Publications by authors named "Klaus Failing"

133 Publications

Downregulation of testicular function in the goat by altrenogest.

BMC Vet Res 2021 May 4;17(1):183. Epub 2021 May 4.

Clinic of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Andrology of Large and Small Animals with Ambulatory Service, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Frankfurter Strasse 106, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Background: The present study investigated whether the administration of the progestin altrenogest provides noninvasive, temporary, and reversible suppression of gonadal function in the goat as a potential alternative to chirurgical castration, which is related with irreversibility, risks of complications till death of the animal and welfare issues. Eight sexually mature Peacock goats were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was administered altrenogest (0.088 mg/kg) orally once daily for 7 weeks. The remaining four goats received an oral glucose solution and served as the control group. After completing the administration period, the reversibility of the medication was evaluated for another 7 weeks (observation phase). The treatment effects were assessed by clinical examination; ultrasound examination of the testes, including one-dimensional grayscale analysis, blood testosterone levels, analysis of semen parameters and libido. At the end of the observation period, the animals were castrated and the testicles were examined histologically.

Results: Altrenogest treatment had no significant effect on the physical development of the goats, the sonographic appearance of the testes, the gray values measured in the ultrasound images, or the blood testosterone levels. The effects of treatment on the testicular and semen parameters varied widely in the experimental animals; the testicle volume was significantly lower and the number of pathologically altered sperm in the ejaculate was significantly higher in treated animals.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that daily altrenogest administration at a dose of 0.088 mg/kg does not reliably suppress gonadal function in the goat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02845-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097835PMC
May 2021

Wild Boars Carry Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC-Producing .

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 12;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute for Veterinary Food Science, Justus-Liebig-University, Frankfurter Str. 92, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) represent major healthcare concerns. The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of these bacteria is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine their prevalence in wild boars in Germany and to characterize individual isolates. A total of 375 fecal samples and 439 nasal swabs were screened for the presence of ESBL-/AmpC- and MRSA, respectively. The associations of seven demographic and anthropogenic variables with the occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC- were statistically evaluated. Collected isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular typing methods, and gene detection by PCR and genome sequencing. ESBL-/AmpC- were detected in 22 fecal samples (5.9%) whereas no MRSA were detected. The occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC- in wild boars was significantly and positively associated with human population density. Of the 22 , 19 were confirmed as ESBL-producers and carried genes belonging to group 1 or . The remaining three isolates carried the AmpC-β-lactamase gene . Several isolates showed additional antimicrobial resistances. All four major phylogenetic groups were represented with group B1 being the most common. This study demonstrates that wild boars can serve as a reservoir for ESBL-/AmpC-producing and multidrug-resistant .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917586PMC
February 2021

Metabolic Signatures of -Infected HCT-8 Cells and Impact of Selected Metabolic Inhibitors on Infection under Physioxia and Hyperoxia.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Jan 15;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Biomedical Research Center Seltersberg, Institute of Parasitology, Justus Liebig University-Giessen, Schubert Str. 81, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

is an apicomplexan zoonotic parasite recognized as the second leading-cause of diarrhoea-induced mortality in children. In contrast to other apicomplexans, has minimalistic metabolic capacities which are almost exclusively based on glycolysis. Consequently, is highly dependent on its host cell metabolism. In vivo (within the intestine) infected epithelial host cells are typically exposed to low oxygen pressure (1-11% O, termed physioxia). Here, we comparatively analyzed the metabolic signatures of -infected HCT-8 cells cultured under both, hyperoxia (21% O), representing the standard oxygen condition used in most experimental settings, and physioxia (5% O), to be closer to the in vivo situation. The most pronounced effect of infection on host cell metabolism was, on one side, an increase in glucose and glutamine uptake, and on the other side, an increase in lactate release. When cultured in a glutamine-deficient medium, infection led to a massive increase in glucose consumption and lactate production. Together, these results point to the important role of both glycolysis and glutaminolysis during intracellular replication. Referring to obtained metabolic signatures, we targeted glycolysis as well as glutaminolysis in -infected host cells by using the inhibitors lonidamine [inhibitor of hexokinase, mitochondrial carrier protein (MCP) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1, 2, 4], galloflavin (lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor), syrosingopine (MCT1- and MCT4 inhibitor) and compound 968 (glutaminase inhibitor) under hyperoxic and physioxic conditions. In line with metabolic signatures, all inhibitors significantly reduced parasite replication under both oxygen conditions, thereby proving both energy-related metabolic pathways, glycolysis and glutaminolysis, but also lactate export mechanisms via MCTs as pivotal for under in vivo physioxic conditions of mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10010060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831031PMC
January 2021

Effects of supplementation of DL-methionine on tissue and plasma antioxidant status during heat-induced oxidative stress in broilers.

Poult Sci 2020 Dec 14;99(12):6837-6847. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

University of Giessen, Institute of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.

Exposure to high ambient temperature has been shown to impair growth performance and to cause oxidative stress in broilers. This study investigated the hypothesis that supplementation with methionine (Met) as DL-Met (DLM) more than the National Research Council recommendations improves growth performance and alleviates oxidative stress in broilers exposed to high ambient temperature. One-day-old male Cobb-500 broilers (n = 68) were allotted to 4 groups and phase-fed 3 basal diets during days 1 to 10, 11 to 21, and 22 to 35. One group was kept under thermoneutral temperature conditions and received the basal diets with Met + cysteine (Cys) concentrations according to recommendations of NRC. The other 3 groups were kept in a room with an increased ambient temperature from week 3 to 5 and were fed either the basal diet or the basal diets supplemented with 2 levels of DLM in which Met + Cys concentrations exceeded NRC recommendations by around 20% (group DLM1) and 40% (group DLM2), respectively. As expected, the broilers exposed to high ambient temperature showed a lower feed intake, lower body weight gains, a higher feed:gain ratio, and biochemical indications of oxidative stress in comparison to broilers kept under thermoneutral temperature conditions. Supplementation of DLM did not improve the growth performance in broilers exposed to high ambient temperature. However, the broilers supplemented with DLM had increased concentrations of glutathione in liver and breast muscle (groups DLM1 and DLM2), increased concentrations of tocopherols in the liver (group DLM2), and reduced concentrations of 7α-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol in heat-processed thigh muscle (groups DLM1 and DLM2) in comparison to the control group exposed to high ambient temperature. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and vitamin C in plasma, liver, and muscle were not different between the 3 groups exposed to heat stress. Nevertheless, the study shows that supplementation of DLM in slight excess of the Met concentration required for maximum growth performance improved the antioxidant status in tissues and reduced the susceptibility of muscle toward oxidation in heat-stressed broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.08.082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704969PMC
December 2020

