Publications by authors named "Koichi Matsuda"

227 Publications

Trans-ethnic Mendelian-randomization study reveals causal relationships between cardiometabolic factors and chronic kidney disease.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: This study was to systematically test whether previously reported risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are causally related to CKD in European and East Asian ancestries using Mendelian randomization.

Methods: A total of 45 risk factors with genetic data in European ancestry and 17 risk factors in East Asian participants were identified as exposures from PubMed. We defined the CKD by clinical diagnosis or by estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Ultimately, 51 672 CKD cases and 958 102 controls of European ancestry from CKDGen, UK Biobank and HUNT, and 13 093 CKD cases and 238 118 controls of East Asian ancestry from Biobank Japan, China Kadoorie Biobank and Japan-Kidney-Biobank/ToMMo were included.

Results: Eight risk factors showed reliable evidence of causal effects on CKD in Europeans, including genetically predicted body mass index (BMI), hypertension, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein(a), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nephrolithiasis. In East Asians, BMI, T2D and nephrolithiasis showed evidence of causality on CKD. In two independent replication analyses, we observed that increased hypertension risk showed reliable evidence of a causal effect on increasing CKD risk in Europeans but in contrast showed a null effect in East Asians. Although liability to T2D showed consistent effects on CKD, the effects of glycaemic phenotypes on CKD were weak. Non-linear Mendelian randomization indicated a threshold relationship between genetically predicted BMI and CKD, with increased risk at BMI of >25 kg/m2.

Conclusions: Eight cardiometabolic risk factors showed causal effects on CKD in Europeans and three of them showed causality in East Asians, providing insights into the design of future interventions to reduce the burden of CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab203DOI Listing
October 2021

A cross-population atlas of genetic associations for 220 human phenotypes.

Nat Genet 2021 Oct 30;53(10):1415-1424. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Current genome-wide association studies do not yet capture sufficient diversity in populations and scope of phenotypes. To expand an atlas of genetic associations in non-European populations, we conducted 220 deep-phenotype genome-wide association studies (diseases, biomarkers and medication usage) in BioBank Japan (n = 179,000), by incorporating past medical history and text-mining of electronic medical records. Meta-analyses with the UK Biobank and FinnGen (n = 628,000) identified ~5,000 new loci, which improved the resolution of the genomic map of human traits. This atlas elucidated the landscape of pleiotropy as represented by the major histocompatibility complex locus, where we conducted HLA fine-mapping. Finally, we performed statistical decomposition of matrices of phenome-wide summary statistics, and identified latent genetic components, which pinpointed responsible variants and biological mechanisms underlying current disease classifications across populations. The decomposed components enabled genetically informed subtyping of similar diseases (for example, allergic diseases). Our study suggests a potential avenue for hypothesis-free re-investigation of human diseases through genetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00931-xDOI Listing
October 2021

A genome-wide association study identifies a novel candidate locus at the DLGAP1 gene with susceptibility to resistant hypertension in the Japanese population.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 30;11(1):19497. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-Kami Machi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.

Numerous genetic variants associated with hypertension and blood pressure are known, but there is a paucity of evidence from genetic studies of resistant hypertension, especially in Asian populations. To identify novel genetic loci associated with resistant hypertension in the Japanese population, we conducted a genome-wide association study with 2705 resistant hypertension cases and 21,296 mild hypertension controls, all from BioBank Japan. We identified one novel susceptibility candidate locus, rs1442386 on chromosome 18p11.3 (DLGAP1), achieving genome-wide significance (odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.85 (0.81-0.90), P = 3.75 × 10) and 18 loci showing suggestive association, including rs62525059 of 8q24.3 (CYP11B2) and rs3774427 of 3p21.1 (CACNA1D). We further detected biological processes associated with resistant hypertension, including chemical synaptic transmission, regulation of transmembrane transport, neuron development and neurological system processes, highlighting the importance of the nervous system. This study provides insights into the etiology of resistant hypertension in the Japanese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98144-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484335PMC
September 2021

Intracellular Accumulation of IFN-λ4 Induces ER Stress and Results in Anti-Cirrhotic but Pro-HCV Effects.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:692263. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Laboratory of Translational Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, United States.

