protein, the expression of which is associated with tumor invasiveness in patients with NSCLC. In the present study, the novel approach, in which the thin-section CT findings prior to surgical resection and periostin expression of resected specimens were analyzed in combination, was undertaken to assess whether the findings could be a biomarker for predicting the outcomes following resection of T1 invasive lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 73 patients who underwent surgical resection between January 2000 and December 2009 were enrolled. A total of seven parameters were assessed in the thin-section CT scans: i) Contour; ii) part-solid ground-glass nodule or solid nodule; iii) percentage of solid component (the CT solid score); iv) presence of air-bronchogram and/or bubble-like lucencies; v) number of involved vessels; vi) shape linear strands between the nodule and the visceral pleura; and vii) number of linear strands between the nodule and the visceral pleura. Two chest radiologists independently assessed the parameters. Periostin expression was evaluated on the basis of the strength and extent of staining. Univariate and multivariate analyses were subsequently performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. There was a substantial to almost perfect agreement between the two observers with regard to classification of the seven thin-section CT parameters (κ=0.64-0.85). In the univariate analysis, a CT solid score >80%, pathological lymphatic invasion, tumor and lymph node status and high periostin expression were significantly associated with recurrence (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a CT solid score >80% and high periostin expression were risk factors for recurrence (P=0.002 and P=0.011, respectively). The cumulative recurrence rates among the three groups (both negative, CT solid score >80% or high periostin expression, or both positive) were significantly different (log-rank test, P<0.001). Although the solid component is already known to be a major predictor of outcome in lung adenocarcinomas according to previous studies, the combined analysis of CT solid score and periostin expression might predict the likelihood of tumor recurrence more precisely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8506662PMC
November 2021

A Germinal Center-Associated Microenvironmental Signature Reflects Malignant Phenotype and Outcome of DLBCL.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Kyushu University Hospital, Japan.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common B-cell malignancy with varying prognosis after the gold standard rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Several prognostic models have been established by focusing primarily on characteristics of lymphoma cells themselves, including cell-of-origin, genomic alterations, and gene/protein expressions. However, the prognostic impact of the lymphoma microenvironment and its association with characteristics of lymphoma cells are not fully understood. Using the nCounter-based gene expression profiling of untreated DLBCL tissues, we here assess the clinical impact of lymphoma microenvironment on the clinical outcomes and pathophysiological, molecular signatures in DLBCL. The presence of normal germinal center (GC)-microenvironmental cells, including follicular T cells, macrophage/dendritic cells, and stromal cells, in lymphoma tissue indicates a positive therapeutic response. Our prognostic model, based on quantitation of transcripts from distinct GC-microenvironmental cell markers, clearly identified patients with graded prognosis independently of existing prognostic models. We observed increased incidences of genomic alterations and aberrant gene expression associated with poor prognosis in DLBCL tissues lacking GC-microenvironmental cells relative to those containing these cells. These data suggest that the loss of GC-associated microenvironmental signature dictates clinical outcomes of DLBCL patients reflecting the accumulation of "unfavorable" molecular signatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004618DOI Listing
October 2021

Dual-antigen targeted iPSC-derived chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy for refractory lymphoma.

Mol Ther 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Hematology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

We generated dual-antigen receptor (DR) T cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) to mitigate tumor antigen escape. These cells were engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) for the antigen cell surface latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1; LMP1-CAR) and a T cell receptor directed to cell surface latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2), in association with human leucocyte antigen A24, to treat therapy-refractory Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphomas. We introduced LMP1-CAR into iPSC derived from LMP2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to generate rejuvenated CTL (rejT) active against LMP1 and LMP2, or DRrejT. All DRrejT-treated mice survived >100d. Furthermore, DRrejT rejected follow-up inocula of lymphoma cells, demonstrating that DRrejT persisted long-term. We also demonstrated that DRrejT targeting CD19 and LMP2 antigens exhibited a robust tumor suppressive effect and conferred a clear survival advantage. Co-operative antitumor effect and in vivo persistence, with unlimited availability of DRrejT therapy, will provide powerful and sustainable T cell immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.10.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Primary Pulmonary Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma with the High Expression of IgG4: A Case Report.

Intern Med 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hiroshima University Hospital, Japan.

This is the first report describing primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with the high expression of IgG4. The histological findings were compatible with the diagnostic criteria for MALT lymphoma and IgG4-related respiratory disease (IgG4-RRD). An unfixed sample for Southern blotting was not obtained since computed tomography findings showed multiple lung cysts, which is rare in patients with MALT lymphoma. However, polymerase chain reaction using paraffin sections showed the clonality of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene rearrangement, confirming a diagnosis of MALT lymphoma. This is an instructive case in which primary pulmonary MALT lymphoma was histologically compatible with IgG4-RRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.7436-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase in peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

Cancer Med 2021 Oct 3;10(19):6786-6794. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Kurume University, Kurume, Japan.