Interictal Single-Voxel Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Temporal Lobe in Dogs With Idiopathic Epilepsy.

Front Vet Sci 2020 24;7:644. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Internal Diseases With a Clinic for Horses, Dogs and Cats, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland.

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H1-MRS) could provide insight into the metabolic pathophysiology of the temporal lobe of canine brain after seizure. Currently, there is no evidence-based data available on MRS of temporal lobe in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE). The aim of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the interictal metabolic activity of the temporal lobe in IE dogs compared to a control group with the use of H1-MRS. Ten healthy dogs and 27 client-owned dogs with IE underwent 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel H1-MRS. The MRS studies were acquired as spin echoes with a repetition time (TR) of 2,000 ms and an echo time (TE) of 144 ms. A cubic voxel (10 ×10 ×10 mm) was positioned bilaterally into the region of the left and right temporal lobe, including a middle part of the hippocampus and the amygdala. The N-acetylaspartate (NAA)-to-creatine (NAA/Cr), NAA-to-choline (NAA/Cho), choline-to-creatine (Cho/Cr), and choline-to-NAA (Cho/NAA) ratios were determined in both hemispheres and compared to controls. No significant differences in all metabolite ratios between epileptic dogs and the control group could be found. A time-dependent decrease in the NAA/Cho ratio as well as an increase in the Cho/NAA ratio was found with proximity in time to the last seizure. We found no correlation between metabolite ratios and age or sex in this animal group. Time span from the last seizure to the acquisition of MRS significantly correlated with NAA/Cho and Cho/NAA ratio. We conclude that without a time relation, metabolite ratios in dogs with IE do not differ from those of the control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541947PMC
September 2020

Effect of DL-Methionine Supplementation on Tissue and Plasma Antioxidant Status and Concentrations of Oxidation Products of Cholesterol and Phytosterols in Heat-Processed Thigh Muscle of Broilers.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Nov 5;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Institute of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Physiology, Justus Liebig University, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

In this study, the hypothesis that supplementation with methionine (Met) as DL-Met (DLM) in excess of the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations improves the antioxidant system in broilers was investigated. Day-old male Cobb-500 broilers (n = 72) were divided into three groups which were fed a control diet or diets supplemented with two levels of DLM in which the concentrations of Met + Cys exceeded the recommendations of NRC by 15-20% (group DLM 1) or 30-40% (group DLM 2), respectively. The three groups of broilers did not show differences in body weight gains, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. However, broilers of groups DLM 1 and DLM 2 had higher concentrations of glutathione (GSH) in liver and thigh muscle and lower concentrations of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in heat-processed thigh muscle than broilers of the control group. Concentrations of several oxidation products of phytosterols in heat-processed thigh muscle were also reduced in groups DLM 1 and DLM 2; however, the concentration of total oxidation products of phytosterols was not different between the three groups. The study shows that DLM supplementation improved the antioxidant status due to an increased formation of GSH and reduced the formation of COPs during heat-processing in thigh muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10112050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694460PMC
November 2020

Association of bovine uterine involution disturbances with serum neuropeptide concentrations.

Vet World 2020 Sep 11;13(9):1854-1857. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Clinic for Ruminants Internal Medicine and Surgery, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany.

Background And Aim: Puerperal diseases influence fertility and should be diagnosed as soon as possible. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of serum concentrations of substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and interleukin (IL)1β in the early diagnosis of uterine involution disturbances.

Materials And Methods: Blood serum samples of 86 dairy cows from six different farms were harvested within the first 20 days after calving from cows with uterine involution disturbances and healthy controls, respectively. Serum concentrations for SP, VIP, and IL-1β were determined using commercially available ELISA test kits. Statistical analyses included timely changes in blood serum levels and group comparisons of healthy cows and cows with uterine disease.

Results: SP concentrations increased significantly within 20 days after calving (p<0.04) with no significant difference observed between the groups. Moreover, no significant differences were found between VIP and log IL-1β.

Conclusion: Results showed that none of the examined serum parameters seems suitable as indicator of uterine involution disorders. Due to the timely changes in serum concentrations of SP after calving, a correlation to diseases might not be precluded. Further research is needed as regards the establishment of normative values concerning this parameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.1854-1857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566235PMC
September 2020

Effect of heel elevation on breakover phase in horses with laminitis.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Oct 1;16(1):370. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Clinic for Horses (Surgery, Orthopaedics), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Frankfurter str. 108, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Background: In a laminitic horse, the maximal loading of the toe region occurs during the breakover phase. To date, no kinetic data demonstrates the effect of supportive orthopaedic therapy in horses with laminitis on breakover phase. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of heel elevation on the breakover phase. Eight horses with acute laminitis treated medically as well as with application of a hoof cast with heel wedge (HCHW) were included in this study. Immediately following cessation of clinical signs of acute laminitis, two measurements using the Hoof™ System were taken: the first with HCHW and the second immediately following removal of the HCHW, i.e. in barefoot condition (BFC). The hoof print was divided into three regions: toe, middle hoof, and heel. Kinetic parameters included vertical force (VF), stance duration, contact area (CA) for all hoof regions during stance phase, duration of breakover, VF in the toe region at onset of breakover and location of centre of force.

