Publications by authors named "Kohta Miyawaki"

36 Publications

A Germinal Center-Associated Microenvironmental Signature Reflects Malignant Phenotype and Outcome of DLBCL.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Kyushu University Hospital, Japan.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common B-cell malignancy with varying prognosis after the gold standard rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Several prognostic models have been established by focusing primarily on characteristics of lymphoma cells themselves, including cell-of-origin, genomic alterations, and gene/protein expressions. However, the prognostic impact of the lymphoma microenvironment and its association with characteristics of lymphoma cells are not fully understood. Using the nCounter-based gene expression profiling of untreated DLBCL tissues, we here assess the clinical impact of lymphoma microenvironment on the clinical outcomes and pathophysiological, molecular signatures in DLBCL. The presence of normal germinal center (GC)-microenvironmental cells, including follicular T cells, macrophage/dendritic cells, and stromal cells, in lymphoma tissue indicates a positive therapeutic response. Our prognostic model, based on quantitation of transcripts from distinct GC-microenvironmental cell markers, clearly identified patients with graded prognosis independently of existing prognostic models. We observed increased incidences of genomic alterations and aberrant gene expression associated with poor prognosis in DLBCL tissues lacking GC-microenvironmental cells relative to those containing these cells. These data suggest that the loss of GC-associated microenvironmental signature dictates clinical outcomes of DLBCL patients reflecting the accumulation of "unfavorable" molecular signatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004618DOI Listing
October 2021

Ustekinumab Improves Active Crohn's Disease by Suppressing the T Helper 17 Pathway.

Digestion 2021 Jul 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background: Ustekinumab (UST), an antibody targeting the p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, is effective in treating Crohn's disease (CD). To clarify the mechanism of UST, we investigated T-cell differentiation in CD patients treated with UST.

Methods: Twenty-seven patients with active CD were enrolled in this study. Seventeen patients were treated with UST, and 10 patients were treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha therapy. The changes in the proportions of T-cell subsets after these therapies were analyzed by flow cytometry. Comprehensive gene expression changes in the colonic mucosa were also evaluated.

Results: The frequency of T helper (Th) 17 cells was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood of patients with active CD after UST therapy. Anti-TNF therapy had a minimal effect on Th17 cells but increased the proportion of regulatory T cells. Enrichment analysis showed the expression of genes involved in the Th17 differentiation pathway was downregulated in the colonic mucosa after UST but not anti-TNF therapy. There were no common differentially expressed genes between CD patients treated with UST and anti-TNF therapy, suggesting a clear difference in their mechanism of action.

Conclusion: In patients with active CD, UST therapy suppressed Th17 cell differentiation both in the peripheral blood and colonic tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518103DOI Listing
July 2021

Targeting leukemia-specific dependence on the de novo purine synthesis pathway.

Leukemia 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Center for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a devastating disease, and clinical outcomes are still far from satisfactory. Here, to identify novel targets for AML therapy, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen using AML cell lines, followed by a second screen in vivo. We show that PAICS, an enzyme involved in de novo purine biosynthesis, is a potential target for AML therapy. AML cells expressing shRNA-PAICS exhibited a proliferative disadvantage, indicating a toxic effect of shRNA-PAICS. Treatment of human AML cells with a PAICS inhibitor suppressed their proliferation by inhibiting DNA synthesis and promoting apoptosis and had anti-leukemic effects in AML PDX models. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9 screens using AML cells in the presence of the inhibitor revealed genes mediating resistance or synthetic lethal to PAICS inhibition. Our findings identify PAICS as a novel therapeutic target for AML and further define components of de novo purine synthesis pathway and its downstream effectors essential for AML cell survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01369-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Autoimmune manifestations associated with myelodysplastic syndrome predict a poor prognosis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(13):e25406

Department of Medical Education, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.

Abstract: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of autoimmune manifestations (AIMs) associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) to elucidate whether AIMs impacted MDS outcomes in Japan.This retrospective study including 61 patients who received a new diagnosis of MDS between January 2008 and December 2015 was conducted by the review of electronic medical records for the presence of AIMs within a 1-year period prior to or following the diagnosis of MDS.AIMs were identified in 12 of the 61 (20.0%) patients with MDS. The neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein levels in peripheral blood were significantly elevated in patients with AIMs, and the survival was shorter in those with AIMs compared to those without AIMs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of AIMs and higher-risk disease according to the International Prognositic Scoring System (IPSS) were independent risk factors for increased mortality (hazard ratio, 4.76 and 4.79, respectively).This retrospective study revealed that the prognosis was poor in patients with MDS-associated AIMs. The treatment of MDS using the current algorithms is based on prognostic scoring systems such as IPSS. Treatment strategies for patients with MDS-associated AIMs should be reconsidered, even in those with low-risk MDS according to the IPSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021323PMC
April 2021