Telomere length is maintained by the activation of telomerase, which causes continuous cell division and proliferation in many carcinomas. A catalytic reverse transcriptase protein (TERT) encoded by the TERT gene plays a critical role in the activation of telomerase. We performed a molecular and pathological analysis of the TERT against three different peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) subtypes: PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated TERT expression in 31% of AITL, 11% of PTCL-NOS, and 5% of ATLL. Among them, AITL frequently showed high TERT expression with statistical significance. TERT promoter mutation analysis and genomic copy number evaluation were performed. TERT promoter mutation was observed in two cases of PTCL-NOS (2/40) and not in other PTCLs. Genome copy number amplification was detected in 33% of PTCL-NOS, 33% of AITL, and 50% of ATLL cases. We evaluated the relationship between the analyzed TERT genomic abnormalities and protein expression; however, no apparent relationship was observed. Furthermore, immunostaining showed TERT expression in the PTCL cytoplasm, suggesting the existence of mechanisms other than the maintenance of telomere length. Statistical analysis of the effect of TERT expression on the prognosis in PTCL cases revealed that TERT expression tended to have a poor prognosis in PTCL-NOS. Since TERT expression was not an independent factor in multivariate analysis, further research will be needed to clarify the poor prognosis of PTCL-NOS in TERT expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495278PMC
October 2021

The first case of methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as follicular T-cell lymphoma.

Pathol Int 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Pathology, National Hospital Organization, Kumamoto Medical Center, Kumamoto, Japan.

This is the first case of follicular T-cell lymphoma (FTCL) presenting as methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (MTX-LPDs). A 69-year-old man treated rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate presented with cervical swelling, hoarseness and fever. Imaging studies revealed multiple lymphadenopathy and lymphoma was suspected. Lymph node biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Pathologically, the lymph node was composed of atypical lymphocytes with a follicular growth pattern and area of necrosis. Immunohistochemical examination showed the atypical lymphocytes were positive for CD3, CD4, programmed cell death protein 1, and inducible T-cell co-stimulator. These findings are consistent with FTCL. During hospitalization, the patient's fever subsided and cervical lymphadenopathy improved, probably due to discontinuation of MTX. Here we presented the first case of FTCL presenting as MTX-LPDs. The T-cell phenotype MTX-LPDs are relatively rare and accounts for only 3.4%-6.3% of all MTX-LPD cases. Therefore, detailed clinicopathological features have not been clarified sufficiently. It is hoped that similar cases should be accumulated and studied to better understand the clinical and pathological features of this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pin.13155DOI Listing
September 2021

iPSC-Derived Neoantigen-Specific CTL Therapy for Ewing Sarcoma.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Oct 12;9(10):1175-1186. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Hematology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

The prognosis of Ewing sarcoma caused by fusion is poor, especially after metastasis. Although therapy with CTLs targeted against altered EWS/FLI1 sequences at the gene break/fusion site may be effective, CTLs generated from peripheral blood are often exhausted because of continuous exposure to tumor antigens. We addressed this by generating induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived functionally rejuvenated CTLs (rejT) directed against the neoantigen encoded by the fusion gene. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of EWS/FLI1-rejTs against Ewing sarcoma. The altered amino acid sequence at the break/fusion point of EWS/FLI1, when presented as a neoantigen, evokes an immune response that targets sarcoma. Although the frequency of generated EWS/FLI1-specific CTLs was only 0.003%, we successfully established CTL clones from a healthy donor. We established iPSCs from a EWS/FLI1-specific CTL clone and redifferentiated them into EWS/FLI1-specific rejTs. To evaluate cytotoxicity, we cocultured EWS/FLI1-rejTs with Ewing sarcoma cell lines. EWS/FLI1-rejTs rapidly and continuously suppressed the proliferation of Ewing sarcoma for >40 hours. Using a Ewing sarcoma xenograft mouse model, we verified the antitumor effect of EWS/FLI1-rejTs via imaging, and EWS/FLI1-rejTs conferred a statistically significant survival advantage. "Off-the-shelf" therapy is less destructive and disruptive than chemotherapy, and radiation is always desirable, particularly in adolescents, whom Ewing sarcoma most often affects. Thus, EWS/FLI1-rejTs targeting a Ewing sarcoma neoantigen could be a promising new therapeutic tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-21-0193DOI Listing
October 2021

Primary Nondural Central Nervous System Marginal ZoneB-Cell Lymphoma of the Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Type Mimicking CNS Inflammatory Diseases.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 Sep;80(8):789-799

From the Department of Neuropathology, St. Mary's Hospital, Kurume, Japan (YS); Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Kurume, Japan(GH, KF); Department of Neurosurgery, St. Mary's Hospital, Kurume, Japan(KT); Department of Pathology, St. Mary's Hospital, Kurume, Japan(TS); Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan(TF, FA, KO); Department of Neurosurgery, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan (HN); Department of Neuropathology, Research Institute for Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita Cerebrospinal and Cardiovascular Center, Akita, Japan (HM); Department of Neurology, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Ehime, Japan (MW); and Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan (AK).

Marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBCLs) are non-Hodgkin lymphomas arising from postgerminal center marginal zone B cells. MZBCLs are subclassified into extranodal, nodal, and splenic MZBCLs. Primary nondural central nervous system (CNS) MZBCLs of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type are among the extranodal examples. Their clinicopathological features are not well characterized. Therefore, the clinicopathological features of 8 primary nondural CNS MZBCLs of the MALT type were assessed to establish their pathological diagnostic criteria. Histologically, all cases of primary nondural CNS MZBCLs of the MALT type showed perivascular expansive monotonous proliferation of small atypical B lymphoid cells with plasma cell differentiation, low Ki-67 labeling index, and minimal invasion from the perivascular space. In addition, no vascular changes such as glomeruloid changes, obliterative fibrointimal proliferation, and intramural lymphocytic infiltration were seen. These key histological characteristics should be considered when diagnosing cases that are suspected to be primary nondural CNS MZBCLs of the MALT type. Additionally, regarding PCR for the detection of immunoglobulin heavy variable gene and T-cell receptor γ gene rearrangements, the former is detected, but the latter is not detected in all cases. Therefore, PCR detection including sequence analysis should be added when diagnosing difficult cases based on the key histological characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlab058DOI Listing
September 2021

The expression of CD30 and its clinico-pathologic significance in peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

Expert Rev Hematol 2021 Aug 27;14(8):777-787. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Kurume University, Kurume, Japan.

Introduction: Recent studies have shown that CD30 expression can be an important feature of peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs and CTCLs) and CD30 testing has increased in importance with the emergence of CD30-directed therapy.

Areas Covered: This article reviews the literature on CD30-related biology, prevalence, and therapy in patients with PTCL or CTCL. We searched the PubMed database from 1 January 2010 to 28 April 2020, using terms 'CD30' ('peripheral T-cell lymphomas' or 'cutaneous T-cell lymphoma') and 'immunohistochemistry' or 'flow cytometry' or 'pathology,' and synonyms including terms for T-cell lymphoma subtypes.

Expert Opinion: CD30 is expressed at relatively high rates of prevalence across a broad range of PTCLs and CTCLs. CD30 expression may be critical to the development of a subset of PTCLs and also a biomarker for treatment choice in some subtypes. Large-scale randomized, controlled studies have shown that CD30-directed treatment with brentuximab vedotin is significantly more effective against CD30-expressing PTCL and CTCL than current standard-of-care regimens. However, accurate CD30 evaluation is limited by inconsistencies in detection methodology and expression cutoffs defining CD30-expressing disease. Greater understanding of CD30 testing and reporting will enable more patients with CD30-expressing PTCL and CTCL to be identified and treated appropriately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474086.2021.1955344DOI Listing
August 2021

Long-term spontaneous regression of Stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

J Clin Exp Hematop 2021 Sep 30;61(3):168-172. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Hematology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive disorder accounting for >30% of all lymphomas. Its prognosis is poor due to a high relapse rate. Spontaneous regression (SR) in DLBCL is rare, with only a few reported cases. Moreover, almost all of these were low-grade lymphomas with an average SR duration of 13 mo. As the cause of SR is unknown, there are many theories such as trauma, infection, medication, and an antitumor immune response. We present a patient with progressive DLBCL who demonstrated SR for >42 mo. Although treatment for lymphoma usually starts soon after diagnosis, insights into SR of lymphomas may lead to new treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3960/jslrt.21002DOI Listing
September 2021

A case of lymphomatoid granulomatosis with central nervous system involvement successfully treated with IFNα.

Int J Hematol 2021 Oct 22;114(4):502-508. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, 830-0011, Japan.

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell lymphoproliferative disease affecting mainly extranodal sites such as the lung, central nervous system (CNS), skin, kidney, and liver. We report a case of low-grade LYG involving the CNS that was successfully treated with interferon alpha (IFNα). A 69-year-old woman developed necrotic erythema of the skin and was initially diagnosed with pyoderma gangrenosum based on skin biopsy. She showed a limited response to prednisolone. Approximately 6 months after the initial onset, low-grade LYG was diagnosed after detection of CNS lesions on brain biopsy. The whole blood EBV-DNA load determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction was slightly elevated. Two months into IFNα therapy, skin and CNS lesions had responded favorably and the EBV-DNA load decreased. IFNα plays an important role in treatment of LYG through its antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, and anti-EBV effects. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful treatment with IFNα in Japan. Further investigation is necessary to determine optimal use of IFNα for LYG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03178-8DOI Listing
October 2021

High-grade Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis: Successful Rituximab Monotherapy.

