Publications by authors named "Kohei Takizawa"

133 Publications

Features of post-endoscopic submucosal dissection electrocoagulation syndrome for early gastric neoplasm.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Nagaizumi, Japan.

Background And Aim: Post-endoscopic submucosal dissection electrocoagulation syndrome (PECS) has become a common adverse event after colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and esophageal ESD. However, little is known about PECS after gastric ESD. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the clinical features of PECS after gastric ESD.

Methods: Patients who underwent ESD for gastric cancer or adenoma between January 2016 and December 2017 were retrospectively investigated. PECS was clinically diagnosed based on the presence of upper abdominal pain and localized abdominal tenderness with a temperature of >37.5°C, without perforation. We analyzed the clinical features of PECS.

Results: A total of 637 ESD cases were enrolled; PECS occurred in 32 patients (5.0%), all of whom were diagnosed on postoperative Day 1. Among PECS cases, unplanned prolongation of hospitalization or fasting period was observed in 15 patients (47%). As a result, the median durations of hospitalization and fasting period were significantly longer in PECS cases (P = 0.008 and P < 0.001, respectively); however, the mean differences were less than a day. Additionally, all PECS cases recovered with conservative treatment.

Conclusions: PECS is considered a common adverse event after gastric ESD. More than half of patients with PECS could start diets and be discharged as well as those without PECS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15583DOI Listing
June 2021

Tip-in Endoscopic Mucosal Resection for 15- to 25-mm Colorectal Adenomas: A Single-Center, Randomized Controlled Trial (STAR Trial).

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul;116(7):1398-1405

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Nagaizumi-cho, Suntogun, Shizuoka, Japan.

Introduction: One-piece endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for lesions >15 mm is still unsatisfactory, and attempted 1-piece EMR for lesions >25 mm can increase perforation risk. Therefore, modifications to ensure 1-piece EMR of 15- to 25-mm lesions would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Tip-in EMR, which anchors the snare tip within the submucosal layer, increases en bloc resection for 15- to 25-mm colorectal lesions compared with EMR.

Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, patients with nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms of 15-25 mm in size were recruited and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to undergo Tip-in EMR or standard EMR, stratified by age, sex, tumor size category, and tumor location. The primary endpoint was the odds ratio of en bloc resection adjusted by location and size category. Adverse events and procedure time were also evaluated.

Results: We analyzed 41 lesions in the Tip-in EMR group and 41 lesions in the EMR group. En bloc resection was achieved in 37 (90.2%) patients undergoing Tip-in EMR and 30 (73.1%) who had EMR. The adjusted odds ratio of en bloc resection in Tip-in EMR vs EMR was 3.46 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-13.6, P = 0.040). The Tip-in EMR and EMR groups did not differ significantly in adverse event rates (0% vs 4.8%) or median procedure times (7 vs 5 minutes).

Discussion: In this single-center randomized controlled trial, we found that Tip-in EMR significantly improved the en bloc resection rate for nonpolypoid lesions 15-25 mm in size, with no increase in adverse events or procedure time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000001320DOI Listing
July 2021

Incidence and treatment outcomes of metachronous gastric cancer occurring after curative endoscopic submucosal dissection of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group study-post hoc analysis of JCOG1009/1010.

Gastric Cancer 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Therapeutic Oncology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Background And Aims: A drawback of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC) is the development of metachronous gastric cancer (MGC). While MGC after ESD for differentiated-type (D-) EGC was well understood, little is known about MGC occurring after ESD for undifferentiated-type (UD-) EGC, because ESD had not been indicated. We evaluated the incidence and treatment outcomes of MGC after ESD of UD-EGC.

Methods: This study is a post hoc analysis of JCOG1009/1010, a multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ESD for UD-EGC. The patients who underwent curative ESD of index solitary UD-EGC were analyzed. Surveillance endoscopy was performed biannually for the first 3 years and thereafter annually. We assessed the time to MGC occurrence after ESD, lesion characteristics, and treatment outcomes of MGC. Time to MGC occurrence was estimated by cumulative incidence function, with death and total gastrectomy as competing risks.

Results: A total of 198 patients were included in this study. During a median follow-up period of 5.8 years, 4 patients (2%) developed MGC. Median time to MGC occurrence was 4.5 years (range: 3.1-5.4). Five-year cumulative incidence of MGC was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.2-3.3%). Two MGCs were histologically D-EGC, and the remaining two were UD-EGC. The median tumor size of MGCs was 1.0 cm (range: 0.7-1.7), and the depth of invasion (M/SM1/SM2) was 2/1/1, respectively. Three patients achieved curative resection with repeated ESD.

Conclusions: MGC does not occur commonly after curative ESD of UD-EGC, and repeated ESD could contribute to stomach preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-021-01183-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Long-term outcomes of salvage endoscopic submucosal dissection for local failure after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul;51(7):1036-1043

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: Salvage endoscopic submucosal dissection is considered a minimally invasive treatment for local failure after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, the long-term outcomes have not been fully evaluated. This study investigated the short-term and long-term outcomes of salvage endoscopic submucosal dissection.

Methods: Patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for local recurrence or residual tumor after chemoradiotherapy from January 2006 to December 2017 were retrospectively investigated. Follow-up included endoscopic examination and computed tomography at least once every 6 months after salvage endoscopic submucosal dissection. Risk factors for disease recurrence after salvage endoscopic submucosal dissection were assessed using the Cox hazards model.

