Publications by authors named "Kohei Kido"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Measurement of Insulin- and Contraction-Stimulated Glucose Uptake in Isolated and Incubated Mature Skeletal Muscle from Mice.

J Vis Exp 2021 May 16(171). Epub 2021 May 16.

Section of Molecular Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen;

Skeletal muscle is an insulin-responsive tissue and typically takes up most of the glucose that enters the blood after a meal. Moreover, it has been reported that skeletal muscle may increase the extraction of glucose from the blood by up to 50-fold during exercise compared to resting conditions. The increase in muscle glucose uptake during exercise and insulin stimulation is dependent on the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) from intracellular compartments to the muscle cell surface membrane, as well as phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by hexokinase II. Isolation and incubation of mouse muscles such as m. soleus and m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL) is an appropriate ex vivo model to study the effects of insulin and electrically-induced contraction (a model for exercise) on glucose uptake in mature skeletal muscle. Thus, the ex vivo model permits evaluation of muscle insulin sensitivity and makes it possible to match muscle force production during contraction ensuring uniform recruitment of muscle fibers during measurements of muscle glucose uptake. Moreover, the described model is suitable for pharmacological compound testing that may have an impact on muscle insulin sensitivity or may be of help when trying to delineate the regulatory complexity of skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Here we describe and provide a detailed protocol on how to measure insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated and incubated soleus and EDL muscle preparations from mice using radiolabeled [H]2-deoxy-D-glucose and [C]mannitol as an extracellular marker. This allows accurate assessment of glucose uptake in mature skeletal muscle in the absence of confounding factors that may interfere in the intact animal model. In addition, we provide information on metabolic viability of incubated mouse skeletal muscle suggesting that the method applied possesses some caveats under certain conditions when studying muscle energy metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61398DOI Listing
May 2021

AMPK is indispensable for overload-induced muscle glucose uptake and glycogenesis but dispensable for inducing hypertrophy in mice.

FASEB J 2021 04;35(4):e21459

Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Chronic muscle loading (overload) induces skeletal muscles to undergo hypertrophy and to increase glucose uptake. Although AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) reportedly serves as a negative regulator of hypertrophy and a positive regulator of glucose uptake, its role in overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and glucose uptake is unclear. This study aimed to determine whether AMPK regulates overload-induced hypertrophy and glucose uptake in skeletal muscles. To this end, skeletal muscle overload was induced through unilateral synergist ablations in wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice, expressing the dominant-negative mutation of AMPK (AMPK-DN). After 14 days, parameters, including muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), glycogen level, and in vivo [ H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake, were assessed. No significant difference was observed in body weight or blood glucose level between the WT and AMPK-DN mice. However, the 14-day muscle overload activated the AMPK pathway in WT mice skeletal muscle, whereas this response was impaired in the AMPK-DN mice. Despite a normal CSA gain in each fiber type, the AMPK-DN mice demonstrated a significant impairment of overload-induced muscle glucose uptake and glycogenesis, compared to WT mice. Moreover, 14-day overload-induced changes in GLUT4 and HKII expression levels were reduced in AMPK-DN mice, compared to WT mice. This study demonstrated that AMPK activation is indispensable for overload-induced muscle glucose uptake and glycogenesis; however, it is dispensable for the induction of hypertrophy in AMPK-DN mice. Furthermore, the AMPK/GLUT4 and HKII axes may regulate overload-induced muscle glucose uptake and glycogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202002164RDOI Listing
April 2021

Response of Resistance Exercise-Induced Muscle Protein Synthesis and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Are Not Enhanced After Disuse Muscle Atrophy in Rat.

Front Physiol 2020 21;11:469. Epub 2020 May 21.

Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan.

Skeletal muscle disuse rapidly decreases muscle mass. Resistance training (RT) is believed as the most effective way to gain muscle mass via an increase in mTORC1 activity and muscle protein synthesis (MPS). However, it remains unclear whether muscle atrophy by disuse alters the mTORC1 activation and MPS response to an acute resistance exercise (RE) and chronic RT-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. This study investigated the influence of disuse muscle atrophy on the response of mTORC1 activation and MPS to an acute RE. We also evaluated whether disuse muscle atrophy affects the response of RT-induced muscle mass gain. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CON) or hindlimb suspension (HS) groups. A 14-day HS via the tail was used as the model for gastrocnemius muscle disuse in the HS group. Unilateral lower limb muscle contraction using by percutaneous electrical stimulation was used to mimic the stimuli of RE. Ten bouts of RE were performed in 3-week as chronic RT. Our results showed that MPS and mTORC1 activity was unchanged after HS at basal state. However, the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) level was reduced in HS rats compared to that in CON rats at basal state. MPS and rRNA increased in both HS and CON rats in response to acute RE to the same extent. However, the level of mTORC1 activation in response to an acute RE was significantly higher in HS than that in the CON group at 12 h after exercise, even though no difference was observed at 3 h after exercise. The 10-bout RT significantly increased gastrocnemius muscle mass in both CON and HS rats. The response of muscle hypertrophy did not differ between the groups. Therefore, MPS in response to acute RE and muscle hypertrophy in response to chronic RT were unaltered after disuse muscle atrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7258402PMC
May 2020

Dehydroepiandrosterone activates 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and suppresses lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 07 3;528(3):612-619. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan.