Intern Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Hematology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Japan.

The primary central nervous system (CNS) presentation of lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is rare, and no standard therapy for LYG with primary CNS symptoms exists. CNS-LYG patients usually survive for only less than a year from diagnosis. This is the first report of high-grade primary CNS-LYG with monoclonality that was successfully treated with rituximab monotherapy, resulting in a durable remission for more than 1year in a 66-year-old woman with pemphigus vulgaris who was also on immunosuppressive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.7232-21DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Applications of Genomic Alterations in ATLL: Predictive Markers and Therapeutic Targets.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume 830-0011, Japan.

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Recent comprehensive genomic analyses have revealed the genomic landscape. One of the important findings of genomic alterations in ATLL is that almost all alterations are subclonal, suggesting that therapeutic strategies targeting a genomic alteration will result in partial effects. Among the identified alterations, genes involved in T-cell receptor signaling and immune escape mechanisms, such as , , and (also known as ), are characteristic of ATLL alterations. From a geographic perspective, ATLL patients in Caribbean islands tend to be younger than those in Japan and the landscape differs between the two areas. Additionally, young Japanese ATLL patients frequently have CD28 fusions, compared with unselected Japanese cases. From a clinical perspective, PD-L1 amplification is an independent prognostic factor among every subtype of ATLL case. Recently, genomic analysis using deep sequencing identified a pre-ATLL clone with ATLL-common mutations in HTLV-1 carriers before development, indicating that genomic analysis can stratify cases based on the risks of development and mortality. In addition to genomic alterations, targetable super-enhancers have been identified in ATLL. These data can be leveraged to improve the prognosis of ATLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068906PMC
April 2021

Outcomes of methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jul 6;194(1):101-110. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Science, Fukuoka, Japan.

Recently, the use of targeted synthetic or biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (ts/bDMARDs) in addition to conventional synthetic (cs)DMARDs including methotrexate (MTX) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has increased. However, whether ts/bDMARDs are associated with the development and clinicopathological features of MTX-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (MTX-LPD) in patients with RA remains unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical outcomes of 121 patients with MTX-LPD. Results showed that prior use of ts/bDMARDs was not associated with the different histopathological subtypes of MTX-LPD. Patients with polymorphic-type LPD had a better event-free survival than those with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), classical Hodgkin lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. The pathological subtype of lymphoma could predict the clinical outcome of MTX-LPD. In patients with DLBCL, the use of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors prior to MTX-LPD onset was associated with a higher non-relapse mortality. Further, patients with RA previously treated with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors more commonly required chemotherapy than those treated with csDMARDs alone, indicating disease aggressiveness. Hence, special caution should be observed when managing patients with MTX-LPD previously treated with JAK or TNF-α inhibitors for RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17456DOI Listing
July 2021

High numbers of programmed cell death-1-positive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes correlate with early onset of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

Int J Hematol 2021 Jul 25;114(1):53-64. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication of transplantation. In addition to reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in immunocompromised patients, impaired tumor immunity is suggested to be a risk factor for PTLD. However, it remains unclear whether immune suppressive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) correlate with the occurrence or prognosis of PTLD. We analyzed TILs in 26 patients with PTLD to elucidate the clinicopathological significance of the expression of PD-1 and FoxP3, which are associated with exhausted T-cells and regulatory T-cells (Tregs), respectively. Numbers of PD-1 TILs in the PTLD specimens were significantly higher in patients who developed PTLD early after transplantation (P = 0.0040), while numbers of FoxP3 TILs were not (P = 0.184). There was no difference in overall response rate regardless of the expression of PD-1 or FoxP3. FoxP3 patients tended to have a shorter time to progression compared with FoxP3 patients, especially in the case of FoxP3 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-subtype PTLD (P = 0.011), while PD-1 patients did not. These results suggest that T-cell exhaustion may be mainly associated with PTLD development, while immune suppression by Tregs may be dominant in enhanced progression of PTLD following disease occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03129-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical characteristics of patients with B-cell lymphoma enrolled in clinical trials for aggressive lymphoma in Japan: Japan Clinical Oncology Group - Lymphoma Study Group study - JCOG0108A.