Results: A total of 30 patients (33 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: local recurrence, n = 27; residual tumor, n = 6) were included. The median endoscopic submucosal dissection procedure time was 40 min (interquartile range [IQR], 33-58.5 min). En bloc resection was achieved in 31 (94%) of 33 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases. One patient with intraoperative perforation did not require surgical intervention and recovered with conservative treatment. A total of 16 patients (53%) had disease recurrence at a median follow-up of 51 months (IQR, 33-81 months). The 3-year overall, disease-specific, recurrence-free and local recurrence-free survival rates were 75%, 82%, 58% and 90%, respectively. The positive vertical margin, submucosal invasion in the endoscopic submucosal dissection specimen and piecemeal resection were significantly associated with disease recurrence after salvage endoscopic submucosal dissection.

Conclusions: Salvage endoscopic submucosal dissection is a feasible treatment for local failure after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with acceptable long-term outcomes. However, for cases with positive vertical margins and submucosal invasion in the endoscopic submucosal dissection specimen, salvage endoscopic submucosal dissection outcomes were insufficient and additional treatment might be required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyab027DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of five-phase computed tomography images of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer: Emphasis on cases with atypical images.

Pancreatology 2021 Apr 16;21(3):666-675. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Endoscopy, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background/objectives: International consensus diagnostic criteria (ICDC) include characteristic images of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP); however, reports on atypical cases are increasing. The aims of this study were to compare CT findings between AIP and pancreatic cancer (PC), and to analyze type 1 AIPs showing atypical images.

Methods: Five-phase CT images were compared between 80 type 1-AIP lesions and 80 size- and location-matched PCs in the case-control study. Atypical AIPs were diagnosed based on the four ICDC items.

Results: ICDC items were recognized in most AIP lesions; pancreatic enlargement (87.7%), narrowing of the main pancreatic duct (98.8%), delayed enhancement (100%), and no marked upstream-duct dilation (97.5%). CT values of AIPs increased rapidly until the pancreatic phase and decreased afterward, while those of PCs gradually increased until the delayed phase (P < 0.0001). Atypical images were recognized in 14.8% of AIPs, commonly without pancreatic enlargement (18.5 mm) and sometimes mimicking intraductal neoplasms. The CT values and their ratios were different between atypical AIPs and size-matched PCs most significantly in the pancreatic phase, but similar in the delayed phase.

Conclusions: Ordinary type 1 AIPs can be diagnosed with the ICDC, but atypical AIPs represented a small fraction. "Delayed enhancement" is characteristic to ordinary AIPs, however, "pancreatic-phase enhancement" is more diagnostic for atypical AIPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.01.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic yield of conventional endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasonography for submucosal invasion of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a post hoc analysis of multicenter prospective confirmatory study (JCOG0508).

Esophagus 2021 Jul 28;18(3):604-611. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Therapeutic Oncology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is reportedly the reliable modality to predict the depth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), however, most previous studies are retrospective or single-centered. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic ability of conventional endoscopy and EUS using the data from a multicenter prospective study of endoscopic resection (ER) followed by chemoradiotherapy for cSM1-2N0M0 ESCC (JCOG0508).

Methods: All lesions were evaluated as cSM cancer with both conventional endoscopy and EUS before enrollment and judged as cSM1 or cSM2 in real time. We compared the clinical and pathological diagnoses for tumor depth and assessed the positive predictive value (PPV) for pSM (pSM/cSM) as the primary endpoint. We also investigated the clinical factors affecting the pathological depth of SM.

Results: 175 lesions were examined, and clinical diagnosis was SM1 in 114 and SM2 in 61 lesions. The pathological diagnoses of the epithelium, lamina propria mucosa, muscularis mucosae, SM1, and SM2 were 3, 31, 55, 17, and 69. The PPV for pSM was 49.1% (86/175) in all lesions, 34.2% (39/114) in cSM1 lesions, and 77.0% (47/61) in cSM2 lesions. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that cSM2 (vs. cSM1, OR 6.79) was an independent clinical factor associated with pSM.

Conclusions: While the accurate depth diagnosis in cSM ESCC was difficult to make, the clinical diagnosis of SM2 with both conventional endoscopy and EUS was significantly associated with pSM. Furthermore, diagnostic ER could be recommended to confirm the pathological diagnosis especially in cSM1 lesions with both conventional endoscopy and EUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10388-021-00815-3DOI Listing
July 2021

White light and/or magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging for superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Feb 8;56(2):211-218. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Nagaizumi, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background And Aim: A reliable optical diagnosis of superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (SNADETs) to guide optimal treatment strategy is lacking. The aim of this study was to simulate the treatment outcomes based on optical diagnosis using white light imaging (WLI) or magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (MNBI) and to evaluate the method to extract optimal lesions suitable for cold snare polypectomy (CSP) or not.

Methods: We created a decision tree model using WLI and MNBI diagnosis for ideal treatment for SNADETs. Optical diagnoses of Vienna category 3 lesions (C3), category 4/5 (C4/5) were defined based on the WLI scoring system or the MNBI pattern diagnosis. Ideal treatments were CSP for C3 < 10mm, and endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection or surgery for lesions ≥10mm or C4/5. Ideal treatment results based on optical diagnosis were analyzed according to actual pathological results.

Results: A total of 218 lesions with pre-operative diagnosis of SNADETs were included for analysis. Percentage of ideal treatment for C3 < 10mm based on WLI or MNBI or both was 88%, 83% and 97%. When WLI and MNBI diagnoses predicted the same histology, the specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy were significantly higher than those of WLI or MNBI alone ( < .05).

Conclusions: A decision tree model using lesion diameter, WLI scoring and MNBI pattern diagnosis is hypothetically useful to select ideal lesions for CSP among SNADETs. Optical diagnosis using both WLI and MNBI is more useful than WLI or MNBI alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2020.1866062DOI Listing
February 2021

Discrepancy between endoscopic and pathological ulcerative findings in clinical intramucosal early gastric cancer.