polymorphisms are inversely associated with the risk of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and cirrhosis, two major risk factors for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To further explore these inverse associations and their molecular underpinnings, we analyzed polymorphisms represented by the genotype (presence of rs368234815-dG or rs12979860-T alleles) in HCV patients: 2969 from Japan and 2931 from Taiwan. genotype was associated with an increased risk of HCV-related HCC (OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.07-1.52, P=0.0058) in the general population of Japanese patients, but not in Taiwanese patients who achieved treatment-induced viral clearance. genotype was also associated with a decreased risk of cirrhosis (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46-0.93, P=0.018, in Taiwanese patients). We then engineered HepG2 cells to inducibly express IFN-λ4 in the presence or absence of interferon lambda receptor 1 (IFNLR1). Induction of IFN-λ4 resulted in its intracellular accumulation, mainly in lysosomes and late endosomes, and increased ER stress, leading to apoptosis and reduced proliferation. We identified the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (), which facilitates HCV entry into hepatocytes, as a transcript induced by IFN-λ4 but not IFN-λ3. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cirrhotic but pro-HCV associations observed for polymorphisms are, at least in part, contributed by intracellular accumulation of IFN-λ4 causing ER stress in hepatic cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.692263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419317PMC
August 2021

Collagen XVII inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and growth through deactivation of the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255179. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Collagen XVII (COL17), a cell-matrix adhesion protein, has been found to be suppressed in breast cancer. Our previous data demonstrated a preventive role of COL17 in breast cancer invasiveness. The present study used the stable COL17-overexpressing MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to reveal an anti-proliferative effect of COL17 on breast cancer cell through mTOR deactivation. Cell proliferation was negatively correlated with the expression level of COL17 in a concentration-dependent manner in both conventional and three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. The correlation was confirmed by decreased expression of the proliferative marker Ki67 in COL17-expressing cells. In addition, overexpression of COL17 reduced the clonogenicity and growth of the cells. We demonstrated that COL17 affects the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by deactivation of AKT, mTOR and downstream effectors, particularly 4EBP1. Moreover, mice xenografted with high COL17-expressing cells exhibited delayed tumor progression and prolonged survival time. The high expression of COL17A1 gene encoding COL17 is associated with low-proliferation tumors, extended tumor-free period, and overall survival of breast cancer patients. In conclusion, our results revealed the novel function of COL17 using in vitro and in vivo models and elucidated the related pathway in breast cancer cell growth and proliferation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255179PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297889PMC
July 2021

Combined landscape of single-nucleotide variants and copy number alterations in clonal hematopoiesis.

Nat Med 2021 07 8;27(7):1239-1249. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pathology and Tumor Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in apparently healthy individuals is implicated in the development of hematological malignancies (HM) and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies of CH analyzed either single-nucleotide variants and indels (SNVs/indels) or copy number alterations (CNAs), but not both. Here, using a combination of targeted sequencing of 23 CH-related genes and array-based CNA detection of blood-derived DNA, we have delineated the landscape of CH-related SNVs/indels and CNAs in 11,234 individuals without HM from the BioBank Japan cohort, including 672 individuals with subsequent HM development, and studied the effects of these somatic alterations on mortality from HM and cardiovascular disease, as well as on hematological and cardiovascular phenotypes. The total number of both types of CH-related lesions and their clone size positively correlated with blood count abnormalities and mortality from HM. CH-related SNVs/indels and CNAs exhibited statistically significant co-occurrence in the same individuals. In particular, co-occurrence of SNVs/indels and CNAs affecting DNMT3A, TET2, JAK2 and TP53 resulted in biallelic alterations of these genes and was associated with higher HM mortality. Co-occurrence of SNVs/indels and CNAs also modulated risks for cardiovascular mortality. These findings highlight the importance of detecting both SNVs/indels and CNAs in the evaluation of CH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01411-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Rhamnan sulphate from green algae Monostroma nitidum improves constipation with gut microbiome alteration in double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2021 07 5;11(1):13384. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Mie University Zebrafish Drug Screening Center, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.

Rhamnan sulphate (RS), a sulphated polysaccharide from Monostroma nitidum, possesses several biological properties that help in treating diseases such as viral infection, thrombosis, and obesity. In the present study, we first administered RS (0.25 mg/g food volume) orally to high-fat diet-treated mice for 4 weeks. RS increased the faecal volume and calorie excretion with decreased plasma lipids, which was in accordance with the results of our previous zebrafish study. Notably, as the excretion amount by RS increased in the mice, we hypothesised that RS could decrease the chance of constipation in mice and also in human subjects because RS is considered as a dietary fibre. We administrated RS (100 mg/day) to subjects with low defaecation frequencies (3-5 times/week) for 2 weeks in double-blind placebo-controlled manner. As a result, RS administration significantly increased the frequency of dejection without any side effects, although no effect was observed on the body weight and blood lipids. Moreover, we performed 16s rRNA-seq analysis of the gut microbiota in these subjects. Metagenomics profiling using PICRUSt revealed functional alternation of the KEGG pathways, which could be involved in the therapeutic effect of RS for constipation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92459-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257721PMC
July 2021

A deep learning method for HLA imputation and trans-ethnic MHC fine-mapping of type 1 diabetes.