J Clin Exp Hematop 2021 ;61(1):35-41

National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

The clinical characteristics of B-cell lymphoma (BCL) were studied through the combined analysis of six clinical trials conducted by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group - Lymphoma Study Group (JCOG-LSG) for aggressive lymphoma in the 1990s, before the introduction of rituximab. Through a central pathological review, 829 patients were diagnosed with BCL according to the World Health Organization classification and treated with doxorubicin-containing combination chemotherapies. Of these patients, 642, 104, 30, and 24 patients were diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), respectively. The overall survival (OS) of FL and MZL patients was higher than that of patients with DLBCL and MCL. The OS of the MCL patients was higher than that of DLBCL patients in the first 5 years, but MCL had the lowest survival after 5 years. The OS of DLBCL patients was clearly stratified by the international prognostic index and showed data compatible with that of aggressive lymphoma in the pre-rituximab era. These results established the clinical aspects of BCL in a large number of patients treated in prospective studies during the pre-rituximab era in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3960/jslrt.20062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053572PMC
May 2021

Comprehensive genomic analysis identifying heterogeneity in peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

Cancer Sci 2021 Apr 25;112(4):1339-1347. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous entity generally with a poor prognosis. Recent genomic analyses have characterized genomic alterations and described gene expression profiling and epigenetic mechanisms in PTCL, leading to reveal molecular pathophysiology in detail. One of several important findings is that heterogeneities exist in both the disease and in individuals. Among PTCL subtypes, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) are common in Japan. ATLL is an incurable T-cell malignancy induced by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The global genomics of ATLL can be summarized as alterations involving T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling and immune escape mechanisms. This highlights the fact that ATLL is a viral-mediated T-cell malignancy. Interestingly, several previous studies have found that the genomics of ATLL differ according to geographical region and age at diagnosis, suggesting disease heterogeneity, though they share HTLV-1 infection as initial disease hit. Clonal expansion of the cells acquired by somatic mutations in ATLL-related genes is identified in a part of HTLV-1 carriers who developed ATLL later. The risk for ATLL may be updated based on findings in detail. PTCL-NOS is a heterogeneous disease type of T-cell lymphoma that does not correspond to any other type of PTCL. Several studies have stratified PTCL-NOS according to transcriptional, genomic, microenvironmental, and clinical aspects. These kinds of analysis from multiple aspects are useful to understand the heterogeneous group. These efforts will help guide suitable translational research to target PTCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019213PMC
April 2021

DA-EPOCH-R therapy for high-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements in a patient with renal dysfunction.

J Clin Exp Hematop 2021 Mar 6;61(1):42-47. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Hematology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.

High-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements, also known as double-hit lymphoma, has been reported as refractory to R-CHOP therapy and requires more intensive regimens. However, intensive and safe regimens for patients with renal dysfunction are unknown. Herein, we report the successful use of DA-EPOCH-R therapy for double-hit lymphoma in a 64-year-old man with renal dysfunction. The patient had lymphoma-induced bilateral ureteral obstruction. Although renal dysfunction remained after removing the obstruction using R-CHOP therapy, we completed six cycles of DA-EPOCH-R therapy without any major adverse events. DA-EPOCH-R therapy may be a safe regimen for renal dysfunction patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3960/jslrt.20043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053571PMC
March 2021

Composite Epstein-Barr Virus-associated T-lymphoblastic and Peripheral T-cell Lymphomas: A Clonal Study.

Intern Med 2021 Jul 8;60(13):2119-2123. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Wakayama Medical University, Japan.

A 30-year-old woman was diagnosed with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) that harbored a clonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. At relapse, axillary lymph node adenopathy, which was diagnosed as peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), was detected. Southern blot analyses of the T-cell receptor and EBV genome revealed that the T-LBL and PTCL-NOS were clonally identical. We previously showed that CD21 acted as an entry molecule that allowed EBV into the patient's T-LBL cells. Interestingly, the PTCL-NOS cells lacked CD21 expression. Our case suggests that EBV might infect immature CD21-positive T-cells, and CD21-negative PTCL-NOS might subsequently arise through phenotypic changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.6572-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313923PMC
July 2021

Frequent genetic alterations in immune checkpoint-related genes in intravascular large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood 2021 03;137(11):1491-1502

Department of Pathology and Tumor Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a unique type of extranodal lymphoma characterized by selective growth of tumor cells in small vessels without lymphadenopathy. Greater understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of IVLBCL is hampered by the paucity of lymphoma cells in biopsy specimens, creating a limitation in obtaining sufficient tumor materials. To uncover the genetic landscape of IVLBCL, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 21 patients with IVLBCL using plasma-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) (n = 18), patient-derived xenograft tumors (n = 4), and tumor DNA from bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells (n = 2). The concentration of cfDNA in IVLBCL was significantly higher than that in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (P < .0001) and healthy donors (P = .0053), allowing us to perform WES; most mutations detected in BM tumor DNA were successfully captured in cfDNA and xenograft. IVLBCL showed a high frequency of genetic lesions characteristic of activated B-cell-type DLBCL, with the former showing conspicuously higher frequencies (compared with nodal DLBCL) of mutations in MYD88 (57%), CD79B (67%), SETD1B (57%), and HLA-B (57%). We also found that 8 IVLBCL (38%) harbored rearrangements of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 and 2 (PD-L1/PD-L2) involving the 3' untranslated region; such rearrangements are implicated in immune evasion via PD-L1/PD-L2 overexpression. Our data demonstrate the utility of cfDNA and imply important roles for immune evasion in IVLBCL pathogenesis and PD-1/PD-L1/PD-L2 blockade in therapeutics for IVLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976508PMC
March 2021

Comparison of prognostic scores in transplant-ineligible patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a retrospective study from the national hospital organization in Japan.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 04 9;62(4):819-827. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Hematology and Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyushu Medical Center, Fukuoka, Japan.