Results: The VF and CA were higher in the heel region (63 and 61%, respectively) and decreased significantly after removal of the HCHW (43 and 28% after removal, respectively). The breakover phase in horses with HCHW lasted 2% of stance phase and was significantly shorter than that in BFC, which lasted 6% of stance phase. The VF at onset of breakover for the toe region in horses with HCHW was significantly lower than that in BFC. The centre of the force was located at the heel region in all horses with the HCHW, and at the middle the hoof region in BFC.

Conclusions: Heel elevation in horses with laminitis as examined on a concrete surface significantly shortens breakover phase and decreases the vertical force in the toe region during breakover. HCHW provides adequate support to the palmar hoof structures by increasing the contact area in the heel region and incorporating the palmar part of frog and sole into weight bearing, thus decreasing the stress on the lamellae. Hoof cast with heel elevation could be a beneficial orthopaedic supportive therapy for horses suffering from acute laminitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02571-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528610PMC
October 2020

Canine mammary tumours: Size matters-a progression from low to highly malignant subtypes.

Vet Comp Oncol 2020 Sep 17. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Small Animal Clinic Hofheim, Hofheim am Taunus, Germany.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a possible association between mammary tumour size and increasing degree of malignancy. Data of 625 dogs with a total of 1459 mammary tumours were analysed retrospectively. 80.3% dogs were intact, mean age at diagnosis was 9.7 ± 2.5 years, 75.8% were pure breed dogs. Median body weight was 20.0 kg. Malignant tumours (n = 580) were significantly larger than their benign counterparts (1.94 cm vs 0.90 cm in mean, respectively; P ≤ .0001), resulting in a positive correlation between increasing tumour size and a change from benign to malignant (P ≤ .0001; r = 0.214). When malignant tumours were grouped into four degrees of increasing malignancy (complex/simple/solid/anaplastic carcinomas) a significant positive correlation between increasing tumour size and more malignant tumour degree (P ≤ .0001; r = 0.195) could be demonstrated. In a number of cases, highly malignant tumours were found to arise within less malignant lesions, supporting the concept of a further progression within the malignant tumour subtypes. In patients with multiple tumours, mean tumour sizes for malignant tumours were significantly smaller compared to patients with only one tumour (1.67 vs 2.71 cm in mean, respectively; P < .0001). These findings suggest that mammary tumours progress not only from benign to malignant but also from low to highly malignant. An increase in diameter of only a few millimetres may therefore have a big impact on the patient's outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12649DOI Listing
September 2020

Prevalence of seizures in dogs and cats with idiopathic internal hydrocephalus and seizure prevalence after implantation of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt.

J Vet Intern Med 2020 Sep 12;34(5):1986-1992. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Small Animal Clinic, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.

Background: Seizures are considered a clinical sign in dogs with internal hydrocephalus but are not found in recent studies. Seizure prevalence due to ventricular enlargement and the prevalence of postoperative seizures in animals is not known.

Objectives: To determine seizure prevalence in dogs and cats with idiopathic internal hydrocephalus, to identify risk factors for seizure development, and to determine seizure prevalence in a 2-year period after ventriculo-peritoneal shunting (VPS).

Animals: Records and MRIs of 197 animals from 2001 to December 2019 were investigated. A total of 121 animals (98 dogs and 23 cats) were included in the study.

Methods: A retrospective multicenter case cohort study was conducted. Databases were searched for dogs and cats with internal hydrocephalus. MRI and CSF examinations were evaluated for signs of additional underlying disorders. Prevalence of seizures was estimated for animals showing only hydrocephalus internus. Risk factors were evaluated according to age, morphometric and morphological findings in the brain. All animals that underwent surgery were reexamined 2 years after surgery.

Results: One hundred twenty-one animals (98 dogs and 23 cats) with internal hydrocephalus met the inclusion criteria. Seizure prevalence in dogs and cats with internal hydrocephalus was low (1.7%; <5.8% CI 95%). Seizures were not observed in the 2-year period after surgery.

Conclusion And Clinical Importance: Seizure prevalence in dogs and cats diagnosed with hydrocephalus internus is low. Seizures in association with VPS do not seem to be a complication of the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517859PMC
September 2020

Effect of long term palmitate treatment on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells - Impact of albumin.

Bone Rep 2020 Dec 13;13:100707. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Institute of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

The long-term effects of palmitate (PA) on osteogenic differentiation capacity of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were investigated by cultivating the cells in osteogenic differentiation medium (O-w/o) and osteogenic medium containing PA (O-BSA-PA) for 21 days. Osteogenic medium containing BSA (O-BSA) was used as a control. By means of rt-qPCR, successful osteogenic differentiation was observed in the O-w/o regarding the levels of osteogenic and cell-communication related genes (, , , , , , ) in contrast to expression levels observed in cells incubated within basal medium. However, in the O-BSA, these genes were found to have decreased significantly. In cases of and , PA significantly reinforced the reductive effect of BSA alone. O-BSA notably decreased glucose and pyruvate consumption, whereas glutamine consumption significantly increased. In comparison to O-BSA addition of PA significantly reduced glycolysis and glutaminolysis. ToF-SIMS analysis confirmed increased incorporation of supplemented deuterated PA into the cell membranes, while the overall PA-concentration remained unchanged compared to cells incubated in the O-BSA and O-w/o. Therefore, the effects on gene expression and the metabolism did not result from the membrane alterations, but may have risen from inter- and intracellular effects brought on by BSA and PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472858PMC
December 2020

Computed Tomography (CT)-Assisted 3D Cephalometry in Horses: Interincisal Angulation of Clinical Crowns.