Substantial evidence has linked dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels to the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of exercise. While 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a negative regulator of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is inhibited by AMPK, is required for adipocyte differentiation and positively regulates lipid accumulation. DHEA treatment activates the AMPK pathway in C2C12 myotubes. Hence, DHEA addition to preadipocytes and adipocytes might activate AMPK and inhibit mTORC1, resulting in the inhibition of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DHEA on the AMPK pathway, mTORC1 activity, adipocyte differentiation, and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. DHEA suppressed lipid accumulation and adipogenic marker expression during differentiation. It also activated AMPK signaling in preadipocytes and adipocytes and suppressed mTORC1 activity during differentiation. These results suggest that the activation of the AMPK pathway and inhibition of mTORC1 activity may mediate the anti-obesity effect of DHEA, providing novel molecular-level insights into its physiological functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.05.136DOI Listing
July 2020

Inducible deletion of skeletal muscle AMPKα reveals that AMPK is required for nucleotide balance but dispensable for muscle glucose uptake and fat oxidation during exercise.

Mol Metab 2020 10 3;40:101028. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Section of Molecular Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objective: Evidence for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise is mainly based on transgenic mouse models with chronic (lifelong) disruption of AMPK function. Findings based on such models are potentially biased by secondary effects related to a chronic lack of AMPK function. To study the direct effect(s) of AMPK on muscle metabolism during exercise, we generated a new mouse model with inducible muscle-specific deletion of AMPKα catalytic subunits in adult mice.

Methods: Tamoxifen-inducible and muscle-specific AMPKα1/α2 double KO mice (AMPKα imdKO) were generated by using the Cre/loxP system, with the Cre under the control of the human skeletal muscle actin (HSA) promoter.

Results: During treadmill running at the same relative exercise intensity, AMPKα imdKO mice showed greater depletion of muscle ATP, which was associated with accumulation of the deamination product IMP. Muscle-specific deletion of AMPKα in adult mice promptly reduced maximal running speed and muscle glycogen content and was associated with reduced expression of UGP2, a key component of the glycogen synthesis pathway. Muscle mitochondrial respiration, whole-body substrate utilization, and muscle glucose uptake and fatty acid (FA) oxidation during muscle contractile activity remained unaffected by muscle-specific deletion of AMPKα subunits in adult mice.

Conclusions: Inducible deletion of AMPKα subunits in adult mice reveals that AMPK is required for maintaining muscle ATP levels and nucleotide balance during exercise but is dispensable for regulating muscle glucose uptake, FA oxidation, and substrate utilization during exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2020.101028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356270PMC
October 2020

Enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity after acute resistance-type exercise is upregulated by rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 inhibition.

Sci Rep 2020 05 22;10(1):8509. Epub 2020 May 22.

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.

Acute aerobic exercise (AE) increases skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity for several hours, caused by acute activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Acute resistance exercise (RE) also activates AMPK, possibly improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. However, RE-induced rapamycin-sensitive mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation is higher and has a longer duration than after AE. In molecular studies, mTORC1 was shown to be upstream of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) Ser phosphorylation residue, inducing insulin resistance. Therefore, we hypothesised that although RE increases insulin sensitivity through AMPK activation, prolonged mTORC1 activation after RE reduces RE-induced insulin sensitising effect. In this study, we used an electrical stimulation-induced RE model in rats, with rapamycin as an inhibitor of mTORC1 activation. Our results showed that RE increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake following AMPK signal activation. However, mTORC1 activation and IRS-1 Ser632/635 and Ser612 phosphorylation were elevated 6 h after RE, with concomitant impairment of insulin-stimulated Akt signal activation. By contrast, rapamycin inhibited these prior exercise responses. Furthermore, increases in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake 6 h after RE were higher in rats with rapamycin treatment than with placebo treatment. Our data suggest that mTORC1/IRS-1 signaling inhibition enhances skeletal muscle insulin-sensitising effect of RE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65397-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244536PMC
May 2020

Dietary Aronia melanocarpa extract enhances mTORC1 signaling, but has no effect on protein synthesis and protein breakdown-related signaling, in response to resistance exercise in rat skeletal muscle.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2019 Dec 11;16(1):60. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.