We retrospectively analyzed the risk factors for outcomes among patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS,  = 100) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL,  = 128) who did not receive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2008 and 2018. We designed a comparison of prognostic scores specifically for PTCL-NOS and AITL. The international prognostic index (IPI) was useful for investigating the risk factors associated with outcomes among transplant-ineligible patients with PTCL-NOS (Harrell's c-statistic 0.715) and AITL (c-statistic 0.615). The prognostic index for T-cell lymphoma (PIT), modified PIT, and the International Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma Project for overall survival (OS) seemed to identify separate prognostic groups, based on visual assessment of Kaplan-Meier curves. However, better c-statistics (>0.7) were only found for the IPI score for OS in PTCL-NOS. Strategies that carefully select PTCL patients with higher IPI scores may help to identify individuals suitable for novel therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1845336DOI Listing
April 2021

A case of acute diffuse large B cell lymphoma in an anti-human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1-positive rheumatoid arthritis patient treated with methotrexate, who died.

Mod Rheumatol Case Rep 2020 07 31;4(2):161-167. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Division of Rheumatology, Kurume University Medical Center, Kurume, Japan.

A 70-year-old woman was hospitalised due to jaundice and fever. She was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at 54 years of age. Treatment with methotrexate (MTX) was successful, and her RA was in remission. Five weeks before the hospitalisation, she was diagnosed with optic neuritis due to a decline in the visual acuity of the right eye. She was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy, followed by prednisolone (PSL), before the hospitalisation, which were not effective. Blood tests showed increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, liver injury, and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal echo revealed numerous enlarged lymph nodes in the hepatic portal region. Malignant lymphoma was suspected due to high serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor. None of the treatments were effective, and she died on the fifth hospital day. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma was diagnosed during the autopsy, which showed infiltration of CD20-positive atypical lymphocytes in almost all organs. Since she was taking MTX, she was diagnosed with immunosuppressive drug-associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). Anti-human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibody was detected in her serum after her death; however, adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma was not observed. LPD develops during the treatment of RA with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs; however, a rapid clinical course leading to death is rarely observed. Previous reports suggest that T cell dysregulation observed in HTLV-1 may contribute towards the development of B cell lymphoma. We have discussed the possible roles of HTLV-1 in LPD development in this case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24725625.2019.1702493DOI Listing
July 2020

Correction to: Programmed death 1 ligand (PD-L1) in solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective analysis by the Nagasaki Transplant Group.

Int J Hematol 2020 Dec;112(6):906

Department of Hematology, Atomic Bomb Disease and Hibakusha Medicine Unit, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan.

In the original publication of the article, the authors would like to alter the color of characters in the Supplemental Table 1 and 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-03019-0DOI Listing
December 2020

DA-EPOCH-R combined with high-dose methotrexate in patients with newly diagnosed stage II-IV CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a single-arm, open-label, phase II study.

Haematologica 2020 09 1;105(9):2308-2315. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie.

CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (CD5+ DLBCL) is characterized by poor prognosis and a high frequency of central nervous system relapse after standard immunochemotherapy. We conducted a phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of dose-adjusted (DA)- EPOCH-R (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab) combined with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) in newly diagnosed patients with CD5+ DLBCL. Previously untreated patients with stage II to IV CD5+ DLBCL according to the 2008 World Health Organization classification were eligible. Four cycles of DA-EPOCH-R followed by two cycles of HD-MTX and four additional cycles of DAEPOCH- R (DA-EPOCH-R/HD-MTX) were planned as the protocol treatment. The primary end point was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Between September 25, 2012, and November 11, 2015, we enrolled 47 evaluable patients. Forty-five (96%) patients completed the protocol treatment. There were no deviations or violations in the DA-EPOCH-R dose levels. The complete response rate was 91%, and the overall response rate was 94%. At a median follow up of 3.1 years (range, 2.0-4.9 years), the 2- year PFS was 79% [95% confidence interval (CI): 64-88]. The 2-year overall survival was 89% (95%CI: 76-95). Toxicity included grade 4 neutropenia in 46 (98%) patients, grade 4 thrombocytopenia 12 (26%) patients, and febrile neutropenia in 31 (66%) patients. No treatment-related death was noted during the study. DA-EPOCH-R/HD-MTX might be a first-line therapy option for stage II-IV CD5+ DLBCL and warrants further investigation. (Trial registered at: UMIN-CTR: UMIN000008507.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.231076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556618PMC
September 2020

The first reported case of primary extranodal counterpart of follicular T-cell lymphoma of submandibular gland.