Nat Commun 2021 03 12;12(1):1639. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Statistical Genetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

Conventional human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation methods drop their performance for infrequent alleles, which is one of the factors that reduce the reliability of trans-ethnic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) fine-mapping due to inter-ethnic heterogeneity in allele frequency spectra. We develop DEEP*HLA, a deep learning method for imputing HLA genotypes. Through validation using the Japanese and European HLA reference panels (n = 1,118 and 5,122), DEEP*HLA achieves the highest accuracies with significant superiority for low-frequency and rare alleles. DEEP*HLA is less dependent on distance-dependent linkage disequilibrium decay of the target alleles and might capture the complicated region-wide information. We apply DEEP*HLA to type 1 diabetes GWAS data from BioBank Japan (n = 62,387) and UK Biobank (n = 354,459), and successfully disentangle independently associated class I and II HLA variants with shared risk among diverse populations (the top signal at amino acid position 71 of HLA-DRβ1; P = 7.5 × 10). Our study illustrates the value of deep learning in genotype imputation and trans-ethnic MHC fine-mapping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21975-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955122PMC
March 2021

The simplified Kyoto classification score is consistent with the ABC method of classification as a grading system for endoscopic gastritis.

J Clin Biochem Nutr 2021 Jan 16;68(1):101-104. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

The ABC method combined with antibody and serum pepsinogen is a useful predictive method for stomach cancer. Kyoto classification is a new grading system for endoscopic gastritis. However, the consistency of the Kyoto score with the ABC method remains unclear. The Kyoto classification score, which ranges from 0 to 8, is based on the following findings: atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, diffuse redness, nodularity, and enlarged folds. Furthermore, we defined a simplified Kyoto classification score as the sum of scores of just atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. The association between the Kyoto classification score and the ABC method was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Steel-Dwass tests. A total of 307 subjects were enrolled. Kyoto classification scores were similar in groups B, C, and D, while scores in group A were significantly lower than those of the other groups. The simplified Kyoto classification score showed the same stepwise increase as the classification of the ABC method. In conclusion, unlike the Kyoto classification score, the simplified Kyoto score showed the same significant stepwise increase as the classification of the ABC method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.20-41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844658PMC
January 2021

A single nucleotide polymorphism in is associated with endoscopic grading in Kyoto classification of gastritis.

J Clin Biochem Nutr 2021 Jan 31;68(1):73-77. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

The risk allele of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2294008 in the () gene is strongly associated with gastric cancer. Although the Kyoto classification score is believed to be an indicator of gastric cancer risk, it lacks supporting genetic evidence. We investigated the effect of this risk allele of SNP on the Kyoto score. Participants without a history of gastric cancer or () eradication underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy, evaluation, and SNP genotyping. The Kyoto score is the sum of scores obtained from endoscopy-based atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, enlarged folds, nodularity, and diffuse redness. The Kyoto score is novel in the light of scoring for gastritis. A total of 323 patients were enrolled (number of individuals with genotype CC: 52; CT: 140; TT: 131, average age: 50.1 years, male: 50.8%). The patient baseline characteristics including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, family history of gastric cancer, and status had no association with SNP. The Kyoto score was higher in T (CT or TT genotype; risk allele) carriers than in CC carriers. Atrophy, enlarged folds, and diffuse redness scores were higher in T allele carriers (risk allele) than in CC genotype individuals. In multivariate analysis, the Kyoto score was independently associated with SNP (OR: 1.30,  = 0.012). Thus, the Kyoto score was associated with a genetic predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.20-67DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844668PMC
January 2021

Comprehensive molecular and clinicopathological profiling of desmoid tumours.