Type 1 helper T cells generate CXCL9/10-producing T-bet effector B cells potentially involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Cell Immunol 2021 02 30;360:104263. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Medical Education, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Efficacy of B-cell depletion therapy highlights the antibody-independent effector functions of B cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Given type 1 helper T (Th1) cells abundant in synovial fluid (SF) of RA, we have determined whether Th1 cells could generate novel effector B cells. Microarray and qPCR analysis identified CXCL9/10 transcripts as highly expressed genes upon BCR/CD40/IFN-γ stimulation. Activated Th1 cells promoted the generation of CXCL9/10-producing T-bet B cells. Expression of CXCL9/10 was most pronounced in CXCR3 switched memory B cells. Compared with peripheral blood, SFRA enriched highly activated Th1 cells that coexisted with abundant CXCL9/10-producing T-bet B cells. Intriguingly, anti-IFN-γ antibody and JAK inhibitors significantly abrogated the generation of CXCL9/10-producing T-bet B cells. B cell derived CXCL9/10 significantly facilitated the migration of CD4 T cells. These findings suggest that Th1 cells generate the novel CXCL9/10-producing T-bet effector B cells that could be an ideal pathogenic B cell target for RA therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2020.104263DOI Listing
February 2021

DA-EPOCH-R combined with high-dose methotrexate in patients with newly diagnosed stage II-IV CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a single-arm, open-label, phase II study.

Haematologica 2020 09 1;105(9):2308-2315. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie.

CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (CD5+ DLBCL) is characterized by poor prognosis and a high frequency of central nervous system relapse after standard immunochemotherapy. We conducted a phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of dose-adjusted (DA)- EPOCH-R (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab) combined with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) in newly diagnosed patients with CD5+ DLBCL. Previously untreated patients with stage II to IV CD5+ DLBCL according to the 2008 World Health Organization classification were eligible. Four cycles of DA-EPOCH-R followed by two cycles of HD-MTX and four additional cycles of DAEPOCH- R (DA-EPOCH-R/HD-MTX) were planned as the protocol treatment. The primary end point was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Between September 25, 2012, and November 11, 2015, we enrolled 47 evaluable patients. Forty-five (96%) patients completed the protocol treatment. There were no deviations or violations in the DA-EPOCH-R dose levels. The complete response rate was 91%, and the overall response rate was 94%. At a median follow up of 3.1 years (range, 2.0-4.9 years), the 2- year PFS was 79% [95% confidence interval (CI): 64-88]. The 2-year overall survival was 89% (95%CI: 76-95). Toxicity included grade 4 neutropenia in 46 (98%) patients, grade 4 thrombocytopenia 12 (26%) patients, and febrile neutropenia in 31 (66%) patients. No treatment-related death was noted during the study. DA-EPOCH-R/HD-MTX might be a first-line therapy option for stage II-IV CD5+ DLBCL and warrants further investigation. (Trial registered at: UMIN-CTR: UMIN000008507.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.231076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556618PMC
September 2020

Combination of CD47 and signal-regulatory protein-α constituting the "don't eat me signal" is a prognostic factor in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Cancer Sci 2020 Jul 29;111(7):2608-2619. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Kurume University, Kurume, Japan.

The interaction between CD47 and signal-regulatory protein-α (SIRPα) inhibits phagocytosis, thus affecting the clinical outcomes of neoplastic diseases. Although CD47 upregulation is associated with poor prognosis in several malignancies, the effect of SIRPα expression and its coexpression with CD47 remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic effect of CD47 and SIRPα expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Immunostaining of 120 biopsy samples showed that CD47 is primarily expressed in tumor cells, whereas SIRPα is expressed in nonneoplastic stromal cells, mostly macrophages. CD47 cases showed higher MYC protein expression and lower MYC translocation. The SIRPα cases presented significantly shorter overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than SIRPα cases in the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype of DLBCL (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). Both CD47 and SIRPα presented significantly shorter OS and PFS than other cases among all DLBCL patients (P = .01 and P = .004, respectively), and the ABC type (P = .04 and P = .008, respectively) but not the germinal center B-cell type. Both CD47 and SIRPα yielded a constant independent prognostic value for OS and PFS in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 2.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-7.43; P = .02; and HR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.42-5.85; P = .003, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that combinatorial CD47 and SIRPα expression is a potential independent prognostic factor for DLBCL. Evaluation of CD47 and SIRPα expression could be useful before CD47 blockade therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385345PMC
July 2020

A human SIRPA knock-in xenograft mouse model to study human hematopoietic and cancer stem cells.