Gastric Cancer 2021 May 5;24(3):691-700. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Suntogun, Shizuoka, 411-8777, Japan.

Background: Ulcerative finding (UL) is one of the factors that define the indication and curability of endoscopic resection (ER) in early gastric cancer (EGC). Discrepancies between endoscopic UL (cUL) and pathological UL (pUL) sometimes occur in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the discrepancy rate in UL diagnosis and the risk factors associated with such discrepancies.

Methods: Patients with clinical intramucosal (cT1a) EGC who underwent ER or surgery between September 2002 and December 2017 were analyzed. The proportion of cUL-negative (cUL0) lesions that were identified as pUL-positive (pUL1) and that of cUL-positive (cUL1) lesions that were identified as pUL-negative (pUL0) were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations between discrepancy in UL diagnosis and clinical variables of the lesion, such as the size, histology, location, and macroscopic type.

Results: In total, 5382 lesions were evaluated; 5.5% of cUL0 lesions (256/4619) were identified as pUL1, while 38.7% of cUL1 lesions (295/763) were pUL0. Multivariate analysis indicated that in cUL1 lesions, tumor location in the lower third of the stomach (odds ratio 3.11, 95% confidence interval 1.90-5.08) was identified as an independent risk factor for overestimation.

Conclusions: Endoscopic diagnosis of UL in cT1a EGC was overestimated in 38.7% of lesions, especially for lesions located in the lower third of the stomach. This discrepancy should be considered in the management of cT1a EGC with UL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-020-01150-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Bile aspiration during EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy is associated with lower risk of postprocedural adverse events: a retrospective single-center study.

Surg Endosc 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, 1007 Shimonagakubo Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: In endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), reduction of pressure inside of the bile duct by bile aspiration is a well-known method to lower the rate of adverse events (AEs) including cholangitis. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS) has been introduced as an alternative to ERCP. The use of self-expandable metallic stents is recommended in EUS-HGS to reduce bile leak; however, other methods to reduce the rate of AEs including bile leak, abdominal pain, fever, and sepsis, have not been elucidated yet. This study investigated whether bile aspiration during EUS-HGS decreased the rate of postprocedural AEs.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-HGS between July 2016 and April 2020 were retrospectively evaluated in this study. EUS-HGS was performed at a tertiary cancer center. Patient characteristics, site of biliary obstruction, the quantity of bile aspirated during EUS-HGS, type of stent, whether or not antegrade stenting (AS) was performed, procedure time, and AEs were assessed based on a prospectively recorded institutional endoscopy database. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors affecting postprocedural AEs.

Results: Ninety-six patients were included in the study. EUS-guided HGS with and without AS was performed in 45 and 51 patients, respectively. Bile was aspirated in 71 patients (74%). The quantity of bile aspirated was 0-10 mL and > 10 mL in 40 and 56 patients, respectively. AEs including fever, abdominal pain, postprocedural cholangitis, sepsis, acute pancreatitis, and bleeding occurred in 45 patients (47%). The AE rates were 65% (26/40) and 34% (19/56), for 0-10 mL and > 10 mL bile, respectively (p = 0.004). Using multivariate analysis, the only independent factor affecting the occurrence of AEs was found to be an aspirated bile amount of 0-10 mL (odds ratio: 4.16; 95% CI 1.6-10.8).

Conclusions: Bile aspiration of more than 10 mL during EUS-HGS contributes to reducing the rate of postprocedural AEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-08189-wDOI Listing
January 2021

A nonrandomized, single-arm confirmatory trial of expanded endoscopic submucosal dissection indication for undifferentiated early gastric cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group study (JCOG1009/1010).

Gastric Cancer 2021 Mar 8;24(2):479-491. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Therapeutic Oncology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: While endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is recognized as a minimally invasive standard treatment for differentiated early gastric cancers (EGCs), it has not been indicated for undifferentiated EGC (UD-EGC) because of a relatively high risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM). However, patients with surgically resected mucosal (cT1a) UD-EGC ≤ 2 cm in size with no lymphovascular invasion or ulceration are reported to be at a very low risk of LNM. This multicenter, single-arm, confirmatory trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ESD for UD-EGC.

Methods: The key eligibility criteria were endoscopically diagnosed cT1a/N0/M0, single primary lesion, size ≤ 2 cm, no ulceration and histologically proven components of undifferentiated adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Based on the histological findings after ESD, additional gastrectomy was indicated if the criteria for curative resection were not satisfied. The subjects of the primary analysis were patients with UD-EGC as the dominant component. The primary endpoint was 5-year overall survival (OS) of patients with UD-EGC.

Results: Three hundred 46 patients were enrolled from 49 institutions. The proportion of en bloc resection was 99%. No ESD-related Grade 4 adverse events were noted. Delayed bleeding and intraoperative and delayed perforation occurred in 25 (7.3%), 13 (3.8%), and 6 (1.7%) patients, respectively. Among the 275 patients who were the subjects of the primary analysis, curative resection was achieved in 195 patients (71%), and 5-year OS was 99.3% (95% CI: 97.1-99.8).

Conclusions: ESD can be a curative and less invasive treatment for UD-EGC for patients meeting the eligibility criteria of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-020-01134-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Type 1 Autoimmune Pancreatitis Extending along the Main Pancreatic Duct: IgG4-related Pancreatic Periductitis.

Intern Med 2021 Mar 30;60(5):739-744. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Japan.

