Publications by authors named "Koen Iterbeke"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Darunavir/cobicistat once daily for the treatment of HIV.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2015 Jun;13(6):691-704

Janssen Pharmaceutics, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA.

A current focus in HIV management is improving adherence by minimizing pill burden with convenient formulations, including fixed-dose combinations (FDCs). Darunavir, a HIV protease inhibitor, co-administered with low-dose ritonavir (800/100 mg once daily), is recommended in guidelines in combination with other antiretrovirals for HIV patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Cobicistat is an alternative agent to ritonavir for boosting plasma drug levels of darunavir among other antiretrovirals. Cobicistat is a more specific cytochrome P450 3A inhibitor than ritonavir without enzyme-inducing properties. This review describes the differing effects of cobicistat and ritonavir on metabolic enzymes, which explains their differing drug-drug interactions, and summarizes some of the studied drug-drug interactions for cobicistat. It also outlines the clinical development and data for a once-daily darunavir/cobicistat FDC. This FDC thus allows for a once-daily treatment regimen (including background antiretrovirals) with reduced pill burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14787210.2015.1033400DOI Listing
June 2015

Pharmacokinetics of darunavir in fixed-dose combination with cobicistat compared with coadministration of darunavir and ritonavir as single agents in healthy volunteers.

J Clin Pharmacol 2014 Aug 26;54(8):949-57. Epub 2014 Mar 26.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA.

This study compared the bioavailability of two candidate fixed-dose combinations (FDCs: G003 and G004) of darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg with that of darunavir 800 mg and ritonavir 100 mg coadministered as single agents. Short-term safety and tolerability of the FDC formulations were also assessed. This open-label trial included 36 healthy volunteers and assessed steady-state pharmacokinetics of darunavir over 3 randomized, 10-day treatment sequences, under fed conditions. Blood samples for determination of plasma concentrations of darunavir and cobicistat or ritonavir were taken over 24 hours on day 10 and analyzed by liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectroscopy. Darunavir AUC24h following administration of the FDCs (G003: 74,780 ng ∙ h/mL and G004: 76,490 ng ∙ h/mL) was comparable to that following darunavir/ritonavir (78,410 ng ∙ h/mL), as was Cmax (6,666 and 6,917 ng/mL versus 6,973 ng/mL, respectively). Modestly lower C0h (1,504 and 1,478 ng/mL versus 2,015 ng/mL) and Cmin (1,167 and 1,224 ng/mL versus 1,540 ng/mL) values were seen with the FDCs. Short-term tolerability of the FDCs was comparable to that of darunavir/ritonavir when administered as single agents. The most common adverse events reported were headache, gastrointestinal upset, or rash. Cobicistat is an effective pharmacoenhancer of darunavir when administered as an FDC. Short-term administration of darunavir/ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat was generally well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.290DOI Listing
August 2014

Development of a long-acting injectable formulation with nanoparticles of rilpivirine (TMC278) for HIV treatment.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009 Aug 27;72(3):502-8. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Tibotec bvba, Gen. De Wittelaan L11B 3, 2800 Mechelen, Belgium.

Long-acting parenteral formulations of antiretrovirals could facilitate maintenance and prophylactic treatment in HIV. Using the poorly water- and oil-soluble non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) TMC278 (rilpivirine) as base or hydrochloride (HCl), nanosuspensions were prepared by wet milling (Elan NanoCrystal technology) in an aqueous carrier. Laser diffraction showed that the average particles size were (1) close to the targeted size proportionality (200-400-800 nm), with increasing distributions the larger the average particle size, and (2) were stable over 6 months. Following single-dose administration, the plasma concentration profiles showed sustained release of TMC278 over 3 months in dogs and 3 weeks in mice. On comparison of intramuscular and subcutaneous injection of 5mg/kg (200 nm) in dogs, the subcutaneous route resulted in the most stable plasma levels (constant at 25 ng/mL for 20 days, after which levels declined slowly to 1-3 ng/mL at 3 months); 200 nm nanosuspensions achieved higher and less variable plasma concentration profiles than 400 and 800 nm nanosuspensions. In mice, the pharmacokinetic profiles after a single 20mg/kg dose (200 nm) were similar with two different surfactants used (poloxamer 338, or d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate). In conclusion, this study provides proof-of-concept that 200-nm sized TMC278 nanosuspensions may act as long-acting injectable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2009.03.006DOI Listing
August 2009

Preclinical evaluation of a new, stabilized neurotensin(8--13) pseudopeptide radiolabeled with (99m)tc.