Eur J Cancer 2021 03 11;145:109-120. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Division of Cellular Signaling, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan. Electronic address:

Previous studies have not clearly identified a prognostic factor for desmoid tumours (DT). Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and/or RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) were performed in 64 cases of DT to investigate the molecular profiles in combination with the clinicopathological characteristics. CTNNB1 mutations with specific hotspots were identified in 56 cases (87.5%). A copy number loss in chromosome 6 (chr6) was identified in 14 cases (21.9%). Clustering based on the mRNA expression profiles was predictive of the patients' prognoses. The risk score generated by the expression of a three-gene set (IFI6, LGMN, and CKLF) was a strong prognostic marker for recurrence-free survival (RFS) in our cohort. In risk groups stratified by the expression of IFI6, the hazard ratio for recurrence-free survival in the high-risk group relative to the low-risk group was 12.12 (95% confidence interval: 1.56-94.2; p = 8.0 × 10). In conclusion, CTNNB1 mutations and a chr6 copy number loss are likely the causative mutations underlying the tumorigenesis of DT while the gene expression profiles may help to differentiate patients who would be good candidates for wait-and-see management and those who might benefit from additional systemic or radiation therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.12.001DOI Listing
March 2021

Whole genome sequence analyses of eGFR in 23,732 people representing multiple ancestries in the NHLBI trans-omics for precision medicine (TOPMed) consortium.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jan 6;63:103157. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Genetic factors that influence kidney traits have been understudied for low frequency and ancestry-specific variants.

Methods: We combined whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 23,732 participants from 10 NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program multi-ethnic studies to identify novel loci for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Participants included European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestries. We applied linear mixed models using a genetic relationship matrix estimated from the WGS data and adjusted for age, sex, study, and ethnicity.

Findings: When testing single variants, we identified three novel loci driven by low frequency variants more commonly observed in non-European ancestry (PRKAA2, rs180996919, minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.04%, P = 6.1 × 10; METTL8, rs116951054, MAF 0.09%, P = 4.5 × 10; and MATK, rs539182790, MAF 0.05%, P = 3.4 × 10). We also replicated two known loci for common variants (rs2461702, MAF=0.49, P = 1.2 × 10, nearest gene GATM, and rs71147340, MAF=0.34, P = 3.3 × 10, CDK12). Testing aggregated variants within a gene identified the MAF gene. A statistical approach based on local ancestry helped to identify replication samples for ancestry-specific variants.

Interpretation: This study highlights challenges in studying variants influencing kidney traits that are low frequency in populations and more common in non-European ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.103157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804602PMC
January 2021

Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction.

Nat Genet 2021 01 4;53(1):65-75. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00748-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148035PMC
January 2021

Population-based Screening for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Variants in Japan.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Dec 11. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama.

Background & Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. A small proportion of CRCs can be attributed to recognizable hereditary germline variants of known CRC susceptibility genes. To better understand cancer risk, it is necessary to explore the prevalence of hereditary CRC and pathogenic variants of multiple cancer-predisposing genes in non-European populations.

Methods: We analyzed the coding regions of 27 cancer-predisposing genes in 12,503 unselected Japanese CRC patients and 23,705 controls by target sequencing and genome-wide SNP chip. Their clinical significance was assessed using ClinVar and the guidelines by ACMG/AMP.

Results: We identified 4,804 variants in the 27 genes and annotated them as pathogenic in 397 and benign variants in 941, of which 43.6% were novel. In total, 3.3% of the unselected CRC patients and 1.5% of the controls had a pathogenic variant. The pathogenic variants of MSH2 (odds ratio (OR) = 18.1), MLH1 (OR = 8.6), MSH6 (OR = 4.9), APC (OR = 49.4), BRIP1 (OR=3.6), BRCA1 (OR = 2.6), BRCA2 (OR = 1.9), and TP53 (OR = 1.7) were significantly associated with CRC development in the Japanese population (P-values<0.01, FDR<0.05). These pathogenic variants were significantly associated with diagnosis age and personal/family history of cancer. In total, at least 3.5% of the Japanese CRC population had a pathogenic variant or CNV of the 27 cancer-predisposing genes, indicating hereditary cancers.

Conclusions: This largest study of CRC heredity in Asia can contribute to the development of guidelines for genetic testing and variant interpretation for heritable CRCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.12.007DOI Listing
December 2020

Meta-analysis of 208370 East Asians identifies 113 susceptibility loci for systemic lupus erythematosus.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 05 3;80(5):632-640. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disorder, has been associated with nearly 100 susceptibility loci. Nevertheless, these loci only partially explain SLE heritability and their putative causal variants are rarely prioritised, which make challenging to elucidate disease biology. To detect new SLE loci and causal variants, we performed the largest genome-wide meta-analysis for SLE in East Asian populations.

Methods: We newly genotyped 10 029 SLE cases and 180 167 controls and subsequently meta-analysed them jointly with 3348 SLE cases and 14 826 controls from published studies in East Asians. We further applied a Bayesian statistical approach to localise the putative causal variants for SLE associations.