We herein report a unique form of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) spreading along the main pancreatic duct (MPD). A 70-year-old man was referred for a small lesion at the pancreatic neck, accompanying an adjacent cyst and dilated upstream MPD. Four years earlier, health checkup images had shown a pancreatic cyst but no mass lesion. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a contrast-enhanced, tumorous lesion, mainly occupying the MPD. With a preoperative diagnosis of ductal neoplasms mainly spreading in the MPD, Whipple's resection was performed. The resected specimens showed MPD periductitis with IgG4-related pathology, indicating type 1 AIP. Clinicians should practice caution concerning the various AIP forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.5754-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990648PMC
March 2021

Macroscopic on-site evaluation of biopsy specimens for accurate pathological diagnosis during EUS-guided fine needle biopsy using 22-G Franseen needle.

Endosc Ultrasound 2020 Nov-Dec;9(6):385-391

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background And Objectives: Measuring a visible core length during macroscopic on-site evaluation (MOSE) can be useful for accurate diagnoses during an EUS-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB). We aimed to estimate visible core cutoff lengths predictive of a correct diagnosis when using 22-gauge Franseen needles for biopsies from pancreatic masses.

Materials And Methods: We assessed 77 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNB using 22-gauge Franseen needles for pancreatic masses between March 2018 and October 2018. At least two needle passes were performed in all patients, irrespective of the findings on MOSE. The endoscopists measured the visible cores using a ruler during MOSE. The first two passes were analyzed on a per pass basis, and the correlation between visible core lengths and diagnostic accuracy was evaluated.

Results: We evaluated 150 needle passes of 75 patients. The accuracy per pass was 92% (138/150). The median length of the visible cores was 15 (range: 0-60) mm and they were significantly longer in the correct diagnosis group than in the incorrect diagnosis group. The accuracy correlated positively with the visible core length. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis of the visible core length for accuracy demonstrated an optimal cutoff value of 10 mm. On multivariate logistic regression, visible core lengths >10 mm independently affected the correct diagnosis (odds ratio: 5.1, P= 0.02).

Conclusions: Visible cores exceeding 10 mm may be useful for correct diagnosis while using a 22-gauge Franseen needle for EUS-FNB from pancreatic masses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/eus.eus_49_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811705PMC
September 2020

Ultrathin colonoscopy can improve complete preoperative colonoscopy for stenotic colorectal cancer: Prospective observational study.

Dig Endosc 2021 May 7;33(4):621-628. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Divisions of, Division of, Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Objectives: Preoperative colonoscopy is often incomplete for stenotic colorectal cancers (CRC). This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate the ability of an ultrathin colonoscope (UTC) to inspect the whole colon by passing through the stenotic CRC.

Methods: All patients who underwent preoperative colonoscopy for stenotic CRCs at Shizuoka Cancer Center were examined for eligibility. If a standard colonoscope (PCF-H290ZI) could not pass because of a stenosis, the patients were recruited. All of the eligible patients were prospectively enrolled when informed consent could be obtained, and complete colonoscopy was attempted again using an UTC (PCF-PQ260L). Patients with stent placement and those requiring right hemicolectomy were not recruited. Primary endpoints were pass-through and cecal intubation rates. The detected synchronous neoplasias (adenomas and cancers) and their pathological findings after resection were evaluated.

Results: A total of 100 patients were enrolled between September 2017 and February 2019. The mean age was 65.6 ± 10.8 years, and 59% were male. The pass-through and cecal intubation rates were 67% (67/100) and 58% (58/100), respectively. Synchronous lesions located proximal to the stenoses were detected in 65.5% (38/58) of the complete colonoscopies, with a total of 86 lesions, including 18 advanced neoplasias with three invasive cancers.

Conclusion: When standard colonoscopy cannot pass through stenotic CRC, ultrathin colonoscopy can be considered as an option to inspect the whole colon proximal to the stenosis because treatment strategy can potentially be changed by detecting synchronous neoplasias proximal to the stenosis before surgery. (UMIN000028505).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.13829DOI Listing
May 2021

Optimal extent of lymph node dissection in patients with gastric cancer who underwent non-curative endoscopic submucosal dissection with a positive vertical margin.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2020 12 15;46(12):2229-2235. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Division of Gastric Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: The optimal extent of lymph node dissection in patients receiving non-curative endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and diagnosed with a positive vertical margin is unclear. This study attempted to identify optimal candidates for D2 lymph node dissection among these patients.

Methods: This study included patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer following non-curative ESD with a positive vertical margin between January 2002 and December 2018. We classified the patients according to the positive vertical margin pattern into an obvious exposure group and a non-obvious exposure group. We developed a score model for predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) using factors selected by multivariate analyses and beta regression coefficients, and the incidence of LNM was evaluated.

Results: This study included 110 patients. LNM was detected in 17 patients (15%). We developed a predictive scoring system as follows: tumor size >30 mm (0, No; 1, Yes) + undifferentiated type tumor in the invasive front (0, No; 2, Yes) + depth of submucosal invasion > 1500 μm (0, No; 1, Yes) + obvious tumor exposure at the vertical margin (0, No; 1, Yes). In patients with 5 points, the incidence rates of all and group 2 LNM were as high as 60% and 40%, respectively. Conversely, in patients with fewer than 5 points, the incidence rates of all and group 2 LNM were just 11% and 5%, respectively.

Conclusion: In patients with 5 points according to our score model for predicting LNM, gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2020.07.002DOI Listing
December 2020

Metabolic Profiling of Human Gastric Cancer Cells Treated With Salazosulfapyridine.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jan-Dec;19:1533033820928621

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: The adhesion molecule cluster of differentiation 44v9 interacts with and stabilizes the cystine/glutamate exchanger protein, which functions as a transporter of cystine. Stabilized cystine/glutamate exchanger increases extracellular cystine uptake and enhances glutathione production. Augmented levels of reduced glutathione mitigate reactive oxygen species and protect cancer cells from apoptosis. Salazosulfapyridine blocks cystine/glutamate exchanger activity and mitigates the supply of cystine to increase intracellular ROS production, thereby increasing cell susceptibility to apoptosis. This enhances the effect of anticancer drugs such as cisplatin. Currently, salazosulfapyridine is being developed as a promising anticancer agent. In the present study, we elucidated the molecular mechanism associated with salazosulfapyridine by investigating the salazosulfapyridine-induced changes in glutathione metabolism in cultured gastric cancer cell lines.