J Nucl Med 2002 Mar;43(3):374-83

Center for Radiopharmaceutical Science, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland.

Unlabelled: The rapid degradation of neurotensin (NT) limits its clinical use in cancer imaging and therapy. Thus, a new NT(8--13) pseudopeptide, NT-VIII, was synthesized. Some changes were introduced in the sequence of NT(8--13) to stabilize the molecule against enzymatic degradation: Arg(8) was N-methylated, and Lys and Tle replaced Arg(9) and Ile(12), respectively. Finally, (NalphaHis)Ac was coupled to the N-terminus for (99m)Tc(CO)(3) labeling. This peptide was characterized both in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: The new analog was labeled with (99m)Tc(CO)(3). Its metabolic stability was analyzed both in human plasma and in HT-29 cells. Binding properties, receptor downregulation, and internalization were tested with HT-29 cells. Biodistribution was evaluated in nude mice with HT-29 xenografts.

Results: (99m)Tc(CO)(3)NT-VIII showed a high stability in plasma, where most of the peptide remained intact after 24 h of incubation at 37 degreesC. However, the degradation in HT-29 cells was more rapid (46% of intact (99m)Tc(CO)(3)NT-VIII after 24 h at 37 degreesC). Binding to NT1 receptors (NTR1) was saturable and specific. Scatchard analysis showed a high affinity for (99m)Tc(CO)(3)NT-VIII, with a dissociation constant similar to (125)I-NT (1.8 vs. 1.6 nmol/L). After interacting with NTR1, (99m)Tc(CO)(3)NT-VIII was rapidly internalized, with more than 90% internalized after 30 min. It also distributed and cleared rapidly in nude mice bearing HT-29 xenografts. The highest rates of accumulation were found in kidney and tumor at all time points tested. Tumor uptake was highly specific because it could be blocked by coinjection with a high dose of (NalphaHis)Ac-NT(8--13). Tumors were clearly visualized in scintigraphy images.

Conclusion: The changes that were introduced stabilized the molecule against enzymatic degradation without affecting binding properties. Moreover, the increase in stability enhanced tumor uptake, making this derivative a promising candidate for clinical use.
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March 2002

Biodistribution and catabolism of (18)F-labeled neurotensin(8-13) analogs.

Nucl Med Biol 2002 Jan;29(1):61-72

Institut fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Germany.

4-([(18)F]fluoro)benzoyl-neurotensin(8-13) ((18)FB-Arg(8)-Arg(9)-Pro(10)-Tyr(11)- Ile(12)-Leu(13)-OH, 1) and two analogs stabilized in one and two positions ((18)FB-Arg(8)psi(CH(2)NH)Arg(9)-Pro(10)-Tyr(11)- Ile(12)-Leu(13)-OH, 2, (18)FB-Arg(8)psi(CH(2)NH)Arg(9)-Pro(10)-Tyr(11)-Tle(12)-Leu(13)-OH, 3) were synthesized in a radiochemical yield of 25-36% and a specific activity of 5-15 GBq/mmol. The peptides were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their potential to image tumors overexpressing neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) by positron emission tomography (PET). All analogs exhibited in vitro binding affinity in the low nanomolar range to NTR1-expressing human tumors, measured by quantitative receptor autoradiography, HT-29 and WiDr cells, and to sections of tumors derived from these cell lines in mice. The radiotracers were internalized in the cells in vitro, and the fluorinated peptides were able to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+) of WiDr cells. In in vivo studies in rats and in mice bearing HT-29 cell tumors, only a moderate uptake of the radioligands into the studied tumors was observed, presumed to be due to degradation in vivo and fast elimination by the kidneys. In comparison with the other analogs, the specific tumor uptake expressed as tumor-to-muscle relation was highest for the radioligand 3. The blood clearance of 3 was reduced by co-injection of peptidase inhibitors. The catabolic pathways of the radiofluorinated peptides were elucidated. The results suggest that the high binding affinity to NTR1 and the stabilization against proteolytic degradation are not yet sufficient for tumor imaging by PET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0969-8051(01)00284-0DOI Listing
January 2002