Background: Ursolic acid altered muscle protein metabolism in normal and resting conditions after acute resistance exercise, suggesting that eating fruits rich in ursolic acid could enhance muscle protein synthesis and decrease muscle degradation. Aronia melanocarpa, a member of the family Rosaceae and native to North America and Eastern Canada, is rich in ursolic acid. In this study, we examined the effects of A. melanocarpa extract (AME) supplementation on the mTORC1 signaling pathway and muscle degradation-related factors in rats, both alone and in combination with resistance exercise.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into AME and normal chow (NOR) groups. AME group was fed chow providing a dose of 3 g/kg of AME and 115 mg/kg of ursolic acid for 7 days, whereas NOR rats were fed normal powder chow. The right gastrocnemius muscle of each animal was isometrically exercised (5 sets of ten 3-s contractions, with a 7-s interval between contractions and 3-min rest intervals between sets), while the left gastrocnemius muscle served as an internal control. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to assess expression of factors involved in the mTORC1 signaling pathway and muscle degradation.

Results: At 1 h after resistance exercise, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was significantly increased by AME consumption. At 6 h after resistance exercise, AME consumption significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt, p70S6K, rpS6, and AMPK. It also increased MAFbx expression. Furthermore, AME significantly increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K and rpS6 in response to resistance exercise. However, AME did not increase muscle protein synthesis (MPS) after resistance exercise. AME did not affect the expression of any of the mediators of protein degradation, with the exception of MAFbx.

Conclusions: Dietary AME enhanced mTORC1 activation in response to resistance exercise without increasing MPS. Moreover, it neither accelerated muscle protein degradation nor otherwise negatively affected protein metabolism. Further study is needed to clarify the effect of the combination of AME and chronic resistance training on muscle hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-019-0328-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6907222PMC
December 2019

The effect of a bout of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle protein metabolism after severe fasting.

Physiol Rep 2019 11;7(21):e14270

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.

Resistance exercise (RE) activates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway and increases muscle protein synthesis. Severe fasting induces 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which attenuates mTORC1 activation. However, the effect of RE on the response of mTORC1 signaling proteins after a period of severe fasting is unclear. We investigated the effect of RE on rat skeletal muscle protein metabolism after a period of severe fasting. We hypothesized that RE-induced activation of mTORC1 signaling protein attenuates protein breakdown by autophagy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ordinary-fed (C) and 72-h fasting (F) groups. A bout of RE was replicated by percutaneous electrical stimulation in the right gastrocnemius muscle. The tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) Ser1387 and autophagy marker of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3-II (LC3B-II) expression of the F group increased twice that of the C group in sedentary state (P < 0.05). RE activated the mTORC1 signaling pathway in both groups (P < 0.05); however, in the F group, the magnitude of p70S6K (Thr389) phosphorylation was lower by 40% of that of the C group (P < 0.05). Protein synthesis after RE was increased by 50% from the level at sedentary state in the C group (P < 0.05), but not in the F. In the F group, the expression of LC3B-II at 3 h after RE was decreased by almost 25% from the level at sedentary state (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that RE suppressed fasting-induced autophagy but did not increase protein synthesis during severe fasting in rat skeletal muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831946PMC
November 2019

Type 2 diabetes causes skeletal muscle atrophy but does not impair resistance training-mediated myonuclear accretion and muscle mass gain in rats.

Exp Physiol 2019 10 13;104(10):1518-1531. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Japan.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) causes skeletal muscle atrophy; does it affect resistance training (RT)-mediated molecular adaptations and subsequent muscle hypertrophy? What is the main finding and its importance? Although skeletal muscle mass and regulation were not preserved under conditions of T2DM, the response of RT-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy was not impaired in T2DM rat skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that the capacity of RT-mediated muscle mass gain is not diminished in the T2DM condition.

Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is known to cause skeletal muscle atrophy. However, it is not known whether T2DM affects resistance training (RT)-mediated molecular adaptations and subsequent muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, we investigated the effect of T2DM on response of skeletal muscle hypertrophy to chronic RT using a rat resistance exercise mimetic model. T2DM and healthy control rats were subjected to 18 bouts (3 times per week) of chronic RT on unilateral lower legs. RT significantly increased gastrocnemius muscle mass and myonuclei in both T2DM and healthy control rats to the same extent, even though T2DM caused muscle atrophy in the resting condition. Further, T2DM significantly reduced mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity (phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1 ) to insulin stimulation and the number of myonuclei in the untrained basal condition, but RT-mediated adaptations were not affected by T2DM. These findings suggested that although the skeletal muscle mass and regulation were not preserved under basal conditions of T2DM, the response of RT-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy was not impaired in T2DM rat skeletal muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790689PMC
October 2019

TBC1D4 Is Necessary for Enhancing Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in Response to AICAR and Contraction.