Results: We identified 113 genetic regions including 46 novel loci at genome-wide significance (p<5×10). Conditional analysis detected 233 association signals within these loci, which suggest widespread allelic heterogeneity. We detected genome-wide associations at six new missense variants. Bayesian statistical fine-mapping analysis prioritised the putative causal variants to a small set of variants (95% credible set size ≤10) for 28 association signals. We identified 110 putative causal variants with posterior probabilities ≥0.1 for 57 SLE loci, among which we prioritised 10 most likely putative causal variants (posterior probability ≥0.8). Linkage disequilibrium score regression detected genetic correlations for SLE with albumin/globulin ratio (r=-0.242) and non-albumin protein (r=0.238).

Conclusion: This study reiterates the power of large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis for novel genetic discovery. These findings shed light on genetic and biological understandings of SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-219209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053352PMC
May 2021

Improving the trans-ancestry portability of polygenic risk scores by prioritizing variants in predicted cell-type-specific regulatory elements.

Nat Genet 2020 12 30;52(12):1346-1354. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Center for Data Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Poor trans-ancestry portability of polygenic risk scores is a consequence of Eurocentric genetic studies and limited knowledge of shared causal variants. Leveraging regulatory annotations may improve portability by prioritizing functional over tagging variants. We constructed a resource of 707 cell-type-specific IMPACT regulatory annotations by aggregating 5,345 epigenetic datasets to predict binding patterns of 142 transcription factors across 245 cell types. We then partitioned the common SNP heritability of 111 genome-wide association study summary statistics of European (average n ≈ 189,000) and East Asian (average n ≈ 157,000) origin. IMPACT annotations captured consistent SNP heritability between populations, suggesting prioritization of shared functional variants. Variant prioritization using IMPACT resulted in increased trans-ancestry portability of polygenic risk scores from Europeans to East Asians across all 21 phenotypes analyzed (49.9% mean relative increase in R). Our study identifies a crucial role for functional annotations such as IMPACT to improve the trans-ancestry portability of genetic data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00740-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049522PMC
December 2020

Genome-wide association study of intracranial aneurysms identifies 17 risk loci and genetic overlap with clinical risk factors.

Nat Genet 2020 12 16;52(12):1303-1313. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Research, Innovation and Education, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00725-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116530PMC
December 2020

Association of circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and its related genetic variations with hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and survival.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Sep;8(17):1080

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Laparoscopic Technology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Vitamin D plays a key role of anti-cancer process, however, the association of vitamin D level and its related genetic variants with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk and prognosis is not fully understood.

Methods: We enrolled 100 HCC patients and 8,242 health controls from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital. Logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI for HCC risk according to serum 25(OH)D concentration. Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was also conducted to validate the potential causal association of 25(OH)D with HCC risk. Hazard ratio (HR) for the association of SNPs with overall survival and disease-free survival was assessed by multivariate Cox hazard proportional regression model.

Results: Plasma 25(OH)D level greater than 20 ng/mL increased HCC risk (OR =7.56, 95% CI: 4.58-12.50). MR analysis also showed a slightly increased risk of HCC by 25(OH)D increasing, yet did not reach statistical significance (OR =1.03, 95% CI: 0.31-3.47). With regard to HCC survival, compared to patients with rs8018720 GG genotype, patients with rs8018720 CC/CG genotype had a longer disease-free survival time (HR =0.39, 95% CI: 0.18-0.81). There was an interaction between rs12785878 and 25(OH)D level in continuous scale for HCC mortality. An interaction between rs12785878 and dichotomized 25(OH)D concentration for disease-free survival of HCC patients was also confirmed.

Conclusions: There is hazard of circulating 25(OH)D concentration for HCC occurrence, but protective effect of the interaction between circulating 25(OH)D concentration and its related genetic variation for HCC prognosis. Further study is needed to confirm or refute these findings in a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-1637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575935PMC
September 2020

Fine Mapping of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Region and Association of the HLA-B*52:01 Allele With Cervical Cancer in Japanese Women.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 10 1;3(10):e2023248. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Statistical Genetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Importance: Understanding the genetic contribution of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region to the risk of cervical cancer (CC) will help understand how immune responses to infection with human papillomaviruses are associated with CC.

Objective: To determine whether the HLA-B*52:01 allele is associated with CC in Japanese women.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a multicenter genetic association study. Genotype and phenotype data were obtained from BioBank Japan Project. Additional patients with CC were enrolled from the Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute. An MHC fine-mapping study was conducted on CC risk in the Japanese population by applying a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation method to the large-scale CC genome-wide association study data of using the Japanese population-specific HLA reference panel. Participants included 540 women in BioBank Japan Project with CC or 39 829 women without gynecologic diseases, malignant neoplasms, and MHC-related diseases as controls. An additional 168 patients with CC were recruited from Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute. Histopathological subtypes and clinical stages were not considered. Participants with low genotype call rate, closely related participants, and outliers in the principal component analysis were excluded. Data analysis was performed from August 2018 to January 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Loci within the MHC region associated with CC risk, and the direction and size of association.