Methods: The effect of salazosulfapyridine treatment on glutathione metabolism was investigated in 4 gastric cancer (AGS, MKN1, MKN45, and MKN74) and 2 colorectal cancer (HCT15 and HCT116) cell lines using metabolomic analyses. In addition, the effect of inhibition of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate by 2-deoxyglucose on glutathione metabolism was evaluated.

Results: Under hypoxia, enhanced glycolysis resulted in lactate accumulation with an associated reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Salazosulfapyridine treatment decreased the cysteine content and inhibited the formation of glutathione. Combined treatment with salazosulfapyridine and 2-deoxyglucose significantly inhibited cell proliferation. 2-Deoxyglucose, an inhibitor of glycolysis, depleted nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate required for the formation of glutathione.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that in cancer cells having a predominant glycolytic pathway, metabolomic analyses under hypoxic conditions enable the profiling of global metabolism. In addition, inhibiting the supply of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate by blocking glycolysis is a potential treatment strategy for cancer, in addition to cystine blockade by salazosulfapyridine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533033820928621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385828PMC
July 2020

Long-term outcome of endoscopic resection for intramucosal esophageal squamous cell cancer: a secondary analysis of the Japan Esophageal Cohort study.

Endoscopy 2020 11 24;52(11):967-975. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Prospectively collected long-term data of patients undergoing endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prospectively collected long-term outcomes of endoscopic resection for ESCC as a secondary analysis of the Japan Esophageal Cohort (JEC) study.

Methods: Patients who underwent endoscopic resection of intramucosal ESCC at 16 institutions between September 2005 and May 2010 were enrolled in the JEC study. All patients underwent endoscopic examination with iodine staining at 3 and 6 months after resection, and every 6 months thereafter. We investigated clinical courses after endoscopic resection, survival rates, and cumulative incidence of metachronous ESCC.

Results: 330 patients (mean age 67.0 years) with 396 lesions (mean size 20.4 mm) were included in the analysis. Lesions were diagnosed as high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in 17.4 % and as squamous cell carcinoma in 82.6 % (limited to epithelium in 28.4 %, to lamina propria in 55.4 %, and to muscularis mucosa in 16.2 %). En bloc resection was achieved in 291 (73.5 %). The median follow-up period was 49.4 months. Local recurrences occurred in 13 patients (3.9 %) and were treated by endoscopic procedures. Lymph node metastasis occurred in two patients (0.6 %) after endoscopic resection. The 5-year overall, disease-specific, and metastasis-free survival rates were 95.1 %, 99.1 %, and 94.6 %, respectively. The 5-year cumulative incidence rate of metachronous ESCC was 25.7 %.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that endoscopic resection is an effective treatment for intramucosal ESCC, with favorable long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1185-9329DOI Listing
November 2020

Effectiveness of suction valve button removal in retrieving resected colon polyps for better histological assessment: Propensity score matching analysis.

Dig Endosc 2021 Mar 27;33(3):433-440. Epub 2020 Sep 27.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background And Aim: Fragmentation of endoscopically resected colorectal polyps during retrieval is one of the limitations for appropriate pathological diagnosis; however, little is known about steps to reduce it. We aimed to evaluate the effect of removing the suction valve button, which is one of the intricate parts of the endoscope, during polyp suction retrieval for fragmentation and pathological diagnosis.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the polyps retrieved by suctioning. We used the propensity score matching method to adjust for difference between the button-attached and button-removed groups. Outcomes of fragmentation, pathological diagnosis of non-neoplastic polypectomy (NNP), and pathological cut-end among neoplastic lesions were evaluated.

Results: On the basis of propensity score matching, 322 pairs of cases were selected for analysis. After matching, the difference in the variables between the two groups was closely balanced. The fragmentation rate was significantly different between the groups (button-attached 36.6% vs. button-removed 22.4%, P < 0.001). No significant difference in the NNP rate was observed between the two groups (button-attached 8.4% vs. button-removed 9.9%). The rate of unclear cut-end was lower in the button-removed group than in the button-attached group (16.2% vs. 9.1%, P = 0.010). In the multivariate analysis, button removal was independently associated with reductions of fragmentation (odds ratio [OR] 0.508, P < 0.001) and unclear cut-end (OR 0.503, P = 0.009). Also, NNP was associated with smaller lesion size (OR 0.364, P < 0.001), but not with button removal.

Conclusions: Suction valve button removal during polyp suction retrieval was an effective method to decrease the rates of fragmentation and histological unclear margins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.13779DOI Listing
March 2021

Diagnostic performance for T1 cancer in colorectal lesions ≥10 mm by optical characterization using magnifying narrow-band imaging combined with magnifying chromoendoscopy; implications for optimized stratification by Japan Narrow-band Imaging Expert Team classification.

Dig Endosc 2021 Mar 19;33(3):425-432. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: Magnifying narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) and magnifying chromoendoscopy (M-CE) enable accurate diagnosis of T1 colorectal cancer, but the diagnostic yields from combined M-NBI and CE have not been fully analyzed. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of combining Japan NBI Expert Team (JNET) classification using M-NBI and M-CE.

