Publications by authors named "Knut J Bjuland"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reduced white matter fractional anisotropy mediates cortical thickening in adults born preterm with very low birthweight.

Neuroimage 2019 03 28;188:217-227. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway; Department of Pediatrics, Sørlandet Hospital, Arendal, Norway.

Development of the cerebral cortex may be affected by aberrant white matter development. Preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW) has been associated with reduced fractional anisotropy of white matter and changes in cortical thickness and surface area. We use a new methodological approach to combine white and gray matter data and test the hypothesis that white matter injury is primary, and acts as a mediating factor for concomitant gray matter aberrations, in the developing VLBW brain. T1 and dMRI data were obtained from 47 young adults born preterm with VLBW and 73 term-born peers (mean age = 26). Cortical thickness was measured across the cortical mantle and compared between the groups, using the FreeSurfer software suite. White matter pathways were reconstructed with the TRACULA software and projected to their cortical end regions, where cortical thickness was averaged. In the VLBW group, cortical thickness was increased in anteromedial frontal, orbitofrontal, and occipital regions, and fractional anisotropy (FA) was reduced in frontal lobe pathways, indicating compromised white matter integrity. Statistical mediation analyses demonstrated that increased cortical thickness in the frontal regions was mediated by reduced FA in the corpus callosum forceps minor, consistent with the notion that white matter injury can disrupt frontal lobe cortical development. Combining statistical mediation analysis with pathway projection onto the cortical surface offers a powerful novel tool to investigate how cortical regions are differentially affected by white matter injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.11.050DOI Listing
March 2019

Joint Analysis of Cortical Area and Thickness as a Replacement for the Analysis of the Volume of the Cerebral Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2018 02;28(2):738-749

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7030, Norway.

Cortical surface area is an increasingly used brain morphology metric that is ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct from cortical thickness and offers a separate index of neurodevelopment and disease. However, the various existing methods for assessment of cortical surface area from magnetic resonance images have never been systematically compared. We show that the surface area method implemented in FreeSurfer corresponds closely to the exact, but computationally more demanding, mass-conservative (pycnophylactic) method, provided that images are smoothed. Thus, the data produced by this method can be interpreted as estimates of cortical surface area, as opposed to areal expansion. In addition, focusing on the joint analysis of thickness and area, we compare an improved, analytic method for measuring cortical volume to a permutation-based nonparametric combination (NPC) method. We use the methods to analyze area, thickness and volume in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight, and show that NPC analysis is a more sensitive option for studying joint effects on area and thickness, giving equal weight to variation in both of these 2 morphological features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhx308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5972607PMC
February 2018

Cortical trajectories during adolescence in preterm born teenagers with very low birthweight.

Cortex 2016 Feb 18;75:120-131. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Pediatrics, Sørlandet Hospital, Arendal, Norway.

While cross-sectional neuroimaging studies on cortical development predict reductions in cortical volume (surface area and thickness) during adolescence, this is the first study to undertake a longitudinal assessment of cortical surface area changes across the continuous cortical surface during this period. We studied the developmental dynamics of cortical surface area and thickness in adolescents and young adults (aged 15-20) born with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) as well as in term-born controls. Previous studies have demonstrated brain structural abnormalities in cortical morphology, as well as long-term motor, cognitive and behavioral impairments, in adolescents and young adults with VLBW, but the developmental dynamics throughout adolescence have not been fully explored. T1-weighted MRI scans from 51 VLBW (27 scanned twice) and 79 term-born adolescents (37 scanned twice) were used to reconstruct the cortical surface and produce longitudinal estimates of cortical surface area and cortical thickness. Linear mixed model analyses were performed, and the main effects of time and group, as well as time × group interaction effects, were investigated. In both groups, cortical surface area decreased up to 5% in some regions, and cortical thickness up to 8%, over the five-year period. The most affected regions were located on the lateral aspect of the hemispheres, in posterior temporal, parietal and to some extent frontal regions. There was no significant interaction between time and group for either morphometry variable. In conclusion, cortical thickness decreases from 15 to 20 years of age, in a similar fashion in the clinical and control groups. Moreover, we show for the first time that developmental trajectories of cortical surface area in preterm and term-born adolescents do not diverge during adolescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2015.12.001DOI Listing
February 2016

Cortical morphometry and IQ in VLBW children without cerebral palsy born in 2003-2007.

Neuroimage Clin 2015 14;8:193-201. Epub 2015 Apr 14.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Trondheim, Norway.