Results: A total of 704 CC cases and 39 556 controls were analyzed. All participants were Japanese women with a median (range) age of 67 (18 to 100) years. One of the class I HLA alleles of HLA-B*52:01 was significantly associated with CC risk (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.38-1.86; P = 7.4 × 10-10). Allele frequency spectra of HLA-B*52:01 are heterogeneous among worldwide populations with high frequency in Japanese populations (0.109 in controls), suggesting its population-specific risk associated with CC. The conditional analysis suggested that HLA-B*52:01 could explain most of the MHC risk associated with CC because no other HLA alleles remained significant after conditioning on the HLA-B*52:01. The HLA amino acid residue-based analysis suggested that HLA-B p.Tyr171His located in the peptide-binding groove was associated with the most significant CC risk (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.30-1.66; P = 1.2 × 10-9).

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this study contribute to understanding of the genetic background of CC. The results suggest that immune responses mediated by class I HLA molecules are associated with susceptibility to CC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.23248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596586PMC
October 2020

Population-specific and trans-ancestry genome-wide analyses identify distinct and shared genetic risk loci for coronary artery disease.

Nat Genet 2020 11 5;52(11):1169-1177. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

To elucidate the genetics of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Japanese population, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study of 168,228 individuals of Japanese ancestry (25,892 cases and 142,336 controls) with genotype imputation using a newly developed reference panel of Japanese haplotypes including 1,781 CAD cases and 2,636 controls. We detected eight new susceptibility loci and Japanese-specific rare variants contributing to disease severity and increased cardiovascular mortality. We then conducted a trans-ancestry meta-analysis and discovered 35 additional new loci. Using the meta-analysis results, we derived a polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD, which outperformed those derived from either Japanese or European genome-wide association studies. The PRS prioritized risk factors among various clinical parameters and segregated individuals with increased risk of long-term cardiovascular mortality. Our data improve the clinical characterization of CAD genetics and suggest the utility of trans-ancestry meta-analysis for PRS derivation in non-European populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0705-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Endoscopy-based Kyoto classification score of gastritis related to pathological topography of neutrophil activity.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Sep;26(34):5146-5155

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.

Background: Endoscopy-based Kyoto classification for gastritis and pathological topographic distribution of neutrophil infiltration are correlated with gastric cancer risk.

Aim: To investigate the association between Kyoto classification and the topographic distribution of neutrophil activity.

Methods: Kyoto classification score, ranging from 0 to 8, consisted of atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, enlarged folds, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Neutrophil activity was scored according to the updated Sydney System using biopsy samples obtained from the greater curvature of the corpus and the antrum. The participants were divided into four categories, inactive stomach, antrum-predominant gastritis, pangastritis, and corpus-predominant gastritis, based on the topographic distribution of neutrophil activity. Effects of sex, age, body mass index, drinking habit, smoking habit, family history of gastric cancer, serum () antibody, and Kyoto score on topography of neutrophil infiltration were analyzed.

Results: A total of 327 patients (comprising 50.7% women, with an average age of 50.2 years) were enrolled in this study. infection rate was 82.9% with a mean Kyoto score of 4.63. The Kyoto score was associated with the topographic distribution of neutrophil activity. Kyoto scores were significantly higher in the order of inactive stomach, antrum-predominant gastritis, pangastritis, and corpus-predominant gastritis (3.05, 4.57, 5.21, and 5.96, respectively). Each individual score of endoscopic findings (., atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, enlarged folds, nodularity, and diffuse redness) was correlated with the topographic distribution of neutrophil activity. On multivariate analysis, the Kyoto score, age, and serum antibody were independently associated with the topographic distribution of neutrophil activity.

Conclusion: The Kyoto classification score was associated with the topographic distribution of neutrophil activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i34.5146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495031PMC
September 2020

Genetic characterization of pancreatic cancer patients and prediction of carrier status of germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposing genes.

EBioMedicine 2020 Oct 24;60:103033. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Laboratory for Genotyping Development, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recently recommended germline genetic testing for all pancreatic cancer patients. However, the genes targeted by genetic testing and the feasibility of selecting patients likely to carry pathogenic variants have not been sufficiently verified. The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize Japanese patients and examine whether the current guideline is applicable in this population.