Pathol Int 2020 Dec 13;70(12):1027-1031. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Pathology, National Hospital Organization, Kumamoto Medical Center, Japan.

This is the first reported case of follicular T-cell lymphoma (FTCL) that primarily developed in the extranodal site of the right submandibular gland. An 86-year-old man was detected with a right cervical mass suspected to be malignant lymphoma during his physical examination. Imaging studies revealed that the mass was a submandibular gland tumor. The tumor was excised for diagnosis and treatment. Pathologically, the tumor was composed of densely aggregated lymphocytes with a follicular growth pattern. The immunohistochemical investigation showed that the lymphoma cells expressed CD3, CD4, programmed cell death protein 1, BCL6, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13, and BCL2. Staining of the follicular dendritic cell revealed its meshwork structure limited in the germinal center. Monoclonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor was detected using polymerase chain reaction. These findings are consistent with the characteristics of FTCL. Here, we describe the first reported case of extranodal counterpart of FTCL of the submandibular gland. Accumulation and investigation of such extranodal cases is essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pin.13031DOI Listing
December 2020

VAV1 mutations contribute to development of T-cell neoplasms in mice.

Blood 2020 12;136(26):3018-3032

Department of Hematology, Comprehensive Human Biosciences, and.

Activating mutations in the Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (VAV1) gene are reported in various subtypes of mature T-cell neoplasms (TCNs). However, oncogenic activities associated with VAV1 mutations in TCNs remain unclear. To define them, we established transgenic mice expressing VAV1 mutants cloned from human TCNs. Although we observed no tumors in these mice for up to a year, tumors did develop in comparably aged mice on a p53-null background (p53-/-VAV1-Tg), and p53-/-VAV1-Tg mice died with shorter latencies than did p53-null (p53-/-) mice. Notably, various TCNs with tendency of maturation developed in p53-/-VAV1-Tg mice, whereas p53-/- mice exhibited only immature TCNs. Mature TCNs in p53-/-VAV1-Tg mice mimicked a subtype of human peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL-GATA3) and exhibited features of type 2 T helper (Th2) cells. Phenotypes seen following transplantation of either p53-/-VAV1 or p53-/- tumor cells into nude mice were comparable, indicating cell-autonomous tumor-initiating capacity. Whole-transcriptome analysis showed enrichment of multiple Myc-related pathways in TCNs from p53-/-VAV1-Tg mice relative to p53-/- or wild-type T cells. Remarkably, amplification of the Myc locus was found recurrently in TCNs of p53-/-VAV1-Tg mice. Finally, treatment of nude mice transplanted with p53-/-VAV1-Tg tumor cells with JQ1, a bromodomain inhibitor that targets the Myc pathway, prolonged survival of mice. We conclude that VAV1 mutations function in malignant transformation of T cells in vivo and that VAV1-mutant-expressing mice could provide an efficient tool for screening new therapeutic targets in TCNs harboring these mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770564PMC
December 2020

Prognosis of patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Japan: A nationwide hospital-based study.

Cancer Sci 2020 Dec 21;111(12):4567-4580. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Hematology, International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a mature T-cell neoplasm and is classified into four subtypes (acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering) according to the Shimoyama classification, established in 1991 through several nationwide surveys based on the clinical diversity of patients diagnosed in 1983-1987 in Japan. Thereafter, no such studies have been conducted. Recently, we conducted a nationwide hospital survey using the method of the 1980s studies, collected baseline data on 996 ATL patients diagnosed in 2010-2011 from 126 hospitals, and reported their unique epidemiological characteristics. Here, we report the follow-up results of registered ATL patients with the goal of evaluating current prognoses and treatment modalities as of 2016-2017. Of 770 evaluable patients, 391 (50.8%) had acute-type, 192 (24.9%) had lymphoma-type, 106 (13.8%) had chronic-type, and 81 (10.5%) had smoldering-type ATL. The initial therapy regimens used for acute/lymphoma-type ATL were vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisone, followed by doxorubicin, ranimustine, and prednisone and then by vindesine, etoposide, carboplatin, and prednisone (VCAP-AMP-VECP)-like in 38.5/41.7% and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)-like in 14.6/13.7% of patients. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was used to treat 15.9/10.4% of acute/lymphoma-type ATL patients. The 4-year survival rates (the median survival time, days) for acute-, lymphoma-, unfavorable chronic-, favorable chronic-, and smoldering-type ATL were 16.8% (252), 19.6% (305), 26.6% (572), 62.1% (1937), and 59.8% (1851), respectively. The 4-year survival rates for acute- and lymphoma-type ATL improved compared with those reported in 1991, but those for chronic- and smoldering-type ATL were not. Further efforts are warranted to develop more efficient therapeutic strategies to improve the prognosis of ATL in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734015PMC
December 2020