Front Vet Sci 2020 29;7:434. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Veterinary-Anatomy, -Histology and -Embryology, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Gießen, Germany.

The angle encompassed between opposing incisors in horses is assumed to decline with age. Previous studies merely consider the overall profile view of clinical crowns presuming a generalized angle, neglecting potential tooth position-dependent differences. Cephalometric measurements from 3D computed tomographic thick-slab reconstructions of single incisors within a global reference frame were used to determine clinical crown interincisal angulation (IIA) of 48 horses. Based on predefined dentoalveolar landmarks, IIA was defined as the angle enclosed by the respective labial axis of the clinical crown (LACC). A measurement repeatability analysis was conducted including a comparison of third incisor teeth IIA with data obtained by cephalometric implementation of previously described landmarks for third incisor teeth (lingual/palatal border). The age-related angle course and differences between tooth positions were investigated considering LACCs of permanent incisors. Determining IIA by LACCs exhibited a high level of reproducibility applying for all tooth positions (mean coefficient of variation = 0.65 %; mean SD ± 0.89°). The comparison method for third incisor teeth revealed two times higher mean dispersion of repeated measurements, = 0.017. A non-linear model slightly increased predictability of angular changes over time as against linearity assumption. The angle decline was more distinctive in younger horses and appears to approach a final value in older ones. Third incisor teeth exhibited significantly higher angle decline compared to first and second incisor teeth, < 0.0001. According to the results, age determination of horses using clinical crown IIA is not recommended. Rather, 3D cephalometry may provide a promising tool to determine interdental and dentofacial angles of distinct tooth positions in health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403475PMC
July 2020

Evaluation of Newcastle Disease antibody titers in backyard poultry in Germany with a vaccination interval of twelve weeks.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(8):e0238068. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Gießen, Germany.

Newcastle Disease (ND) is a viral disease spread worldwide with a high impact on economy and animal welfare. Vaccination against Newcastle Disease is one of the main control measures in countries such as Germany with endemic occurrence of Newcastle Disease virus in the free ranging bird population. The German Standing Veterinary Committee on Immunization (StIKo Vet) recommends to revaccinate chickens at intervals of six weeks against Newcastle Disease with attenuated live vaccines via drinking water or spray in line with the SPCs (Summary of Product Characteristics) of current vaccines. However, it is still common practice to revaccinate only every twelve weeks because the SPCs of former vaccines proposed a revaccination after checking the antibody titer which based on practical knowledge was typically sufficient for twelve weeks. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a vaccination interval of twelve weeks against Newcastle Disease under field conditions results in sufficient seroconversion to protect flocks. Antibody titers of 810 blood samples from 27 backyard flocks of chickens were analyzed by ELISA- and HI-tests between 69 and 111 days after vaccination of the flocks with attenuated live vaccines of the ND strain Clone 30. Furthermore, data on the flocks such as breed, sex and age were collected through a questionnaire. In this study a sufficient antibody titer was found in 26 of these flocks. Therefore, a vaccination interval of every twelve weeks with the live vaccines tested is suitable for a vaccination protocol against Newcastle Disease. The lack of seroconversion of one flock also emphasizes the need for regular vaccination monitoring by serological testing and re-evaluation of the vaccination process if needed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238068PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7447011PMC
October 2020

[Influence factors on the results of a semiquantitative rapid test for immunoglobulin G concentration measurement in bovine calf serum].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2020 Aug 21;48(4):249-252. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Objective: The Fassisi Bovine IgG Test is a rapid blood test for the measurement of IgG levels in calves. The present study examined the influences of examiner subjectivity as well as time period between test begin and interpretation on the test results.

Materials And Methods: A single serum sample was obtained from each of 36 calves up to 10 days of age. Six veterinarians evaluated the serum samples obtained from 12 of the animals (inter-individual comparison). For the remaining 24 calves, the result was interpreted by one person after 10 minutes (manufacturer's information) as well as after 20 and 30 minutes (intra-individual comparison).

Results: In the inter-individual comparison, test interpretation differed in 4 out of 12 samples (33.3 %) between the different examiners. The intra-individual comparison showed that in 5 out of 24 samples (20.8 %) the test result were higher or lower when the time period from test begin to its interpretation was longer than the manufacturer's recommendation. In the majority of cases, the discrepancy amounted to maximally one level and the differences were not found to be statistically significant.

Clinical Relevance: Interpretation of the presented test was shown to be subject to subjective variations. Careful attention must be paid to adhering to the time period from test begin to its interpretation as specified by the manufacturer. Further studies verifying the presented results by a larger number of samples are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1178-7900DOI Listing
August 2020

Viability assessment of spermatozoa in large falcons (Falco spp.) using various staining protocols.

Reprod Domest Anim 2020 Oct 17;55(10):1383-1392. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Viability assessment is an important part of semen analysis, and various live/dead staining protocols have been used in semen of avian species. Results of live/dead count differed between dyes, staining protocols and bird species, impeding comparability between studies and requiring species-specific comparisons of viability stains. In raptor semen, similar comparisons are absent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare eight conventional viability stains. Eosin blue 2% [EB], eosin blue 2% with the addition of 3% sodium citrate [EB2], eosin blue-nigrosin 5% [EBN5], eosin yellow-nigrosin 5% [EYN5], eosin yellow-nigrosin 10% [EYN10], eosin blue-aniline blue [EBA], eosin yellow-aniline blue [EYA] and bromophenol blue-nigrosin [BBN] were evaluated in comparison with the fluorescence stain SYBR Green-propidium iodide [SYBR-PI] in spermatozoa of falcons. The comparison was performed using conventional light microscopy which is applicable in breeding centres, veterinary practices and field studies. Additionally, live/dead stains were correlated to motility values of the same samples to validate sperm viability. Light microscopy using EB and using SYBR-PI enabled an effective and clear differentiation between alive and dead spermatozoa of falcons. Motility values correlated significantly and strongly with EB only (r = .629; p < .001), but not with any other stain used in the study. Therefore, our results suggest EB as the most suitable stain for viability assessment in the semen of large falcons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.13785DOI Listing
October 2020

Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by type I and type III interferons.