Blood 2020 05;135(19):1661-1672

Hematology, Clinical Immunology, and Infectious Diseases, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan.

In human-to-mouse xenogeneic transplantation, polymorphisms of signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPA) that decide their binding affinity for human CD47 are critical for engraftment efficiency of human cells. In this study, we generated a new C57BL/6.Rag2nullIl2rgnull (BRG) mouse line with Sirpahuman/human (BRGShuman) mice, in which mouse Sirpa was replaced by human SIRPA encompassing all 8 exons. Macrophages from C57BL/6 mice harboring Sirpahuman/human had a significantly stronger affinity for human CD47 than those harboring SirpaNOD/NOD and did not show detectable phagocytosis against human hematopoietic stem cells. In turn, Sirpahuman/human macrophages had a moderate affinity for mouse CD47, and BRGShuman mice did not exhibit the blood cytopenia that was seen in Sirpa-/- mice. In human to mouse xenograft experiments, BRGShuman mice showed significantly greater engraftment and maintenance of human hematopoiesis with a high level of myeloid reconstitution, as well as improved reconstitution in peripheral tissues, compared with BRG mice harboring SirpaNOD/NOD (BRGSNOD). BRGShuman mice also showed significantly enhanced engraftment and growth of acute myeloid leukemia and subcutaneously transplanted human colon cancer cells compared with BRGSNOD mice. BRGShuman mice should be a useful basic line for establishing a more authentic xenotransplantation model to study normal and malignant human stem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002194DOI Listing
May 2020

CCR6+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells accumulate in inflamed joints in rheumatoid arthritis and produce Th17 cytokines.

Arthritis Res Ther 2019 08 30;21(1):198. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Background: Recent studies show that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to the development of chronic inflammation and autoimmune disease. In this study, we assessed the ILC function in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: In a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), we identified and purified the ILC subsets in peripheral blood (PB), local lymph nodes (LNs), and joints by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and used quantitative PCR to assess the expression levels of representative cytokines. We also correlated the frequencies of each ILC subset in synovial fluid (SF) with clinical parameters in RA patients.

Results: In the CIA model, the proportion of CCR6+ ILC3s to total ILCs in joints with active inflammation significantly increased relative to non-arthritic joints (median 29.6% vs 16.7%, p = 0.035). CCR6+ ILC3s from mice with arthritis expressed significantly higher levels of IL-17A and IL-22 mRNA than did comparable cells from control mice (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.015). In RA patients, the proportion of CCR6+ ILCs in SF was positively correlated with tender joint counts (TJC) and swollen joint counts (SJC) (ρ=0.689, p = 0.0032 and ρ=0.644, p = 0.0071, respectively). Levels of CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) increased in SF of patients with RA and were significantly correlated with CCR6+ ILC number (ρ=0.697, p = 0.0001).

Conclusion: CCR6+ ILC3s may play some roles in the development of RA through the production of IL-17 and IL-22.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-019-1984-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6716915PMC
August 2019

Anti-GPRC5D/CD3 Bispecific T-Cell-Redirecting Antibody for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma.

Mol Cancer Ther 2019 09 3;18(9):1555-1564. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.

Although treatment advances over recent decades have significantly improved survival of patients with multiple myeloma, there is still an unmet medical need for more effective treatments. In this study, we identified G-protein-coupled receptor family C group 5 member D (GPRC5D) expression on the surface of malignant cells involved in multiple myeloma, but except for plasma cells and B cells, not at appreciable levels on normal hematopoietic cells and bone marrow progenitors, including hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we constructed IgG-based anti-GPRC5D/CD3 bispecific T-cell-redirecting antibodies (GPRC5D TRAB), which suppressed the tumor growth of GPRC5D-positive myeloma cells through the activation of T cells and in xenograft models. Collectively, these findings suggest that GPRC5D is an antigen specific to multiple myeloma and a potential target of TRAB therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-18-1216DOI Listing
September 2019

Clinicopathological features of HCV-positive splenic diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Ann Hematol 2019 May 7;98(5):1197-1207. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University, School of Medicine, Asahimachi 67, Kurume, Fukuoka, 830-0011, Japan.