Diabetes 2019 09 7;68(9):1756-1766. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Section of Molecular Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Muscle insulin sensitivity for stimulating glucose uptake is enhanced in the period after a single bout of exercise. We recently demonstrated that AMPK is necessary for AICAR, contraction, and exercise to enhance muscle and whole-body insulin sensitivity in mice. Correlative observations from both human and rodent skeletal muscle suggest that regulation of the phosphorylation status of TBC1D4 may relay this insulin sensitization. However, the necessity of TBC1D4 for this phenomenon has not been proven. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether TBC1D4 is necessary for enhancing muscle insulin sensitivity in response to AICAR and contraction. We found that immediately after contraction and AICAR stimulation, phosphorylation of AMPKα-Thr172 and downstream targets were increased similarly in glycolytic skeletal muscle from wild-type and TBC1D4-deficient mice. In contrast, 3 h after contraction or 6 h after AICAR stimulation, enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was evident in muscle from wild-type mice only. The enhanced insulin sensitivity in muscle from wild-type mice was associated with improved insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of TBC1D4 (Thr649 and Ser711) but not of TBC1D1. These results provide genetic evidence linking signaling through TBC1D4 to enhanced muscle insulin sensitivity after activation of the cellular energy sensor AMPK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0769DOI Listing
September 2019

The effects of resistance training on bone mineral density and bone quality in type 2 diabetic rats.

Physiol Rep 2019 03;7(6):e14046

Division of Integrative Pathophysiology, Proteo-Science Center, Ehime University, Ehime, Japan.

Resistance training (RT) has been known to be effective in maintaining and improving bone strength, which is based on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality. However, it is not clear whether RT is effective in improving bone strength in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who have a high risk of fracture. Therefore, we tested the effects of a 6-week RT regimen using percutaneous electrical stimulation in T2DM model rats, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF), and its control, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO). After 6 weeks of RT, tibial BMD in RT legs was significantly higher than that in control (CON) legs in both groups. In diaphyseal cortical bone, bone area/tissue area, and cortical thickness was significantly increased in RT legs compared with CON legs in both groups. Cortical porosity was highly observed in OLETF compared with LETO, but RT improved cortical porosity in both groups. Interestingly, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and trabecular space as well as BMD and bone volume/tissue volume in proximal tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone were significantly improved in RT legs compared with CON legs in both groups. In contrast, connectivity density and structural model index were not affected by RT. These results indicate that the 6-week RT regimen effectively increased BMD and improved bone quality in T2DM model rats as well as control rats. Therefore, RT may have the potential to improve bone strength and reduce fracture risk, even in patients with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436184PMC
March 2019

Exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis coincides with the expression of mitochondrial translation factors in murine skeletal muscle.

Physiol Rep 2018 10;6(20):e13893

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.

The process of mitochondrial translation, in which mitochondrial (mt)DNA-encoded genes are translated into proteins, is crucial for mitochondrial function and biogenesis. In each phase, a series of mitochondrial translation factors is required for the synthesis of mtDNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins. Two mitochondrial initiation factors (mtIF2 and mtIF3), three mitochondrial elongation factors (mtEFTu, mtEFTs, and mtEFG1), one mitochondrial release factor (mtRF1L), and two mitochondrial recycling factors (mtRRF1 and mtRRF2) are mitochondrial translation factors that coordinate each translational phase. Exercise increases both nuclear DNA- and mtDNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins, resulting in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscles. Therefore, mitochondrial translation factors are likely regulated by exercise; however, it is unclear whether exercise affects mitochondrial translation factors in the skeletal muscles. We investigated whether exercise training comprehensively increases this series of mitochondrial translation factors, as well as mtDNA-encoded proteins, in the skeletal muscle. Mice were randomly assigned to either the sedentary or exercise group and housed in standard cages with or without a running wheel for 1 and 8 weeks. The expression levels of mitochondrial translation factors in the plantaris and soleus muscles were then measured. Exercise training concomitantly upregulated mitochondrial translation factors and mitochondrial proteins in the plantaris muscle. However, in the soleus muscle, these comprehensive upregulations were not detected. These results indicate that exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis coincides with the upregulation of mitochondrial translation factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6204255PMC
October 2018

Exercise training increases CISD family protein expression in murine skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 11 23;506(3):571-577. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) declines with aging and the progression of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Although exercise increases mitochondrial biogenesis and function in both tissues, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. CDGSH iron sulfur domain-containing proteins (CISDs) are a novel family of proteins that regulate mitochondrial activity and biogenesis. However, the relationship between exercise and CISD expression is unclear. We addressed this in the present study by examining changes in the expression of CISDs and mitochondrial proteins in skeletal muscle and WAT of mice subjected to chronic exercise training. Mice were randomly assigned to either the sedentary or exercise group and were housed for 4 weeks in a standard cage without or with a running wheel, respectively. CISD and mitochondrial protein levels in the plantaris and soleus muscles and epididymal WAT were evaluated by western blotting. Chronic exercise increased CISD1 and CISD2 as well as mitochondrial protein expression in plantaris muscle and WAT but not soleus muscle. Moreover, this exercise-induced adaptation was strongly correlated with mitochondrial protein expression. Thus, mitochondrial biogenesis induced by chronic exercise coincides with the expression of CISDs in specific tissues, which may be critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.10.101DOI Listing
November 2018

pH-Responsive Particle-Liquid Aggregates-Electrostatic Formation Kinetics.