Methods: Superficial colorectal lesions ≥10 mm removed at a Japanese tertiary cancer center between February 2016 and December 2018 were included. We analyzed the relationship between JNET classification, M-CE findings, and histological results based on prospectively collected endoscopic and pathologic data.

Results: A total of 1573 lesions, including 56 superficial submucosal invasive cancers, 160 deep submucosal invasive cancers, and 81 advanced cancers (≥T2) were analyzed. The probability of deeply invasive cancer (95% confidence interval) was 1.8% (1.1-2.8), 30.1% (25.4-35.1), and 96.6% (91.5-99.1) in JNET Types 2A, 2B, and 3, respectively. The probability of deeply invasive cancer in JNET Type 2B lesions with non-V, VL, and VH pit pattern was 4.3%, 16.6%, 76.0%, respectively (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our study showed the stratification by M-NBI using JNET classification and the effect of additional M-CE for JNET Type 2B lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.13766DOI Listing
March 2021

Efficacy and safety of cold-snare endoscopic mucosal resection for colorectal adenomas 10 to 14 mm in size: a prospective observational study.

Gastrointest Endosc 2020 12 26;92(6):1239-1246. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background And Aims: Cold-snare endoscopic mucosal resection (CS-EMR) has been adapted in a piecemeal fashion as a safe and effective procedure for resection of colorectal polyps ≥10 mm. However, few data are available on en bloc CS-EMR for adenomas of 10 to 14 mm. Thus, this study evaluated the efficacy and safety of CS-EMR for these colorectal adenomas.

Methods: In this single-arm, prospective, observational study, patients with at least 1 slightly elevated and sessile colorectal adenoma measuring 10 to 14 mm were recruited to undergo CS-EMR. The primary outcome was histological complete resection rate by CS-EMR, which was defined as en bloc resection, with a pathologically negative vertical margin and no neoplastic tissue obtained from 4 quadrants of the mucosal defect margin. Secondary outcomes were en bloc resection rate by CS-EMR, failure rate of CS-EMR, and the incidence of adverse events.

Results: A total of 80 polyps from 72 patients were included. CS-EMR failed in 11 lesions (13.7%), all of which were resected using a high-frequency electric current. The rates of en bloc resection and histologic complete resection by CS-EMR were 82.5% (66 of 80) and 63.8% (51 of 80), respectively. No bleeding occurred during the CS-EMR procedure, and there was no delayed bleeding or perforation at the site where CS-EMR was performed.

Conclusions: CS-EMR can be safely performed in an en bloc fashion for some colorectal adenomas measuring 10 to 14 mm. However, there is room for improvement regarding the resectability and evaluation of the vertical margin after CS-EMR. (Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000031248.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2020.05.019DOI Listing
December 2020

[Indications of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Gastric Cancer].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2020 Apr;47(4):563-568

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center.

Endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD)has been established as a standard treatment for early gastric cancer with low possibility of lymph node metastasis. Based on the results of the multicenter prospective study(JCOG0607), expanded indication for differentiated-type gastric cancer in Gastric Cancer Treatment Guidelines 2014 changed to absolute indication in Gastric Cancer Treatment Guidelines 2018. The other multicenter prospective study(JCOG1009/1010)will reveal the longterm outcomes of ESD for undifferentiated-type gastric cancer. With the advance of an aging society in Japan, the indication and curability of early gastric cancer for elderly patients should be discussed in the future.
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April 2020

The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the risk of metachronous cancer after endoscopic resection of esophageal cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2020 08;41(8):1049-1056

Department of Clinical Oncology, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan.

Follow-up studies of Japanese patients who had undergone endoscopic resection (ER) for early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have reported a high prevalence of metachronous SCC in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). This prospective multicenter cohort study followed up 330 Japanese patients after ER of ESCC for a median of 49.4 months. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for the 12-month period prior to study registration revealed high frequencies of high-risk drinking behaviors: 84 (25.4%) subjects had AUDIT scores of ≥15 points (suspected alcohol dependence) and 121 (36.7%) subjects had AUDIT scores of 8-14 points (hazardous drinking). Seventy-four subjects were metachronously diagnosed with ESCC, and 20 subjects with head and neck SCC (HNSCC). AUDIT scores ≥15 were associated with increases in the total number of HNSCCs per 100 person-years (0.4 for 0-7, 1.2 for 8-14 and 7.1 for ≥15; P < 0.0001). AUDIT scores were progressively associated with the grade of esophageal Lugol-voiding lesions (LVLs), a predictor of field cancerization in the UAT. Both an AUDIT score of ≥15 points and the presence of multiple LVLs were independent predictors of metachronous HNSCC [multivariate hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) = 6.98 (1.31-37.09) and 3.19 (1.19-8.54), respectively]. However, a high AUDIT score was not a predictor of metachronous ESCC. In conclusion, high AUDIT scores were markedly frequent in this population and increased the risk of metachronous HNSCC. The assessment of drinking behavior using the AUDIT and the completion of interventions for alcohol problems should be incorporated into the treatment strategy of ESCC. The name of the clinical trial register and the clinical trial registration number: Japan Esophageal Cohort Study, UMIN000001676.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgaa022DOI Listing
August 2020

Association between the findings of metachronous secondary primary malignancies and the number of Lugol-voiding lesions.