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA virus which is thought to be involved in the onset of B cell lymphoma. HCV-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been reported to clinically manifest in extranodal lesions (e.g., in the liver, spleen, and stomach). Here, we investigated HCV-positive and -negative primary splenic DLBCL (p-spDLBCL) and non-primary splenic DLBCL (ordinary DLBCL). Furthermore, to examine HCV lymphomagenesis, RNA in situ hybridization (ISH), RT-PCR (reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction), and NS3 immunostaining of HCV viral nonstructural proteins were performed. HCV-positive p-spDLBCL patients presented fewer B symptoms (asymptomatic) and better performance status, with elevated presence of splenic macronodular lesions and more germinal center B cell (GCB) sub-group cases than HCV-negative p-spDLBCL patients. However, HCV-positive ordinary DLBCL patients were found to have more non-GCB sub-group cases than HCV-negative ordinary DLBCL patients. HCV-positive DLBCL patients showed 20.6% (7/34) NS3 positivity, 16.7% (1/6) HCV-RNA in situ positivity, and 22.2% (2/9) detection of HCV-RNA in tumor tissue by RT-PCR. Splenic samples were found to have a higher frequency of HCV detection than lymph node samples, thus suggesting that HCV may be closely related to lymphomagenesis, especially in splenic lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03628-8DOI Listing
May 2019

Analysis of GNA13 Protein in Follicular Lymphoma and its Association With Poor Prognosis.

Am J Surg Pathol 2018 11;42(11):1466-1471

Departments of Pathology.

GNA13 is a G protein involved in modulating tumor proliferative capacity, infiltration, metastasis, and migration. Genomic alteration of GNA13 was frequently observed in follicular lymphoma (FL). In this study, we examined 167 cases of FL by immunostaining of GNA13 using tissue microarray to evaluate the clinical significance. There were 26 GNA13-positive cases (15.6%) and 141 GNA13-negative cases (84.4%). GNA13-positive cases had a higher incidence of early progression of disease for which disease progression was recognized within 2 years compared with GNA13-negative cases (P=0.03). There were no significant differences in other clinicopathologic factors including histological grade, BCL2-IGH translocation, immunohistochemical phenotype, and Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index. In addition, overall survival and progression-free survival were poorer in GNA13-positive cases than in GNA13-negative cases (P=0.009 and 0.005, respectively). In multivariate analysis, GNA13 positivity was found to be a poor prognostic factor for overall survival and progression-free survival. Thus, GNA13 protein expression was an independent prognostic factor and may affect disease progression in FL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000000969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266301PMC
November 2018

Microenvironmental immune cell signatures dictate clinical outcomes for PTCL-NOS.

Blood Adv 2018 09;2(17):2242-2252

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is among the most common disease subtypes of PTCL, one that exhibits heterogeneous clinicopathological features. Although multiple disease-stratification models, including the cell-of-origin or gene-expression profiling methods, have been proposed for this condition, their clinical significance remains unclear. To establish a clinically meaningful stratification model, we analyzed gene-expression signatures of tumors and tumor-infiltrating immune cells using the nCounter system, which enables accurate quantification of low abundance and/or highly fragmented transcripts. To do so, we assessed transcripts of 120 genes related to cancer or immune cells using tumor samples from 68 newly diagnosed PTCL-NOS patients and validated findings by immunofluorescence in tumor sections. We show that gene-expression signatures representing tumor-infiltrating immune cells, but not those of cancerous T cells, dictate patient clinical outcomes. Cases exhibiting both B-cell and dendritic cell (DC) signatures (BD subgroup) showed favorable clinical outcomes, whereas those exhibiting neither B-cell nor DC signatures (non-BD subgroup) showed extremely poor prognosis. Notably, half of the non-BD cases exhibited a macrophage signature, and macrophage infiltration was evident in those cases, as revealed by immunofluorescence. Importantly, tumor-infiltrating macrophages expressed the immune-checkpoint molecules programmed death ligand 1/2 and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 at high levels, suggesting that checkpoint inhibitors could serve as therapeutic options for patients in this subgroup. Our study identifies clinically distinct subgroups of PTCL-NOS and suggests a novel therapeutic strategy for 1 subgroup associated with a poor prognosis. Our data also suggest functional interactions between cancerous T cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells potentially relevant to PTCL-NOS pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018018754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6134219PMC
September 2018

Dedifferentiation process driven by TGF-beta signaling enhances stem cell properties in human colorectal cancer.