J Biol Chem 2020 10 25;295(41):13958-13964. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Institute for Virology, FB10-Veterinary Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany

The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the devastating COVID-19 lung disease pandemic. Here, we tested the inhibitory activities of the antiviral interferons of type I (IFN-α) and type III (IFN-λ) against SARS-CoV-2 and compared them with those against SARS-CoV-1, which emerged in 2003. Using two mammalian epithelial cell lines (human Calu-3 and simian Vero E6), we found that both IFNs dose-dependently inhibit SARS-CoV-2. In contrast, SARS-CoV-1 was restricted only by IFN-α in these cell lines. SARS-CoV-2 generally exhibited a broader IFN sensitivity than SARS-CoV-1. Moreover, ruxolitinib, an inhibitor of IFN-triggered Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling, boosted SARS-CoV-2 replication in the IFN-competent Calu-3 cells. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 is sensitive to exogenously added IFNs. This finding suggests that type I and especially the less adverse effect-prone type III IFN are good candidates for the management of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.AC120.013788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549028PMC
October 2020

[Computed tomography based elbow joint morphology and incidence of elbow dysplasia in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2020 Jun 18;48(3):176-185. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Tierärztliche Klinik für Pferde Warendorf-Milte.

Objective: Elbow dysplasia (ED) is a common developmental disease of the canine elbow joint and one of the most frequent causes of forelimb lameness in domestic dogs (). ED is predominantly present in medium to large breed dogs, but has also been described in mixed breed dogs and smaller breeds. In the literature, no information is available concerning the existence of ED in wildlife species. The purpose of the present study was to obtain an overview of the elbow joint anatomy of the red fox as well as to demonstrate the incidence of ED in red foxes. Knowledge regarding the elbow conformation in red foxes may help to understand the effect of anatomical difference onto the pathogenesis of developmental elbow disease.

Material And Methods: A total 94 elbow joints of 49 red foxes () were evaluated using computed tomography (CT) and were compared to canine elbow joints.

Results: Apart from size differences and minor species-specific variations, the anatomy of the elbow joints of red foxes and domestic dogs proved to be very similar. In the red foxes, the rounded conformation of the medial coronoid process was shown to be present in 76 % of the individuals. Two elbow joints in 2 red foxes exhibited pathological changes of the medial coronoid process in the CT imaging.

Conclusion: The prevalence of medial coronoid disease in red foxes amounted to 2.1 % in the presented population. This observation is comparable to the prevalence of elbow dysplasia in small breed dogs. The rounded conformation of the medial coronoid process was found in more than three-quarters of the examined red foxes. This leads to the hypothesis that this conformation of the medial coronoid process could be the original, physiological variant. Selective breeding for such a morphological feature may be an approach to reduce the frequency of canine elbow dysplasia.

Clinical Relevance: The significance of anatomical characteristics in the development of elbow dysplasia is still unknown. Therefore, research concerning the pathogenesis of medial coronoid disease should set its focus not only on elbow joint anatomy, but also on other influencing factors, such as biomechanics, genetics and environmental parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1162-1273DOI Listing
June 2020

Hoof kinetic patterns differ between sound and laminitic horses.

Equine Vet J 2021 May 2;53(3):503-509. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Equine Clinic (Surgery, Orthopedics), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.

Background: No kinetic data on hoof loading in laminitic horses are available, despite their importance for optimising supportive shoeing therapies.

Objectives: To quantify the load distribution pattern in laminitic and sound horses.

Study Design: Controlled observational study.

Methods: Fifty-four sound and laminitic horses were assigned to three groups: control group (sound horses), group 1 (G1) horses with acute laminitis, evaluated immediately after acute clinical signs subsided, and group 2 (G2) horses that had been free of acute laminitis signs for 6-12 weeks. Measurements on both forelimbs in barefoot condition were performed during walk using the Hoof System. Kinetic parameters were recorded and compared between hoof regions and groups using covariance analyses and t tests (P < .05).

Results: Peak loading in the toe region occurred during midstance phase in control group, but during break-over in laminitic horses. This is reflected by the time to peak vertical force in the toe, which was significantly shorter in the control group compared to laminitic horses (G1 and G2) (76% ± 6% vs 89% ± 9 [P = .002], 86% ± 7 [P = .001] of stance duration respectively). The relative vertical force in the toe in the control group (46% ± 7%) was significantly higher compared to laminitic horses (G1: 29% ± 9% [P = .001]; G2: 32% ± 10% [P = .003]). The main shift of the load occurred between toe and middle hoof regions in laminitic horses as compared with the control group. No significant differences were found between G1 and G2.

Main Limitations: Measurements were not obtained in horses with acute laminitis on admission, to avoid risk of further damage to the lamellae.

Conclusions: Supportive therapy in laminitis should focus on supporting both caudal and middle hoof areas to decrease the peak pressure in these regions, and ease break-over during which the maximal loading of the toe occurs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.13311DOI Listing
May 2021

Serosurvey of Treponema pallidum infection among children with skin ulcers in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem, northern Tanzania.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jun 3;20(1):392. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Work Group Neglected Tropical Diseases, Infection Biology Unit, Deutsches Primatezentrum GmbH, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077, Goettingen, Germany.