Front Chem 2018 14;6:215. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Priority Research Centre for Advanced Particle Processing and Transport, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Liquid-particle aggregates were formed electrostatically using pH-responsive poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDEA)-coated polystyrene particles. This novel non-contact electrostatic method has been used to assess the particle stimulus-responsive wettability in detail. Video footage and fractal analysis were used in conjunction with a two-stage model to characterize the kinetics of transfer of particles to a water droplet surface, and internalization of particles by the droplet. While no stable liquid marbles were formed, metastable marbles were manufactured, whose duration of stability depended strongly on drop pH. Both transfer and internalization were markedly faster for droplets at low pH, where the particles were expected to be hydrophilic, than at high pH where they were expected to be hydrophobic. Increasing the driving electrical potential produced greater transfer and internalization times. Possible reasons for this are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2018.00215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6010524PMC
June 2018

Electrostatic formation of polymer particle stabilised liquid marbles and metastable droplets - Effect of latex shell conductivity.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Nov 10;529:486-495. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Priority Research Centre for Advanced Particle Processing and Transport, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Particle cohesion and conductivity affects the electrostatically driven transport of particles to a suspended water droplet. The conditions at which liquid marbles and particle stabilised liquid droplets form are a function of these parameters.

Experiment: Particle beds placed below an earthed pendent water drop had a negative potential applied, thus inducing an opposing positive charge on the liquid, which results in particle transfer and eventual coating of the liquid drop. Experiments where both the particle bed was constantly moved slowly toward the droplet, and the particle bed remained at a fixed, small separation distance were completed. These enabled the investigation of a number of variables that influence successful aggregate formation, including separation distance between the droplet and particle bed, coating mechanism and kinetics of the transfer process.

Findings: Monodisperse polystyrene core particles with polypyrrole shells of various cohesiveness and conductivity were observed to behave differently in the presence of the applied potential, where the least cohesive and conductive sample (polystyrene) required the smallest separation distance, i.e. the greatest field strength for particle transfer. Increasing conductivity of the particle shell decreases the field strength required for particle transfer, and thus an increase was observed in separation distance at which particles were observed to move to the air-water interface. The transfer kinetics followed the same trend where the least conductive and cohesive sample was the slowest to coat the air-water interface, and vice-versa. Since an increase in cohesion hinders particle transfer, it is concluded that particle conductivity is of greater importance in the electrostatic aggregation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2018.04.044DOI Listing
November 2018

Formation of Liquid Marbles Using pH-Responsive Particles: Rolling vs Electrostatic Methods.

Langmuir 2018 05 16;34(17):4970-4979. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering , Osaka Institute of Technology , 5-16-1 Omiya , Asahi-ku, Osaka 535-8585 , Japan.

Aqueous dispersions of micrometer-sized, monodisperse polystyrene (PS) particles carrying pH-responsive poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDEA) colloidal stabilizer on their surfaces were dried under ambient conditions at pH 3.0 and 10.0. The resulting dried cake-like particulate materials were ground into powders and used as a stabilizer to fabricate liquid marbles (LMs) by rolling and electrostatic methods. The powder obtained from pH 3.0 aqueous dispersion consisted of polydisperse irregular-shaped colloidal crystal grains of densely packed colloids which had hydrophilic character. On the other hand, the powder obtained from pH 10.0 aqueous dispersion consisted of amorphous and disordered colloidal aggregate grains with random sizes and shapes, which had hydrophobic character. Reflecting the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of the dried PDEA-PS particle powders, stable LMs were fabricated with distilled water droplets by rolling on the powders prepared from pH 10.0, but the water droplets were adsorbed into the powders prepared from pH 3.0. In the electrostatic method, where an electric field assists transport of powders to a droplet surface, the PDEA-PS powders prepared from pH 3.0 jumped to an earthed pendant distilled water droplet to form a droplet of aqueous dispersion. Conversely the larger powder aggregates prepared from pH 10.0 did not jump due to cohesion between the hydrophobic PDEA chains on the PS particles, resulting in no LM formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b04204DOI Listing
May 2018

Resistance training recovers attenuated APPL1 expression and improves insulin-induced Akt signal activation in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic rats.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 06 6;314(6):E564-E571. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University , Kusatsu , Japan.