Oncogene 2019 02 4;38(6):780-793. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Sciences, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess the capacity for self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into non-CSCs. The recent discoveries of dynamic equilibrium between CSCs and non-CSCs revealed the significance of acquiring CSC-like properties in non-CSCs as an important process in progression of cancer. The mechanism underlying acquisition of CSC-like properties has mainly been investigated in the context of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here, we demonstrate the dedifferentiation process may be an alternative mechanism in acquisition of CSC-like properties in human colorectal cancer cells. By exploring the single-cell gene expression analysis of organoids developed from CD44 CSCs, we identified TWIST1 as a key molecule for maintaining the undifferentiated state of cancer cells. Consistent with the finding, we found that TGF-beta signaling pathway, a regulator of TWIST1, was specifically activated in the undifferentiated CD44 CSCs in human colorectal cancer using microarray-based gene expression analysis and quantitative pathology imaging system. Furthermore, we showed that external stimulation with TGF-beta and the induction of TWIST1 converted CD44 non-CSCs into the undifferentiated CD44 CSCs, leading to the significant increment of CSCs in xenograft models. This study strongly suggests dedifferentiation driven by TGF-beta signaling enhances stem cell properties in human colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-018-0480-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is activated in CD44-positive malignant ascites tumor cells of gastrointestinal cancer.

Cancer Sci 2018 Nov 27;109(11):3461-3470. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.

Disseminated cancer cells in malignant ascites possess unique properties that differ from primary tumors. However, the biological features of ascites tumor cells (ATC) have not been fully investigated. By analyzing ascites fluid from 65 gastrointestinal cancer patients, the distinguishing characteristics of ATC were identified. High frequency of CD44 cells was observed in ATC using flow cytometry (n = 48). Multiplex quantitative PCR (n = 15) showed higher gene expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-related genes in ATC than in the primary tissues. Immunohistochemistry (n = 10) showed that ATC also had much higher expression of phosphorylated SMAD2 than that in the corresponding primary tissues. TGF-beta 1 was detected in all cases of malignant ascites by enzyme-linked immunoassay (n = 38), suggesting the possible interaction of ATC and the ascites microenvironment. In vitro experiments revealed that these ATC properties were maintained by TGF-beta 1 in cultured ATC(n = 3). Here, we showed that ATCrevealed high frequencies of CD44 and possessed distinct EMT features from primary tissues that were mainly maintained by TGF-beta 1 in the ascites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215886PMC
November 2018

Human Herpes Virus-6-Associated Encephalitis/Myelitis Mimicking Calcineurin Inhibitor-Induced Pain Syndrome in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 12 17;24(12):2540-2548. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.. Electronic address:

Human herpes virus-6 (HHV6)-associated myelitis and calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome (CIPS) are serious complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Because these 2 complications cause similar sensory nerve-related symptoms, such as paresthesia, pruritus, and severe pain occurring around the engraftment, it can be difficult to differentially diagnose the 2 conditions. We retrospectively analyzed 435 recipients to distinguish clinical symptoms of these 2 complications. Twenty-four patients (5.5%) developed HHV6-associated encephalitis/myelitis; of these, 11 (2.5%) presented only with myelitis-related symptoms (HHV6-associated myelitis), which was confirmed by the detection of HHV6 DNA, and 8 (1.8%) had CIPS, with undetected HHV6 DNA. All patients with HHV6-associated myelitis or CIPS exhibited similar sensory nerve-related symptoms. Diagnostic images did not provide definite evidence specific for each disease. Symptoms of all patients with CIPS improved after switching to another immunosuppressant. Overall survival rate at 2 years for patients with HHV6-associated encephalitis/myelitis was significantly lower than that of CIPS (13.1% versus 29.2%; P = .049) or that of patients without HHV6-associated encephalitis/myelitis or CIPS (42.4%; P = .036), whereas there was no significant difference among the latter 2 groups (P = .889). The development of HHV6-associated encephalitis/myelitis but not CIPS was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Thus, transplant physicians should be aware that sensory nerve-related symptoms indicate early manifestations that might be correlated with reactivation of HHV6 or CIPS. Therefore, identification of HHV6 DNA is crucial for making a differential diagnosis and immediately starting appropriate treatments for each complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.07.017DOI Listing
December 2018

Gastrointestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease Is a Risk Factor for Postengraftment Bloodstream Infection in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 11 15;24(11):2302-2309. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a well-known cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients. Here, we conducted a retrospective study to assess the morbidity, etiology, risk factors, and outcomes of BSI in the postengraftment period (PE-BSI) after allo-HSCT. Forty-three of 316 patients (13.6%) developed 57 PE-BSI episodes, in which 62 pathogens were isolated: Gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi, respectively, accounted for 54.8%, 35.5%, and 9.7% of the isolates. Multivariate analysis revealed methylprednisolone use for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (odds ratio [OR], 6.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49 to 28.2; P = .013) and acute gastrointestinal GVHD (GI-GVHD) (OR, 8.82; 95% CI, 3.99 to 19.5; P < .0001) as risk factors for developing PE-BSI. This finding suggested that GI-GVHD increases the risk of bacterial translocation and subsequent septicemia. Moreover, among patients with GI-GVHD, insufficient response to corticosteroids, presumably related to an intestinal dysbiosis, significantly correlated with this complication. Patients with PE-BSI presented worse outcome compared with those without (3-year overall survival, 47.0% versus 18.6%; P < .001). Close microbiologic monitoring for BSIs and minimizing intestinal dysbiosis may be crucial to break the vicious cycle between GI-GVHD and bacteremia and to improve transplant outcomes especially in patients who require additional immunosuppressants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.06.002DOI Listing
November 2018

Hepatitis C virus infection is an independent prognostic factor in follicular lymphoma.

Oncotarget 2018 Jan 11;9(2):1717-1725. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University, School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that not only affects hepatocytes, by B cells as well. It is thought that HCV is involved in the onset of B-cell lymphoma. The clinicopathological characteristics of HCV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and HCV-positive splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) are known, but there has been no report on HCV-positive follicular lymphoma (FL). In this study, the clinicopathological characteristics of HCV-positive FL were examined in 263 patients with FL who were classified into a HCV-positive group with HCV antibody and negative groups without one. The number of patients with HCV-positive FL and HCV-negative FL was 10 (3.8%) and 253 (96.2%), respectively. The patients with HCV-positive FL commonly had more than one region of lymphadenopathy, Ann Arbor stage III/IV, hemoglobin <120 g/l, elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, and high-risk categorization of Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) than in patients with HCV-negative FL. Overall survival and progression-free survival were poorer in patients with HCV-positive FL than in those with HCV-negative FL ( < 0.0001 and 0.006, respectively). Also, multivariate analysis revealed that positive HCV antibody was a poor prognostic factor of OS. In conclusion, HCV-positive FL has unique clinical features and may have a great impact on the overall survival of affected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.23138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5788593PMC
January 2018

Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on cytotoxic T lymphocytes and immune deficiency in a patient with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma.

Ann Hematol 2018 Feb 2;97(2):359-360. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-017-3146-zDOI Listing
February 2018

Most T790M mutations are present on the same EGFR allele as activating mutations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2017 06 1;108:75-82. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 8128582, Japan.

Objectives: The T790M and C797S mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) confer resistance to first- and third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), respectively, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating mutations of EGFR. C797S has been identified in cis or in trans with T790M in tumor specimens from patients who experienced treatment failure with first- and third-generation EGFR-TKIs. The allelic relation between T790M and activating mutations of EGFR has not been well characterized, however. We have now developed a digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR)-based method for determination of the allelic relation between two types of EGFR mutation (T790M and either C797S or an activating mutation).

Materials And Methods: Seven clinical NSCLC specimens and two NSCLC cell lines harboring both an activating mutation and T790M were analyzed with this new method to identify the allelic relation between these EGFR mutations.

Results: The median ratio of the number of alleles positive for both an activating mutation and T790M to the number of T790M-positive alleles was 97.1% (range, 90.0-100%). Confirmatory analysis by next-generation sequencing yielded a corresponding value of 96.7% (range, 89.1-99.5%). Our dPCR method thus reliably identifies the allelic relation between two EGFR mutations in a quantitative manner.

Conclusions: Almost all T790M mutations were detected in cis with activating mutations of EGFR regardless of the de novo or acquired status of T790M, with cancer cells harboring T790M and activating mutations on the same allele appearing to be selected and enriched during EGFR-TKI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2017.02.019DOI Listing
June 2017

Identification of unipotent megakaryocyte progenitors in human hematopoiesis.

Blood 2017 06 23;129(25):3332-3343. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan; and.