Background: The first yaws eradication campaign reduced the prevalence of yaws by 95%. In recent years, however, yaws has reemerged and is currently subject to a second, ongoing eradication campaign. Yet, the epidemiological status of Tanzania and 75 other countries with a known history of human yaws is currently unknown. Contrary to the situation in humans in Tanzania, recent infection of nonhuman primates (NHPs) with the yaws bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) have been reported. In this study, we consider a One Health approach to investigate yaws and describe skin ulcers and corresponding T. pallidum serology results among children living in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem, an area with increasing wildlife-human interaction in northern Tanzania.

Methods: To investigate human yaws in Tanzania, we conducted a cross-sectional study to screen and interview skin-ulcerated children aged 6 to 15 years, who live in close proximity to two national parks with high numbers of naturally TPE-infected monkeys. Serum samples from children with skin ulcers were tested for antibodies against the bacterium using a treponemal (Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination assay) and a non-treponemal (Rapid Plasma Reagin) test.

Results: A total of 186 children aged between 6 and 15 years (boys: 10.7 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD), N = 132; girls: 10.9 ± 2.0 (mean ± SD), N = 54) were enrolled. Seven children were sampled at health care facilities and 179 at primary schools. 38 children (20.4%) reported active participation in bushmeat hunting and consumption and 26 (13.9%) reported at least one physical contact with a NHP. None of the lesions seen were pathognomonic for yaws. Two children tested positive for treponemal antibodies (1.2%) in the treponemal test, but remained negative in the non-treponemal test.

Conclusions: We found no serological evidence of yaws among children in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem. Nevertheless, the close genetic relationship of human and NHPs infecting TPE strains should lead to contact prevention with infected NHPs. Further research investigations are warranted to study the causes and possible prevention measures of spontaneous chronic ulcers among children in rural Tanzania and to certify that the country is free from human yaws.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05105-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268494PMC
June 2020

Assessing efficacy of N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine-Sodium Hydroxide on bacterial viability and enhanced recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bovine colostrum.

J Microbiol Methods 2020 08 29;175:105968. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Veterinary Food Science, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Frankfurter Street 92, D-35392 Gießen, Germany.

The standard procedure for the improved cultural recovery of viable Mycobacterium spp. from diverse samples mainly depends on reducing the viability of background microbiota using different chemical compounds. This study was designed to i) evaluate the efficacy and comparison between N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine-Sodium hydroxide (NALC-2% NaOH) and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (0.75% HPC) treatment and exposure time on reducing the viability of undesirable microorganisms with minimal impact on colostrum consistency; and ii) assess the impact of NALC-2% NaOH on improved and enhanced recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in spiked postpartum colostrum samples and consistency of colostrum. A total of 40 samples, each treated with NALC-2% NaOH for 15 min or 0.75% HPC for 5 h, were investigated for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and enterobacteria (EB) (CFU mL). The results showed that treatment of colostrum samples with NALC-2% NaOH completely eliminated EB and significantly reduced MAB (3.6 log CFU mL). Conversely, samples treated with 0.75% HPC produced a complex mixture following interaction with the colostrum protein and showed non-significant and variable results. In addition, the spiked colostrum treated with NALC-2% NaOH for 15 min revealed recovery of viable MAP cells with a minimum limit of detection of 1.36 log CFU 10 mL where no change in the consistency of colostrum was observed. In conclusion, 15-min NALC-2% NaOH treatment of colostrum may significantly reduce the viability of undesirable microorganisms and help to enhance the efficient recovery of MAP without impacting the consistency of high quality postpartum colostrum. This rapid procedure is suitable for efficient recovery and early detection of MAP as well as preventing its transmission to neonates and young calves in MAP infected herds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2020.105968DOI Listing
August 2020

[Measurement of IgG concentration in bovine colostrum by immunoturbidimetric assay in comparison to ELISA-based assessment].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2020 Apr 23;48(2):73-79. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Klinik für Gynäkologie, Andrologie und Geburtshilfe der Groß- und Kleintiere mit Tierärztlicher Ambulanz, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Objective: The aim of the presented study was to compare the results of IgG measurements using a turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA), a newly developed laboratory-independent method for direct immunoglobulin determination in colostrum, with measurements obtained via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Material And Methods: In colostrum samples from 59 cows, IgG concentration was measured using TIA and ELISA.

Results: Correlation analysis according to Pearson revealed a correlation coefficient of r = 0.74 (p < 0.0001) between the 2 methods. The Bland-Altman analysis showed that measurement by TIA resulted in significantly lower mean IgG levels than the ELISA-based quantification. This difference was more pronounced in high IgG concentration ranges. By means of a double-logarithmized data transformation it was calculated that the TIA-determined IgG-values on average amounted to 66.4 % of the IgG-values measured by ELISA. Although colostrum with low IgG concentration could be quantified with satisfactory reliability (sensitivity 100 %), high-quality colostrum was not sufficiently assessed in the TIA-based IgG measurements (specificity 40.4 %).

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: Based on the results of the presented study, IgG measurement by TIA cannot be recommended. In comparison to ELISA-based assessment, this technique does not exhibit higher correlations than established indirect rapid evaluation methods (density and viscosity determination).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1120-3236DOI Listing
April 2020

Quantitative assessment of German Holstein dairy cattle colostrum and impact of thermal treatment on quality of colostrum viscosity and immunoglobulins.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Mar 30;13(1):191. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Institute of Food Quality and Food Safety, Research Center for Emerging Infections and Zoonoses (RIZ), University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 17, 30559, Hannover, Germany.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the color, fat, viscosity, IgG concentration, %Brix and refractive index of fresh postpartum colostrum of German Holstein dairy cattle and assess the impact of different thermal treatments on the visual and dynamic viscosity, in association to IgG concentration, of colostrum that can be used for pasteurization process.