Adapter protein containing Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) has been reported as a positive regulator of insulin-stimulated Akt activation. The expression of APPL1 is reduced in skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic (T2D) animals, implying that APPL1 may be an important factor affecting insulin sensitivity. However, the regulation of APPL1 expression and the physiological interventions modulating these effects are unclear. Accordingly, we first confirmed that APPL1 expression and insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation were significantly attenuated in skeletal muscles of T2D rats. Additionally, we found that APPL1 expression levels were significantly correlated with fasting blood glucose levels. Next, we identified important signals involved in the expression of APPL1. APPL1 mRNA expression increased upon AMP-activated protein kinase, calcium, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and insulin-like growth factor-1 signal activation. Moreover, acute resistance exercise in vivo significantly activated these signaling pathways. Finally, through in vivo experiments, we found that chronic resistance training (RT) increased APPL1 expression and activated insulin-induced Akt signaling in skeletal muscles of rats with T2D. Furthermore, variations in APPL1 expression (i.e., the difference between control and RT muscles) significantly correlated with variations in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation under the same conditions. Therefore, chronic RT recovered attenuated APPL1 expression and improved insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscles of T2D rats. Accordingly, APPL1 may be a key regulator of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and RT may be an important physiological treatment increasing APPL1 expression, which is attenuated in T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00362.2017DOI Listing
June 2018

The effect of different acute muscle contraction regimens on the expression of muscle proteolytic signaling proteins and genes.

Physiol Rep 2017 Aug;5(15)

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan

Previous studies have reported that different modes of muscle contraction (i.e., eccentric or concentric contraction) with similar contraction times can affect muscle proteolytic responses. However, the effect of different contraction modes on muscle proteolytic response under the same force-time integral (FTI: contraction force × time) has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different contraction modes, with the same FTI, on acute proteolytic signaling responses. Eleven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to eccentric (EC), concentric (CC), or isometric contraction (IC) groups. Different modes of muscle contraction were performed on the right gastrocnemius muscle using electrical stimulation, with the left muscle acting as a control. In order to apply an equivalent FTI, the number of stimulation sets was modified between the groups. Muscle samples were taken immediately and three hours after exercise. Phosphorylation of FoxO3a at Ser253 was significantly increased immediately after exercise compared to controls irrespective of contraction mode. The mRNA levels of the ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1, and MAFbx mRNA were unchanged by contraction mode or time. Phosphorylation of ULK1 at Ser317 (positive regulatory site) and Ser757 (negative regulatory site) was significantly increased compared to controls, immediately or 3 h after exercise, in all contraction modes. The autophagy markers (LC3B-II/I ratio and p62 expression) were unchanged, regardless of contraction mode. These data suggest that differences in contraction mode during resistance exercise with a constant FTI, are not factors in regulating proteolytic signaling in the early phase of skeletal muscle contraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5555890PMC
August 2017

Effect of resistance exercise under conditions of reduced blood insulin on AMPKα Ser485/491 inhibitory phosphorylation and AMPK pathway activation.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2017 Aug 17;313(2):R110-R119. Epub 2017 May 17.

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan;

Insulin stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake via activation of the protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) pathway. Recent studies suggest that insulin downregulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity via Ser485/491 phosphorylation of the AMPK α-subunit. Thus lower blood insulin concentrations may induce AMPK signal activation. Acute exercise is one method to stimulate AMPK activation; however, no study has examined the relationship between blood insulin levels and acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation would be augmented by disruptions in insulin secretion through a decrease in AMPKα Ser485/491 inhibitory phosphorylation. To test the hypothesis, 10-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the toxin streptozotocin (STZ; 55 mg/kg) to destroy the insulin secreting β-cells. Three days postinjection, the right gastrocnemius muscle from STZ and control rats was subjected to resistance exercise by percutaneous electrical stimulation. Animals were killed 0, 1, or 3 h later; activation of the Akt/AMPK and downstream pathways in the muscle tissue was analyzed by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Notably, STZ rats showed a significant decrease in basal Akt and AMPKα Ser485/491 phosphorylation, but substantial exercise-induced increases in both AMPKα Thr172 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) Ser79 phosphorylation were observed. Although no significant impact on resistance exercise-induced Akt pathway activation or glucose uptake was found, resistance exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) gene expression was augmented by STZ treatment. Collectively, these data suggest that circulating insulin levels may regulate acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation and AMPK-dependent gene expression relating to basal AMPKα Ser485/491 phosphorylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00063.2017DOI Listing
August 2017

Panaxatriol derived from ginseng augments resistance exercised-induced protein synthesis via mTORC1 signaling in rat skeletal muscle.