The developmental pathway for human megakaryocytes remains unclear, and the definition of pure unipotent megakaryocyte progenitor is still controversial. Using single-cell transcriptome analysis, we have identified a cluster of cells within immature hematopoietic stem- and progenitor-cell populations that specifically expresses genes related to the megakaryocyte lineage. We used CD41 as a positive marker to identify these cells within the CD34CD38IL-3RαCD45RA common myeloid progenitor (CMP) population. These cells lacked erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage potential but exhibited robust differentiation into the megakaryocyte lineage at a high frequency, both in vivo and in vitro. The efficiency and expansion potential of these cells exceeded those of conventional bipotent megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitors. Accordingly, the CD41 CMP was defined as a unipotent megakaryocyte progenitor (MegP) that is likely to represent the major pathway for human megakaryopoiesis, independent of canonical megakaryocyte-erythroid lineage bifurcation. In the bone marrow of patients with essential thrombocythemia, the MegP population was significantly expanded in the context of a high burden of Janus kinase 2 mutations. Thus, the prospectively isolatable and functionally homogeneous human MegP will be useful for the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying normal and malignant human hematopoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-09-741611DOI Listing
June 2017

Graft-versus-host disease targets ovary and causes female infertility in mice.

Blood 2017 03 30;129(9):1216-1225. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Department of Hematology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; and.

Infertility associated with ovarian failure is a serious late complication for female survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Although pretransplant conditioning regimen has been appreciated as a cause of ovarian failure, increased application of reduced-intensity conditioning allowed us to revisit other factors possibly affecting ovarian function after allogeneic SCT. We have addressed whether donor T-cell-mediated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) could be causally related to female infertility in mice. Histological evaluation of the ovaries after SCT demonstrated donor T-cell infiltration in close proximity to apoptotic granulosa cells in the ovarian follicles, resulting in impaired follicular hormone production and maturation of ovarian follicles. Mating experiments showed that female recipients of allogeneic SCT deliver significantly fewer newborns than recipients of syngeneic SCT. GVHD-mediated ovary insufficiency and infertility were independent of conditioning. Pharmacologic GVHD prophylaxis protected the ovary from GVHD and preserved fertility. These results demonstrate for the first time that GVHD targets the ovary and impairs ovarian function and fertility and has important clinical implications in young female transplant recipients with nonmalignant diseases, in whom minimally toxic regimens are used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-07-728337DOI Listing
March 2017

Functional interleukin-33 receptors are expressed in early progenitor stages of allergy-related granulocytes.

Immunology 2017 Jan 30;150(1):64-73. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka, Japan.

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) induces T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine production and eosinophilia independently of acquired immunity, leading to innate immunity-mediated allergic inflammation. Allergy-related innate myeloid cells such as eosinophils, basophils and mast cells express the IL-33 receptor (IL-33R), but it is still unknown how IL-33 regulates allergic inflammation involving these cells and their progenitors. Here, we revealed that the functional IL-33R was expressed on eosinophil progenitors (EoPs), basophil progenitors (BaPs) and mast cell progenitors (MCPs). In the presence of IL-33, these progenitors did not expand, but produced a high amount of Th2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-9, IL-13, IL-1β and IL-6. The amount of cytokines produced by these progenitors was greater than that by mature cells. In vivo, IL-33 stimulated the expansion of EoPs, but it was dependent upon the elevated serum IL-5 that is presumably derived from type 2 innate lymphoid cells that express functional IL-33R. These data collectively suggest that EoPs, BaPs and MCPs are not only the sources of allergy-related granulocytes, but can also be sources of allergy-related cytokines in IL-33-induced inflammation. Because such progenitors can differentiate into mature granulocytes at the site of inflammation, they are potential therapeutic targets in IL-33-related allergic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.12667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341505PMC
January 2017

Enhanced Reconstitution of Human Erythropoiesis and Thrombopoiesis in an Immunodeficient Mouse Model with Kit(Wv) Mutations.

Stem Cell Reports 2016 09 4;7(3):425-438. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan; Center for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

In human-to-mouse xenograft models, reconstitution of human hematopoiesis is usually B-lymphoid dominant. Here we show that the introduction of homozygous Kit(Wv) mutations into C57BL/6.Rag2(null)Il2rg(null) mice with NOD-Sirpa (BRGS) strongly promoted human multi-lineage reconstitution. After xenotransplantation of human CD34(+)CD38(-) cord blood cells, these newly generated C57BL/6.Rag2(null)Il2rg(null)NOD-Sirpa Kit(Wv/Wv) (BRGSK(Wv/Wv)) mice showed significantly higher levels of human cell chimerism and long-term multi-lineage reconstitution compared with BRGS mice. Strikingly, this mouse displayed a robust reconstitution of human erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis with terminal maturation in the bone marrow. Furthermore, depletion of host macrophages by clodronate administration resulted in the presence of human erythrocytes and platelets in the circulation. Thus, attenuation of mouse KIT signaling greatly enhances the multi-lineage differentiation of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in mouse bone marrow, presumably by outcompeting mouse HSPCs to occupy suitable microenvironments. The BRGSK(Wv/Wv) mouse model is a useful tool to study human multi-lineage hematopoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2016.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5031955PMC
September 2016

Mogamulizumab Treatment Prior to Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Induces Severe Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2016 09 21;22(9):1608-1614. Epub 2016 May 21.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan; Center for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Science, Fukuoka, Japan.