Methods: Using targeted sequencing, we analyzed the coding regions of 27 cancer-predisposing genes in 1,005 pancreatic cancer patients and 23,705 controls in Japan. We compared the pathogenic variant frequency between cases and controls and documented the demographic and clinical characteristics of carrier patients. We then examined if it was possible to use machine learning to predict carrier status based on those characteristics.

Findings: We identified 205 pathogenic variants across the 27 genes. Pathogenic variants in BRCA2, ATM, and BRCA1 were significantly associated with pancreatic cancer. Characteristics associated with carrier status were inconsistent with previous investigations. Machine learning classifiers had a low performance in determining the carrier status of pancreatic cancer patients, while the same classifiers, when applied to breast cancer data as a positive control, had a higher performance that was comparable to that of the NCCN guideline.

Interpretation: Our findings support the clinical significance of multigene panel testing for pancreatic cancer and indicate that at least 3.4% of Japanese patients may respond to poly (ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitor treatments. The difficulty in predicting carrier status suggests that offering germline genetic testing for all pancreatic cancer patients is reasonable.

Funding: AMED under Grant Number JP19kk0305010 and Australian National Health and Medical Research funding (ID177524).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.103033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519363PMC
October 2020

The Polygenic and Monogenic Basis of Blood Traits and Diseases.

Cell 2020 09;182(5):1214-1231.e11

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Science, National Institute on Aging/NIH, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Blood cells play essential roles in human health, underpinning physiological processes such as immunity, oxygen transport, and clotting, which when perturbed cause a significant global health burden. Here we integrate data from UK Biobank and a large-scale international collaborative effort, including data for 563,085 European ancestry participants, and discover 5,106 new genetic variants independently associated with 29 blood cell phenotypes covering a range of variation impacting hematopoiesis. We holistically characterize the genetic architecture of hematopoiesis, assess the relevance of the omnigenic model to blood cell phenotypes, delineate relevant hematopoietic cell states influenced by regulatory genetic variants and gene networks, identify novel splice-altering variants mediating the associations, and assess the polygenic prediction potential for blood traits and clinical disorders at the interface of complex and Mendelian genetics. These results show the power of large-scale blood cell trait GWAS to interrogate clinically meaningful variants across a wide allelic spectrum of human variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482360PMC
September 2020

Trans-ethnic and Ancestry-Specific Blood-Cell Genetics in 746,667 Individuals from 5 Global Populations.

Cell 2020 09;182(5):1198-1213.e14

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA; Department of Medicine, Division on Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Most loci identified by GWASs have been found in populations of European ancestry (EUR). In trans-ethnic meta-analyses for 15 hematological traits in 746,667 participants, including 184,535 non-EUR individuals, we identified 5,552 trait-variant associations at p < 5 × 10, including 71 novel associations not found in EUR populations. We also identified 28 additional novel variants in ancestry-specific, non-EUR meta-analyses, including an IL7 missense variant in South Asians associated with lymphocyte count in vivo and IL-7 secretion levels in vitro. Fine-mapping prioritized variants annotated as functional and generated 95% credible sets that were 30% smaller when using the trans-ethnic as opposed to the EUR-only results. We explored the clinical significance and predictive value of trans-ethnic variants in multiple populations and compared genetic architecture and the effect of natural selection on these blood phenotypes between populations. Altogether, our results for hematological traits highlight the value of a more global representation of populations in genetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480402PMC
September 2020

Endogenization and excision of human herpesvirus 6 in human genomes.

PLoS Genet 2020 08 10;16(8):e1008915. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Laboratory for Statistical and Translational Genetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Sequences homologous to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are integrated within the nuclear genome of about 1% of humans, but it is not clear how this came about. It is also uncertain whether integrated HHV-6 can reactivate into an infectious virus. HHV-6 integrates into telomeres, and this has recently been associated with polymorphisms affecting MOV10L1. MOV10L1 is located on the subtelomere of chromosome 22q (chr22q) and is required to make PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). As piRNAs block germline integration of transposons, piRNA-mediated repression of HHV-6 integration has been proposed to explain this association. In vitro, recombination of the HHV-6 genome along its terminal direct repeats (DRs) leads to excision from the telomere and viral reactivation, but the expected "solo-DR scar" has not been described in vivo. Here we screened for integrated HHV-6 in 7,485 Japanese subjects using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Integrated HHV-6 was associated with polymorphisms on chr22q. However, in contrast to prior work, we find that the reported MOV10L1 polymorphism is physically linked to an ancient endogenous HHV-6A variant integrated into the telomere of chr22q in East Asians. Unexpectedly, an HHV-6B variant has also endogenized in chr22q; two endogenous HHV-6 variants at this locus thus account for 72% of all integrated HHV-6 in Japan. We also report human genomes carrying only one portion of the HHV-6B genome, a solo-DR, supporting in vivo excision and possible viral reactivation. Together these results explain the recently-reported association between integrated HHV-6 and MOV10L1/piRNAs, suggest potential exaptation of HHV-6 in its coevolution with human chr22q, and clarify the evolution and risk of reactivation of the only intact (non-retro)viral genome known to be present in human germlines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444522PMC
August 2020