Nutr Res 2016 11 13;36(11):1193-1201. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan. Electronic address:

Resistance exercise activates muscle protein synthesis via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway and subsequent muscle hypertrophy. Upstream components of the mTORC1 pathway are widely known to be involved in Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Previous studies have shown that ginseng stimulated Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that panaxatriol (PT) derived from ginseng triggers mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis by activating both the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, and that PT additively stimulates muscle protein synthesis when combined with resistance exercise. The study included male Sprague-Dawley rats. The legs of the rats were divided into control, PT-only, exercise-only, and exercise + PT groups. The right legs were subjected to isometric resistance exercise using percutaneous electrical stimulation, whereas the left legs were used as controls. PT (0.2 g/kg) was administered immediately after exercise. The Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels were significantly higher in the exercise + PT group than in the exercise-only group 0.5 hour after exercise. The phosphorylation of p70S6K was significantly increased at both 0.5 and 3 hours after exercise, and it was higher in the exercise + PT group than in the exercise-only group at both 0.5 and 3 hours after exercise. Muscle protein synthesis was significantly increased 3 hours after exercise, and it was higher in the exercise + PT group than in the exercise-only group 3 hours after exercise. Our results suggest that PT derived from ginseng enhances resistance exercise-induced protein synthesis via mTORC1 signaling in rat skeletal muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2016.09.002DOI Listing
November 2016

Contraction mode itself does not determine the level of mTORC1 activity in rat skeletal muscle.

Physiol Rep 2016 10;4(19)

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Japan

Resistance training with eccentric contraction has been shown to augment muscle hypertrophy more than other contraction modes do (i.e., concentric and isometric contraction). However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle contraction mode on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling using a standardized force-time integral (load (weight) × contraction time). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: eccentric contraction, concentric contraction, and isometric contraction. The right gastrocnemius muscle was exercised via percutaneous electrical stimulation-induced maximal contraction. In experiment 1, different modes of muscle contraction were exerted using the same number of reps in all groups, while in experiment 2, muscle contractions were exerted using a standardized force-time integral. Muscle samples were obtained immediately and 3 h after exercise. Phosphorylation of molecules associated with mTORC1 activity was assessed using western blot analysis. In experiment 1, the force-time integral was significantly different among contraction modes with a higher force-time integral for eccentric contraction compared to that for other contraction modes (P < 0.05). In addition, the force-time integral was higher for concentric contraction compared to that for isometric contraction (P < 0.05). Similarly, p70S6K phosphorylation level was higher for eccentric contraction than for other modes of contraction (P < 0.05), and concentric contraction was higher than isometric contraction (P < 0.05) 3 h after exercise. In experiment 2, under the same force-time integral, p70S6K (Thr389) and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation levels were similar among contraction modes 3 h after exercise. Our results suggest that mTORC1 activity is not determined by differences in muscle contraction mode itself. Instead, mTORC1 activity is determined by differences in the force-time integral during muscle contraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5064134PMC
October 2016

Acute resistance exercise-induced IGF1 expression and subsequent GLUT4 translocation.

Physiol Rep 2016 08;4(16)

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Japan

Acute aerobic exercise (AE) is a major physiological stimulus for skeletal muscle glucose uptake through activation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the regulation of glucose uptake by acute resistance exercise (RE) remains unclear. To investigate the intracellular regulation of glucose uptake after acute RE versus acute AE, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: RE, AE, or nonexercise control. After fasting for 12 h overnight, the right gastrocnemius muscle in the RE group was exercised at maximum isometric contraction via percutaneous electrical stimulation (3 × 10 sec, 5 sets). The AE group ran on a treadmill (25 m/min, 60 min). Muscle samples were taken 0, 1, and 3 h after completion of the exercises. AMPK, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and TBC1D1 phosphorylation were increased immediately after both forms of exercise and returned to baseline levels by 3 h. Muscle IGF1 expression was increased by RE but not AE, and maintained until 3 h after RE Additionally, Akt and AS160 phosphorylation were sustained for 3 h after RE, whereas they returned to baseline levels by 3 h after AE Similarly, GLUT4 translocation remained elevated 3 h after RE, although it returned to the baseline level by 3 h after AE Overall, this study showed that AMPK/TBC1D1 and IGF1/Akt/AS160 signaling were enhanced by acute RE, and that GLUT4 translocation after acute RE was more prolonged than after acute AE These results suggest that acute RE-induced increases in intramuscular IGF1 expression might be a distinct regulator of GLUT4 translocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5002915PMC
August 2016

Herbal supplement Kamishimotsuto augments resistance exercise-induced mTORC1 signaling in rat skeletal muscle.