Dis Esophagus 2020 Sep;33(9)

Department of Clinical Oncology, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

This study was designed to evaluate the relation between dysplastic squamous epithelium in the esophageal mucosa and the development of metachronous secondary primary malignancies (mSPM) other than esophagus after endoscopic resection (ER) in patients with early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We studied 330 patients with early esophageal SCC who underwent ER as a post hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter cohort study (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry ID UMIN000001676). Lugol-voiding lesions (LVL) were graded into 3 categories (A = no lesion; B = 1 to 9 lesions; C ≥ 10 lesions). The following variables were studied: (i) the incidences of mSPM other than esophagus; (ii) the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of mSPM; (iii) the cumulative incidence and total number of mSPM other than esophagus; and (iv) predictors of mSPM other than esophagus on analysis with a multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model. After a median follow-up of 46.6 months, mSPM other than esophagus was diagnosed in a total of 73 patients (90 lesions). Among the 106 patients in group C, 37 patients had mSPM (51 lesions), including head and neck cancer in 14 patients (24 lesions) and gastric cancer in 12 patients (16 lesions). The SIR of mSPM was 3.61 in this study subjects. An increase in the LVL grade (A to B to C) was associated with a progressive increase in the cumulative incidence rate of mSPM other than esophagus (P = 0.017 for A vs. C, P = 0.023 for B vs. C). An increase in the LVL grade (A to B to C) was also associated with a progressive increase in the total number of mSPM other than esophagus per 100 person-years (primary events, relative risk [RR] = 1.66 and 3.24 for grades B and C, respectively, vs. A, P = 0.002 for trend; all events, RR = 1.81 and 4.66 for grades B and C, respectively, vs. A, P < 0.0001 for trend). LVL grade C was a strong predictor of mSPM other than esophagus (RR = 3.41 for A vs. C). LVL grade may be a useful predictor of the risk of mSPM other than esophagus after ER in patients with early esophageal SCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dote/doz110DOI Listing
September 2020

Present Status of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Non-Ampullary Duodenal Epithelial Tumors.

Clin Endosc 2020 Nov 15;53(6):652-658. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Prediction of histology by endoscopic examination is important in the clinical management of non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (NADETs), including adenoma and adenocarcinoma. The use of a simple scoring system based on the findings of white-light endoscopy or magnified endoscopy with narrow-band imaging is useful to differentiate between Vienna category 3 (C3) and C4/5 lesions. Less invasive endoscopic resection procedures, such as cold snare polypectomy, are quick to perform and convenient for small (<10 mm) C3 lesions. Neoplasms with higher grade histology, such as C4/5 lesions, should be treated by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), or surgery. Although EMR often requires piecemeal resection, the complication rate is acceptable. Excellent complete resection rates could be achieved by ESD; however, it remains a challenging method considering the high risk of complications. Shielding or closure of the ulcer after ESD is effective at decreasing the risk of delayed bleeding and perforation. Laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery is an ideal treatment with a high rate of en bloc resection and a low rate of complications, although it is limited to high-volume centers. Patients with NADETs could benefit from a multidisciplinary approach to stratify the optimal treatment based on endoscopic diagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5946/ce.2019.184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719431PMC
November 2020

Steroid Therapy and Steroid Response in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Dec 30;21(1). Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center 1007, Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Suntogun, Shizuoka 411-8777, Japan.

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a unique subtype of pancreatitis, is often accompanied by systemic inflammatory disorders. AIP is classified into two distinct subtypes on the basis of the histological subtype: immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (type 1) and idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (type 2). Type 1 AIP is often accompanied by systemic lesions, biliary strictures, hepatic inflammatory pseudotumors, interstitial pneumonia and nephritis, dacryoadenitis, and sialadenitis. Type 2 AIP is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in approximately 30% of cases. Standard therapy for AIP is oral corticosteroid administration. Steroid treatment is generally indicated for symptomatic cases and is exceptionally applied for cases with diagnostic difficulty (diagnostic steroid trial) after a negative workup for malignancy. More than 90% of patients respond to steroid treatment within 1 month, and most within 2 weeks. The steroid response can be confirmed on clinical images (computed tomography, ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography). Hence, the steroid response is included as an optional diagnostic item of AIP. Steroid treatment results in normalization of serological markers, including IgG4. Short- and long-term corticosteroid treatment may induce adverse events, including chronic glycometabolism, obesity, an immunocompromised status against infection, cataracts, glaucoma, osteoporosis, and myopathy. AIP is common in old age and is often associated with diabetes mellitus (33-78%). Thus, there is an argument for corticosteroid therapy in diabetes patients with no symptoms. With low-dose steroid treatment or treatment withdrawal, there is a high incidence of AIP recurrence (24-52%). Therefore, there is a need for long-term steroid maintenance therapy and/or steroid-sparing agents (immunomodulators and rituximab). Corticosteroids play a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of AIP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981453PMC
December 2019

A risk-prediction model for en bloc resection failure or perforation during endoscopic submucosal dissection of colorectal neoplasms.

Dig Endosc 2020 Sep 6;32(6):932-939. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Objectives: Technical difficulties in colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissections (ESD) result in en bloc resection failure or perforation. This study aimed to develop and validate a risk score for predicting en bloc resection failure or perforation in ESD of colorectal neoplasms.

Methods: This single-center observational study included 1133 colorectal neoplasms treated with ESD in a Japanese tertiary cancer center. With a derivation set (n = 716), we performed multiple logistic regression to identify significant risk factors for en bloc resection failure or perforation. Based on odds ratios, we developed a risk score, ranging from 0 to 10: 0-1 'low risk' (LR); 2-4 'moderate risk' (MR); and 5-10 'high risk' (HR). An independent validation set comprised prospectively enrolled subjects (n = 417) that underwent ESDs from January 2014 to August 2016. The performance of the risk score for predicting en bloc resection failure or perforation for each risk tier was evaluated.