Results: Of the total 40 fresh postpartum colostrum, the color of colostrum (ranging from white-pale yellow to yellow and dark-yellowish), fat (1.4-8.2 100 g), IgG (4-116 mg mL), %Brix (8.5-35.4%), refractive index (1.3454-1.3905 nD), visual (ranging from watery to liquid and thick) and dynamic (4.9-219 cp) viscosity, were recorded. Statistical analysis between visual and dynamic viscosity of fresh colostrum showed significant correlation coefficients (r = 634). Moreover, a significant correlation between viscosity and three IgG concentrations was also observed. Heat-treated colostrum showed dynamic viscosity ranged from 25 to 3066 cP, where dynamic viscosity of colostrum before- and after heat-treatment showed no significant correlation. Treated colostrum at 60 °C/60 min and 63.5 °C/30 min containing IgG concentration ≤ 80 mg mL and ≤ 68 mg mL showed no significant change in the viscosity and can successfully be applied for pasteurization of first postpartum colostrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05019-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106573PMC
March 2020

The Equine Gingiva: A Histological Evaluation.

Front Vet Sci 2019 13;6:435. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Institute of Veterinary-Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Equine periodontal disease in horses has long been recognized as a painful disease, leading to a poor condition. The disease is widespread and attracts growing attention in equine dental medicine. The understanding of the underlying etiological and pathological mechanisms of equine periodontal disease is necessary to develop effective prophylactic and treatment options. As a first step, a thorough description of the histological features of the healthy equine gingiva is required. Specimens were taken from six horses (3 mares, 3 geldings, age: 0.5-26 years). The animals were euthanized for reasons not related to this study. Heads were dissected and gingival specimens, including parts of the adjacent teeth, alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament, were obtained from several positions of the dentition. Histological sections were evaluated via light microscopy, with special attention to the structural components of the gingiva, i.e., the gingival sulcus, the epithelium, and the components of the lamina propria (LP). Although the equine gingiva showed the same structural components as described in humans and dogs, the equine junctional epithelium was adapted to the equine dental anatomy and attached to the equine-unique peripheral cementum. Leucocytic infiltrations (LI) of the LP, sulcular epithelium (SE) and junctional epithelium (JE) were frequently seen. The amount of LI was not associated with a macroscopically visual pathology (e.g., diastema or food entrapment) in the respective position. The gingival sulcus depth had an average depth of <1 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923225PMC
December 2019

[Retained placenta in mares - an analysis of 121 cases].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2019 Dec 6;47(6):373-379. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Klinikum Veterinärmedizin, Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere mit tierärztlicher Ambulanz, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze data concerning history, clinical course, and prognosis of retained fetal membranes in mares.

Material Und Methods: Patient records of 121 hospitalized mares with retained placenta were evaluated. In 82 cases, additional blood examinations were performed and analyzed.

Results: There was no significant correlation between age, parity or course of parturition and retained placenta. Eighty-one mares (66.9 %) were presented solely with retained fetal membranes, 40 mares (33.1 %) had additional diseases at presentation, most commonly injuries of the labia, followed by perineal tears and lochiometra. During hospitalization 50 mares (41.3 %) developed one or more diseases, most frequently lochiometra (23 mares, 19 %), laminitis (17 mares, 14 %) and thrombophlebitis (11 mares, 9.1 %). Eight mares (6.6 %) were euthanized due to the course of their diesease. Blood examinations revealed a mean leucocyte concentration of 9.8 ± 3.9 G/l at presentation. Mean concentration of serum ionized calcium amounted to 1.5 ± 0.2 mmol/l. There was no statistically significant influence of blood parameters on clinical course or development of additional diseases.

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: Retained placenta is a common disorder in the puerperium of the mare. In the presented study, most cases developed additional diseases and in 10 % of the mares, the clinical course led to euthanasia. No risk factors for the occurrence of retained fetal membranes or its clinical course could be identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1019-7345DOI Listing
December 2019

Freezing and storage effects on enzyme, electrolyte, and mineral compositions in canine prostatic fluid.

Vet Clin Pathol 2019 Dec 27;48(4):691-694. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals with Veterinary Ambulance, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.

Background: There is a paucity of information about the storage stability of seminal plasma components in literature.

Objectives: This study investigates the potential effects of storage at -18.0°C on the enzyme activities and concentrations of selected electrolytes and minerals in canine prostatic fluid.

Methods: Semen was obtained in fractions from ten male dogs, and the third ejaculate fraction was analyzed immediately after sampling and after storage at -18.0°C for 7 days. The following analytes were assessed: gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, total calcium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, zinc, and copper.

Results: Whereas electrolyte and mineral concentrations were not affected by freezing and 7 days of storage, effects on the enzyme activities were variable. ALP, AST, and LDH activities were significantly decreased (P < .05) in the post-thaw samples compared with the freshly prepared samples.

Conclusions: Because freezing and storage of seminal plasma at -18°C had an impact on the activity of some enzymes, analyses should be performed in fresh, not frozen samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12803DOI Listing
December 2019

DHEAS prevents pro-metastatic and proliferative effects of 17ß-estradiol on MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2020 02 21;1867(2):118600. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Institute for Veterinary-Physiology and -Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

It is generally assumed that circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) can be desulfated and further metabolized to estrogen, which is of concern for all patients with estrogen-responsive breast cancer. We addressed this issue by comparing the effects of DHEAS, its desulfated form DHEA, and 17ß-estradiol on human metastatic, estrogen-responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Physiological concentrations of DHEAS promoted phosphorylation of Erk1/2, whereas DHEA and 17ß-estradiol failed to stimulate Erk1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that the sulfated steroid acts as an autonomous hormone. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to 17ß-estradiol stimulated cell proliferation and the expression of pro-metastatic and pro-invasive elements such as claudin-1, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and the CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). In contrast, treatment with DHEAS did not stimulate these responses but prevented all of the actions of 17ß-estradiol, and as a consequence cell migration and invasion were completely inhibited. The results of this study not only challenge the assumption that DHEAS poses a danger as an endogenous source of estrogen, they rather favor the idea that keeping DHEAS levels within a physiological range might be supportive in treating estrogen-responsive breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2019.118600DOI Listing
February 2020

Attempts to downregulate ovarian function in the bitch by applying a GnRH agonist implant in combination with a 3ß-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase blocker; a pilot study.