Chromosomal alterations among age-related haematopoietic clones in Japan.

Nature 2020 08 24;584(7819):130-135. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Laboratory for Statistical and Translational Genetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

The extent to which the biology of oncogenesis and ageing are shaped by factors that distinguish human populations is unknown. Haematopoietic clones with acquired mutations become common with advancing age and can lead to blood cancers. Here we describe shared and population-specific patterns of genomic mutations and clonal selection in haematopoietic cells on the basis of 33,250 autosomal mosaic chromosomal alterations that we detected in 179,417 Japanese participants in the BioBank Japan cohort and compared with analogous data from the UK Biobank. In this long-lived Japanese population, mosaic chromosomal alterations were detected in more than 35.0% (s.e.m., 1.4%) of individuals older than 90 years, which suggests that such clones trend towards inevitability with advancing age. Japanese and European individuals exhibited key differences in the genomic locations of mutations in their respective haematopoietic clones; these differences predicted the relative rates of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (which is more common among European individuals) and T cell leukaemia (which is more common among Japanese individuals) in these populations. Three different mutational precursors of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (including trisomy 12, loss of chromosomes 13q and 13q, and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity) were between two and six times less common among Japanese individuals, which suggests that the Japanese and European populations differ in selective pressures on clones long before the development of clinically apparent chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Japanese and British populations also exhibited very different rates of clones that arose from B and T cell lineages, which predicted the relative rates of B and T cell cancers in these populations. We identified six previously undescribed loci at which inherited variants predispose to mosaic chromosomal alterations that duplicate or remove the inherited risk alleles, including large-effect rare variants at NBN, MRE11 and CTU2 (odds ratio, 28-91). We suggest that selective pressures on clones are modulated by factors that are specific to human populations. Further genomic characterization of clonal selection and cancer in populations from around the world is therefore warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2426-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489641PMC
August 2020

Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies GP2 gene risk variants for pancreatic cancer.

Nat Commun 2020 06 24;11(1):3175. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, 464-8681, Japan.

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. To identify risk loci, we perform a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies comprising 2,039 pancreatic cancer patients and 32,592 controls in the Japanese population. Here, we identify 3 (13q12.2, 13q22.1, and 16p12.3) genome-wide significant loci (P < 5.0 × 10), of which 16p12.3 has not been reported in the Western population. The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 16p12.3 is rs78193826 (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.66, P = 4.28 × 10), an Asian-specific, nonsynonymous glycoprotein 2 (GP2) gene variant. Associations between selected GP2 gene variants and pancreatic cancer are replicated in 10,822 additional cases and controls of East Asian origin. Functional analyses using cell lines provide supporting evidence of the effect of rs78193826 on KRAS activity. These findings suggest that GP2 gene variants are probably associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility in populations of East Asian ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16711-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314803PMC
June 2020

Large-scale genome-wide association study in a Japanese population identifies novel susceptibility loci across different diseases.

Nat Genet 2020 07 8;52(7):669-679. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Laboratory for Bone and Joint Diseases, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

The overwhelming majority of participants in current genetic studies are of European ancestry. To elucidate disease biology in the East Asian population, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 212,453 Japanese individuals across 42 diseases. We detected 320 independent signals in 276 loci for 27 diseases, with 25 novel loci (P < 9.58 × 10). East Asian-specific missense variants were identified as candidate causal variants for three novel loci, and we successfully replicated two of them by analyzing independent Japanese cohorts; p.R220W of ATG16L2 (associated with coronary artery disease) and p.V326A of POT1 (associated with lung cancer). We further investigated enrichment of heritability within 2,868 annotations of genome-wide transcription factor occupancy, and identified 378 significant enrichments across nine diseases (false discovery rate < 0.05) (for example, NKX3-1 for prostate cancer). This large-scale GWAS in a Japanese population provides insights into the etiology of complex diseases and highlights the importance of performing GWAS in non-European populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0640-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968075PMC
July 2020
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