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus HBZ and tax mRNA expression are associated with specific clinicopathological features in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

Mod Pathol 2021 02 24;34(2):314-326. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1-associated mRNA, including HBZ and tax, is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of ATLL. Using 88 ATLL tissue samples, we performed in situ mRNA analysis of HBZ and tax, and investigated its association with clinicopathological characteristics of ATLL. The median value of HBZ signals (/1000 ATLL cells) was 795.2 (range: 0.4-4013.1) and of tax signals (/1000 ATLL cells) was 5.1 (range: 0.1-891.2). The low-expression HBZ group displayed significant increase in the number of skin lesion (P = 0.0283). The high-expression tax group displayed significant increase in the number of PD-1-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (P < 0.0001). In addition, we identified patients with very high-expression of tax signals (400 or more signals/1000 ATLL cells). These patients displayed significant reductions in the expression of HLA class I (P = 0.0385) and β2M (P = 0.0124). Moreover, these patients displayed significantly poor overall survival (median survival time [MST] 7.7 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] [4.7-NA]), compared with the survival in patients with less than 400 tax signals (MST 22.6 months, 95% CI [13.7-41.7]) (P = 0.0499). These results suggest that Tax-mediated treatment of ATLL should be performed carefully in the high-expression tax group. More detailed studies could elucidate the clinicopathological significance of HBZ and tax mRNA expressions in ATLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-00654-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Primary human herpesvirus 8-negative effusion-based lymphoma: a large B-cell lymphoma with favorable prognosis.

Blood Adv 2020 09;4(18):4442-4450

Department of Hematology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Primary effusion-based lymphoma (EBL) presents as a malignant effusion in a body cavity. The clinicopathologic features and prognosis of primary human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-negative EBL remain unclear. We therefore conducted a retrospective study of 95 patients with EBL, regardless of HHV8 status, in Japan. Of 69 patients with EBL tested for HHV8, a total of 64 were negative. The median age of patients with primary HHV8-negative EBL at diagnosis was 77 years (range, 57-98 years); all 58 tested patients were negative for HIV. Primary HHV8-negative EBL was most commonly diagnosed in pleural effusion (77%). Expression of at least 1 pan B-cell antigen (CD19, CD20, or CD79a) was observed in all cases. According to the Hans algorithm, 30 of the 38 evaluated patients had nongerminal center B-cell (non-GCB) tumors. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA was positive in 6 of 45 patients. In 56 of 64 HHV8-negative patients, systemic therapy was initiated within 3 months after diagnosis. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) or CHOP-like regimens with or without rituximab (n = 48) were the most common primary treatments. The overall response and complete response rates were 95% and 73%, respectively. Three patients did not progress without systemic treatment for a median of 24 months. With a median 25-month follow-up, the 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 84.7% and 73.8%. Sixteen patients died; 12 were lymphoma-related deaths. Thus, most EBL cases in Japan are HHV8-negative and affect elderly patients. The non-GCB subtype is predominant. Overall, primary HHV8-negative EBL exhibits a favorable prognosis after anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509864PMC
September 2020

Simultaneous Discordant B-Lymphoblastic Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma.

Am J Clin Pathol 2021 02;155(2):308-317

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Shimane University Hospital, Izumo, Japan.

Objectives: We report a rare case of B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) and low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) identified concurrently in biopsies from different sites at the initial diagnosis in a 39-year-old man. The clonal relationship between the 2 histologic subtypes was investigated.

Methods: A diagnosis of FL grade 1/2 (low grade) was made by bone marrow (BM) biopsy. B-LBL was identified in biopsies from the testis and pancreas. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses were performed to investigate their clonal relationship.

Results: Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses and G-banding karyotype analyses identified the BCL2-IGH and MYC-IGH translocation in tumor cells from both the BM and testis. The tumor cells from the BM and testis shared the same IGH VDJ usage and a high degree of somatic mutations. These findings suggest that acquisition of MYC gene rearrangement is a critical event for lymphoblastic transformation of FL. Of note, the presence of intraclonal diversity in the B-LBL sample further suggests an earlier or concurrent event of MYC translocation than the somatic IGH mutation in the germinal center and the dedifferentiation of lymphoma cells to a precursor stage of B-cell development.

Conclusions: B-lymphoblastic transformation of FL can occur with MYC gene rearrangement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqaa126DOI Listing
February 2021
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