Theriogenology 2020 Mar 24;145:176-180. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

Approaches to downregulate ovarian function in the sexually mature bitch by applying slow release GnRH agonist implants are hampered by the initial stimulation of folliculogenesis (flare up) and the resulting side effects. The present pilot study was designed to test to what extent these effects can be suppressed by simultaneous treatment with the 3ß-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (HSD3B) blocker trilostane (T). Treatment with T in 6-h intervals completely blocked adrenal cortisol production. However, in parallel and concomitant with the increase of LH, progesterone and estradiol levels increased, ending up in pro-estric steroid levels in two of the three dogs. Hormonal changes were reflected in the respective clinical symptoms. During the whole observation period the course of LH concentrations did not indicate downregulation of pituitary function as a result of treatment with the GnRH-agonist Suprelorin®, 4.7 mg. The incomplete inhibitory effect of T on the follicular production of sex steroids could be explained by an insufficient transfer of T into the follicular compartment or the existence of a HSD3B isoform in the dog ovary different from the adrenal enzyme. Concerning the lack of downregulation and when accounting for published data different pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetic activities of GnRH-agonists should be taken into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.10.022DOI Listing
March 2020

Effect of temperature and time after collection on buck sperm quality.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Oct 22;15(1):355. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals with Ambulatory Service, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.

Background: Different parameters are assessed as part of the semen analysis but a standard protocol for evaluation of goat semen is still missing. The aim of this study was to analyse two different factors affecting buck sperm quality in the post-collection period prior to adding the extender. Here we examined the effects of two handling temperatures (20 °C, 37 °C) and various examination time points (3-30 min) after semen collection.

Results: Examination time point had a significant influence on raw sperm viability (p < 0.05), motility (p < 0.05) and on semen pH (p < 0.05). The two different handling temperatures had no significant effect on sperm viability (p > 0.05), motility (p > 0.05), with the exception of fast moving sperm (p = 0.04), or on semen pH (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Examination time point was identified as factor strongly influencing raw peacock buck semen after collection. Raw goat semen can tolerate room temperatures for at least 10 min without impacting overall semen quality. In order to obtain comparable results, semen samples should always be examined within 10 min after collection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2135-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823624PMC
October 2019

The Equine Gingiva: A Gross Anatomical Evaluation.

Front Vet Sci 2019 4;6:322. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Equine periodontal disease (ePD) usually starts with food impaction, formation of diastemata, gingival inflammation and formation of periodontal pockets. This process proceeds toward the dentoalveolar space, causing detachment of tooth supporting periodontal fibers. Although several therapeutical procedures have been proposed, ePD is often only diagnosed in advanced stages, requiring dental extraction. A similar dilemma has been observed in small animal medicine, but has been overcome by the introduction of reliable examination protocols for the early diagnosis of periodontal diseases (PD). These protocols are based on detailed anatomical descriptions of healthy gingiva, allowing for the determination of the pathognomonic signs of the onset of PD and providing a basis for grading systems and treatment plans. Consequently, proposals have also been made for periodontal examination protocols in horses. However, these protocols were widely adopted from small animal medicine assuming a similar anatomy of the equine and canine gingiva. To provide a solid anatomical basis for equine specific periodontal examinations, 20 equine heads were examined macroscopically, with special attention to the gingival sulcus, the gingival margin and the interdental papillae. Constant morphological patterns of the gingival margin and the interdental papillae were found for the vestibular and lingual/palatal aspects of the upper and lower cheek teeth arcades, as well as for the incisor arcades. A gingival sulcus measuring greater than 1 mm was present in only 6% of the investigated specimens. The inspection of the gingival margin and the interdental papillae, as well as the recognition of a gingival sulcus, may serve as criteria to establish equine specific periodontal investigation protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6787712PMC
October 2019

[Concentrations of testosterone, estrone and estrone sulfate in peripheral blood of donkey stallions in relation to season].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2019 Oct 21;47(5):294-297. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere mit Tierärztlicher Ambulanz.

Objective: To assess testicular endocrine function in the male donkey () during the course of the year.

Material And Methods: In 5 miniature and 4 standard donkey stallions, peripheral blood concentrations of testosterone (T), estrone (E1) and estrone sulfate (E1S) were determined using radioimmunoassay.

Results: There was a highly significant influence of the season (p < 0.0001) on the course of all 3 steroids. Values were low in November until January and high in April, May and June. As delineated by the measurement of E1 the breed also had an effect on the expression of seasonality. Mean T concentration (X̅g × SF ) was 1.58 × 1.20  ng/ml, values ranged between 0.39 and 5.95 ng/ml, which is approximately double the plasma T concentrations observed in horse stallions. As in horse stallions, E1 levels were only slightly above the detection limit of the assay (0.10-0.17 ng/ml). Mean E1S concentration amounted to 0.91 ± 0.23 ng/ml, values ranged between 0.34-1.36 ng/ml and taking peak levels into account measured approximately 300-fold lower than in the horse stallion.

Conclusions: The data obtained confirm that the donkey belongs to the group of long day breeders. Irrespective of the close phylogenetical relationship the course of E1S concentrations reveals distinct differences between horse and donkey.

Clinical Relevance: Even between closely related species established reference values for sex steroids cannot be transferred without verification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0988-0964DOI Listing
October 2019