Children born prematurely with very low birth weight (VLBW: bw  ≤ 1500 g) have an increased risk of preterm perinatal brain injury, which may subsequently alter the maturation of the brain, including the cerebral cortex. The aim of study was to assess cortical thickness and surface area in VLBW children compared with term-born controls, and to investigate possible relationships between cortical morphology and Full IQ. In this cross-sectional study, 37 VLBW and 104 term children born between the years 2003-2007 were assessed cognitively at 5-10 years of age, using age appropriate Wechsler tests. The FreeSurfer software was used to obtain estimates of cortical thickness and surface area based on T1-weighted MRI images at 1.5 Tesla. The VLBW children had smaller cortical surface area bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. A thicker cortex in the frontal and occipital regions and a thinner cortex in posterior parietal areas were observed in the VLBW group. There were significant differences in Full IQ between groups (VLBW M = 98, SD = 9.71; controls M = 108, SD = 13.57; p < 0.001). There was a positive relationship between IQ and surface area in both groups, albeit significant only in the larger control group. In the VLBW group, reduced IQ was associated with frontal cortical thickening and temporo-parietal thinning. We conclude that cortical deviations are evident in childhood even in VLBW children born in 2003-2007 who have received state of the art medical treatment in the perinatal period and who did not present with focal brain injuries on neonatal ultrasonography. The cortical deviations were associated with reduced cognitive functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2015.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4473819PMC
March 2016

Brain morphometry and cognition in young adults born small for gestational age at term.

J Pediatr 2014 Nov 10;165(5):921-7.e1. Epub 2014 Sep 10.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Pediatrics, Sørlandet Hospital, Arendal, Norway.

Objectives: To examine brain volumes and cortical surface area and thickness and to relate these brain measures to cognitive function in young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) at term compared with non-SGA control patients.

Study Design: This population-based follow-up study at age 20 years included 58 term-born SGA (birth weight <10th percentile, mean: 2915 g) and 81 non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥ 10th percentile, mean: 3707 g). Brain volumes and cortical surface area and thickness were investigated with magnetic resonance imaging, which was successfully obtained in 47 SGA patients and 61 control patients. Cognitive function was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition. A subgroup analysis was performed in the SGA group among subjects diagnosed with fetal growth restriction (FGR) based on repeated fetal ultrasound measurements.

Results: The SGA group showed regional reductions in cortical surface area, particularly in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Total brain volume, cortical gray matter, cerebral white matter, and putamen volumes were reduced in the SGA group compared with control patients, but there were no differences in specific subcortical brain structure volumes when correcting for intracranial volume. Reductions were most pronounced among SGA subjects with FGR. No associations were found between brain measures and IQ measures in either group.

Conclusion: Young adults born SGA at term show a global reduction in brain volume as well as regional reductions in cortical surface area. We speculate whether these reductions may be confined to those exposed to FGR. None of the brain measures correlated with cognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.07.045DOI Listing
November 2014

Brain volumes and cognitive function in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) young adults.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2014 Sep 14;18(5):578-90. Epub 2014 Apr 14.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Olav Kyrres gt. 11, N-7489 Trondheim, Norway; Department of Pediatrics, Sørlandet Hospital, 4809 Arendal, Norway.

Background: Preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW: birth weight ≤1500 g) survivors have increased risk of perinatal brain injury that may cause deviant brain development and later neuroimpairments, including reduced cognitive functioning.

Aims: In this long-term follow up study of three year-cohorts (birth years 1986-88) of VLBW subjects and term born controls with normal birth weight, the aim was to examine differences in brain volumes at age 20 years. In addition, the relationships between brain volumes and cognitive abilities and perinatal variables were explored.

Methods: Forty-four VLBW subjects and 60 controls were assessed with cognitive testing (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - WAIS-III) and structural MRI at 1.5 T, using the FreeSurfer 5.1 software for volumetric analysis. A subpopulation had MRI performed also at age 15, and for this group changes in brain volumes with age were examined.

Results: The VLBW subjects had smaller brain volumes, especially of thalamus, globus pallidus and parts of the corpus callosum, and larger lateral ventricles than controls at age 20. However, no significant group differences in longitudinal change from age 15 to 20 were observed. The most immature and smallest VLBW subjects at birth, and those with the highest perinatal morbidity, showed most pronounced volume deviations. Positive associations between several brain volumes and full IQ, as well as three of four IQ indices in the VLBW group, were observed.

Conclusion: Reduced volumes of grey and white matter and ventricular dilatation in VLBW young adults may indicate permanent effects on brain development from perinatal brain injury with influence on later cognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2014.04.004DOI Listing
September 2014
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