Results: The baseline incidences of en bloc resection failure or perforation were 14.5% and 5.5% in the derivation and validation sets, respectively. We identified the following significant risk factors: endoscopist experience, tumor location, morphology, scope operability, underlying fold, and fold convergence. In the validation set, the incidences of en bloc resection failure or perforation were 0% in the LR tier (n = 62; 14.8%), 2.3% in the MR tier (n = 293; 70.4%), and 25.8% in the HR tier (n = 62; 14.8%) (P < 0.001, Cochran-Armitage trend test).

Conclusions: A risk scoring system, which was developed and prospectively validated, can successfully estimate the incidence of en bloc resection failure or perforation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.13619DOI Listing
September 2020

Endoscopic selective muscular dissection for clinical submucosal invasive early gastric cancer.

Dig Endosc 2020 Jan 16;32(1):e24-e25. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.13560DOI Listing
January 2020

Can Advanced Endoscopic Imaging Help Us Avoid Surgery for Endoscopically Resectable Colorectal Neoplasms? A Proof-of-Concept Study.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 06 19;65(6):1829-1837. Epub 2019 Oct 19.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, 1007, Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Suntogun, Shizuoka, 411-8777, Japan.

Background: European guidelines recommend advanced endoscopic imaging (AEI) to guide therapeutic decisions; however, data are limited concerning its clinical effects on the management of colorectal polyps. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of standard chromoendoscopic imaging (SCI) and AEI on decision-making regarding therapeutic techniques.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected endoscopic and pathological data on colorectal neoplasms ≥ 10 mm removed at a Japanese tertiary cancer center between January 2010 and December 2016. We assumed a virtual approach to manage the decisions for endoscopic resection or surgery for each lesion using the following test modalities: (1) endoscopic size measurement (ESM), (2) SCI, and (3) AEI. Virtual surgical management was indicated using the following criteria: (1) ESM: lesion ≥ 40 mm, (2) SCI: depression, excavation, or ulceration, (3) AEI: Japan NBI Expert Team type 3 (magnifying NBI), V high-grade, or V (magnifying chromoendoscopy). We compared the incidence of hypothetical redundant surgery, defined as virtual surgical management for cases of dysplasia or superficial submucosal invasive cancers (SM-S).

Results: A total of 3509 lesions from 2693 patients were analyzed, including 142 SM-S and 457 deep submucosal invasive cancer (SM-D). The incidence of hypothetical redundant surgery was 9.2% with ESM, 5.1% with SCI, and 2.9% with AEI. When compared with ESM, hypothetical redundant surgery was significantly reduced with SCI (relative risk 0.55; 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.69) and AEI (0.31; 0.23-0.41).

Conclusions: Therapeutic decision-making according to SCI or AEI can reduce surgery for endoscopically resectable colorectal neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05894-yDOI Listing
June 2020

Endoscopic features of submucosal invasive non-ampullary duodenal carcinomas.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 May 6;35(5):821-826. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background And Aim: It is imperative to distinguish superficial non-ampullary duodenal carcinomas (NADCs) between intramucosal and submucosal invasive carcinoma for treatment selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological differences of intramucosal and submucosal carcinoma.

Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study comprising 134 patients with 137 superficial NADCs during May 2005 and March 2018. Clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes data were used to perform a comparative analysis of endoscopic findings, preoperative diagnoses of depth of cancer, and treatment outcomes of histologically diagnosed intramucosal and submucosal carcinoma.

Results: Of the 137 NADCs, 125 (91%) were intramucosal, and 12 (9%) were submucosal. The proportion of submucosal carcinoma was significantly higher on the oral side of the papilla than on the anal side (16% vs 1%, P = 0.002). Submucosal tumor-like appearance was more frequent in submucosal than in intramucosal carcinoma (58% vs 13%, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in tumor diameter between the groups, but 33% of submucosal carcinomas were ≤ 10 mm. Correct preoperative diagnosis of depth was achieved in 33% of submucosal carcinoma. Submucosal carcinoma was frequently underestimated when tumor diameters were ≤ 10 mm. Conversely, intramucosal carcinoma was frequently overestimated when the tumor was ≥ 30 mm and had thickness or giant nodules. Lymph node metastasis was found in one submucosal carcinoma patient.

Conclusions: The possibility of submucosal invasion should be considered when NADCs are located on the oral side of the papilla or have submucosal tumor-like appearance even if tumor diameters are ≤ 10 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.14870DOI Listing
May 2020

Incidence of Delayed Bleeding among Patients Continuing Antithrombotics during Gastric Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

Intern Med 2019 1;58(19):2759-2766. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Japan.

objective In patients continuing antithrombotics, delayed bleeding after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a severe complication. Vonoprazan (VPZ) exerts a rapid, potent, and long-lasting antacid effect compared with traditional proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). This study aimed to compare the incidence of delayed bleeding after gastric ESD between the use of VPZ and PPIs in patients continuing antithrombotics. Methods In this retrospective analysis, we examined 71 patients with 101 lesions treated with traditional PPIs (PPI group) and 59 patients with 90 lesions treated with VPZ (VPZ group). After 2 days (day 0 and 1) of intravenous PPI administration, either an oral PPI or VPZ was administered from postoperative day 2 to 8 weeks after ESD. We assessed the incidence of overall delayed bleeding as well as bleeding that occurred from day 2 until 8 weeks after ESD. Results There was no significant difference in the use of antithrombotic agents between the groups. Overall delayed bleeding occurred 13 times (18%) in 9 patients in the PPI group and 18 times (31%) in 17 patients in the VPZ group (p=0.10). Bleeding from day 2 until 8 weeks after ESD occurred 12 times (17%) in 9 patients in the PPI group and 8 times (14%) in 8 patients in the VPZ group. Conclusion Even with a potent antacid agent, such as VPZ, the incidence of delayed bleeding was high in patients undergoing ESD with continuous antithrombotic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.2754-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815908PMC
December 2019