Nutrition 2016 Jan 22;32(1):108-13. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: Kamishimotsuto (KST) is a supplement containing 13 different herbs including Phellodendron bark, Anemarrhena rhizome and ginseng that have been shown to activate mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and thereby increase muscle protein synthesis in vitro. However, the combined effect of KST and resistance exercise on muscle protein anabolism has not been investigated in vivo. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of KST supplementation, resistance exercise on (mTORC1) signaling and subsequent muscle protein synthesis.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: one group received KST (500 mg/kg/d in water) and the other group received placebo (PLA) for 7 d. After 12 h of fasting, the right gastrocnemius muscle was isometrically exercised via percutaneous electrical stimulation. Muscle samples were analyzed for muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and by western blotting analysis to assess the phosphorylation of p70S6K (Thr389), rpS6 (Ser240/244), and Akt (Ser473 and Thr308).

Results: KST supplementation for 7 d significantly increased basal p-Akt (Ser473) levels compared with PLA, phosphorylation of the signaling proteins and MPS at baseline were otherwise unaffected. p-p70S6K and p-rpS6 levels significantly increased 1 h and 3 h after exercise in the PLA group, and these elevations were augmented in the KST group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MPS at 6 h after resistance exercise was greater in the KST group than in the PLA group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: While resistance exercise alone was able to increase p70S6K and rpS6 phosphorylation, Kamishimotsuto supplementation further augmented resistance exercise-induced muscle protein synthesis through mTORC1 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2015.06.015DOI Listing
January 2016

Acute bout of resistance exercise increases vitamin D receptor protein expression in rat skeletal muscle.

Exp Physiol 2015 Oct;100(10):1168-76

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does an acute bout of exercise alter vitamin D receptor expression in rat skeletal muscle? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance exercise but not endurance exercise increased intramuscular vitamin D receptor expression. Thus, resistance exercise may be an effective way to increase muscle vitamin D receptor expression. Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are involved in the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and function. Although resistance exercise is well known to enhance muscle growth and improve muscle function, the effect of resistance exercise on VDR has been unclear. We investigated intramuscular VDR expression in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise or endurance exercise. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either resistance exercise (isometrically exercised via percutaneous electrical stimulation for five sets of ten 3 s contractions, with a 7 s interval between contractions and 3 min rest intervals between sets) or endurance exercise (treadmill at 25 m min(-1) for 60 min). Rats were killed immediately or 1, 3, 6 or 24 h after completion of the resistance or endurance exercise, and gastrocnemius muscles were removed. Non-exercised control animals were killed in a basal state (control group). Intramuscular VDR expression was significantly higher immediately after resistance exercise and elevated for 3 h after exercise compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and the resistance exercise significantly increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Mnk1 expression (P < 0.05), which may be associated with VDR expression, immediately after exercise. Additionally, intramuscular expression of cytochrome P450 27B1, an enzyme related to vitamin D metabolism, was significantly higher at 1 and 3 h after exercise (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. In contrast, endurance exercise had no effect on any of the measured proteins. Our results indicate that resistance exercise may be an efficient way to increase intramuscular VDR and related enzyme expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP085207DOI Listing
October 2015

Ischemic preconditioning accelerates muscle deoxygenation dynamics and enhances exercise endurance during the work-to-work test.

Physiol Rep 2015 May;3(5)

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) improves maximal exercise performance. However, the potential mechanism(s) underlying the beneficial effects of IPC remain unknown. The dynamics of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and muscle deoxygenation during exercise is frequently used for assessing O2 supply and extraction. Thus, this study examined the effects of IPC on systemic and local O2 dynamics during the incremental step transitions from low- to moderate- and from moderate- to severe-intensity exercise. Fifteen healthy, male subjects were instructed to perform the work-to-work cycling exercise test, which was preceded by the control (no occlusion) or IPC (3 × 5 min, bilateral leg occlusion at >300 mmHg) treatments. The work-to-work test was performed by gradually increasing the exercise intensity as follows: low intensity at 30 W for 3 min, moderate intensity at 90% of the gas exchange threshold (GET) for 4 min, and severe intensity at 70% of the difference between the GET and VO2 peak until exhaustion. During the exercise test, the breath-by-breath pulmonary VO2 and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle deoxygenation were continuously recorded. Exercise endurance during severe-intensity exercise was significantly enhanced by IPC. There were no significant differences in pulmonary VO2 dynamics between treatments. In contrast, muscle deoxygenation dynamics in the step transition from low- to moderate-intensity was significantly faster in IPC than in CON (27.2 ± 2.9 vs. 19.8 ± 0.9 sec, P < 0.05). The present findings showed that IPC accelerated muscle deoxygenation dynamics in moderate-intensity exercise and enhanced severe-intensity exercise endurance during work-to-work test. The IPC-induced effects may result from mitochondrial activation in skeletal muscle, as indicated by the accelerated O2 extraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4463825PMC
May 2015