Mogamulizumab (MOG), a humanized anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) monoclonal antibody, has recently played an important role in the treatment of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Because CCR4 is expressed on normal regulatory T cells as well as on ATLL cells, MOG may accelerate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by eradicating regulatory T cells in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, there is limited information about its safety and efficacy in patients treated with MOG before allo-HSCT. In the present study, 25 patients with ATLL were treated with MOG before allo-HSCT, after which 18 patients (72%) achieved remission. The overall survival and progression-free survival at 1 year post-transplantation were 20.2% (95% CI, 6.0% to 40.3%) and 15.0% (95% CI, 4.3% to 32.0%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD was 64.0% (95% CI, 40.7% to 80.1%) for grade II-IV and 34.7% (95% CI, 15.8% to 54.4%) for grade III-IV. The cumulative incidence of transplantation-related mortality (TRM) was 49.0% (95% CI, 27.0% to 67.8%). Six of 7 patients with acute GVHD grade III-IV died from GVHD, which was the leading cause of death. In particular, a shorter interval from the last administration of MOG to allo-HSCT was associated with more severe GVHD. MOG use before allo-HSCT may decrease the ATLL burden; however, it is associated with an increase in TRM due to severe GVHD. Because MOG is a potent anti-ATLL agent, new treatment protocols should be developed to integrate MOG at suitable doses and timing of administration to minimize unwanted GVHD development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.05.017DOI Listing
September 2016

A TIM-3/Gal-9 Autocrine Stimulatory Loop Drives Self-Renewal of Human Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells and Leukemic Progression.

Cell Stem Cell 2015 Sep 13;17(3):341-52. Epub 2015 Aug 13.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Sciences, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan; Center for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Signaling mechanisms underlying self-renewal of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) are poorly understood, and identifying pathways specifically active in LSCs could provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention. T-cell immunoglobin mucin-3 (TIM-3) is expressed on the surface of LSCs in many types of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but not on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here, we show that TIM-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9), constitute an autocrine loop critical for LSC self-renewal and development of human AML. Serum Gal-9 levels were significantly elevated in AML patients and in mice xenografted with primary human AML samples, and neutralization of Gal-9 inhibited xenogeneic reconstitution of human AML. Gal-9-mediated stimulation of TIM-3 co-activated NF-κB and β-catenin signaling, pathways known to promote LSC self-renewal. These changes were further associated with leukemic transformation of a variety of pre-leukemic disorders and together highlight that targeting the TIM-3/Gal-9 autocrine loop could be a useful strategy for treating myeloid leukemias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2015.07.011DOI Listing
September 2015

M2 Macrophages Enhance Pathological Neovascularization in the Mouse Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015 Jul;56(8):4767-77

Department of Ophthalmology Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate the roles played by M2 macrophages in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR).

Methods: Oxygen-induced retinopathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice by exposing postnatal day seven (P7) pups to 75% oxygen and then returning them to room air at P12. Real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess the levels and distributions of different macrophage markers. Bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages and mannosylated clodronate liposomes (MCLs) were injected into the vitreous on P12 to examine the effects at P17. M2 macrophages were cocultured with human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) to examine their effects on proliferation and tube formation.

Results: The results showed that the M2 macrophages, rather than M1 phenotype, were highly expressed in OIR mice. The number of M2 macrophages had increased significantly at P17, and the increase was closely associated with the presence of neovascular tufts in the OIR retinas. Selective depletion of M2 macrophages suppressed the pathological neovascularization and promoted physiological revascularization. In contrast, intravitreal injection of bone marrow-derived M2 macrophages or the culture supernatants promoted pathological neovascularization and inhibited physiological revascularization. In an in vitro coculture system, M2-polarized macrophages significantly promoted proliferation and tube formation of HRECs.

Conclusions: These results indicated that M2 macrophages, rather than M1, play an important role in promoting retinal pathological neovascularization probably by producing secreted factors. Thus, targeting M2 macrophages could be a potential therapeutic option for inhibiting retinal pathological neovascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-16012DOI Listing
July 2015
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