Publications by authors named "Klara Paudel"

11 Publications

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Overcoming barriers and building a strong peritoneal dialysis programme - Experience from three South Asian countries.

Perit Dial Int 2021 Jun 2:8968608211019986. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Nephrology, Teaching Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka.

The development of peritoneal dialysis (PD) programmes in lower-resource countries is challenging. This article describes the learning points of establishing PD programmes in three countries in South Asia (Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan). The key barriers identified were government support (financial), maintaining stable supply of PD fluids, lack of nephrologist and nurse expertise, nephrology community bias against PD, lack of nephrology trainee awareness and exposure to this modality. To overcome these barriers, a well-trained PD lead nephrologist (PD champion) is needed, who can advocate for this modality at government, professional and community levels. Ongoing educational programmes for doctors, nurses and patients are needed to sustain the PD programmes. Support from well-established PD centres and international organisations (International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD), International Society of Nephrology (ISN), International Pediatric Nephrology Association (IPNA) are essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08968608211019986DOI Listing
June 2021

Is overhydration in peritoneal dialysis patients associated with cardiac mortality that might be reversible?

World J Nephrol 2016 Sep;5(5):448-54

Elizabeth Oei, Klara Paudel, Stanley L Fan, Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, Barts Health NHS Trust, London E1 1BB, United Kingdom.

Aim: To study the relationship between overhydration (OH) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and cardiac mortality.

Methods: OH, as measured by body composition monitor (BCM), is associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients. BCM has been used to guide treatment on the assumption that correcting OH will improve cardiac morbidity and mortality although data demonstrating causality that is reversible is limited. We wished to determine if OH in PD patients predicted cardiac mortality, and if there was a correlation between OH and cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) levels. Finally, we wished to determine if improving OH values would lead to a decrement in cTnT. All prevalent PD patients over the study period of 57 mo who had contemporaneous BCM and cTnT measurements were followed irrespective of transplantation or PD technique failure. We also studied a cohort of patients with who had severe OH (> +2L). The Fresenius Body Composition Monitor was used to obtain hydration parameters. cTnT levels were done as part of routine clinical care. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: There were 48 deaths in the 336 patients. The patients that died from cardiac or non-cardiac causes were similar with respect to their age, incidence of diabetes mellitus, gender, ethnicity and cause of renal failure. However, the patients with cardiac causes of death had significantly shorter dialysis vintage (10.3 mo vs 37.0 mo, P < 0.0001) and were significantly more overhydrated by BCM measurement (2.95 L vs 1.35 L, P < 0.05). The mean (standard error of the means) hydration status of the 336 patients was +1.15 (0.12) L and the median [interquartile range (IQR)] cTnT level was 43.5 (20-90) ng/L. The cTnT results were not normally distributed and were therefore transformed logarithmically. There was a statistically significant correlation between Log (cTnT) with the OH value (Spearman r value 0.425, P < 0.0001). We identified a sub-group of patients that were severely overhydrated; median (IQR) hydration at baseline was +2.7 (2.3 to 3.7) L. They were followed up for a minimum of 6 mo. Reduction in OH values in these patients over 6 mo correlated with lowering of cTnT levels (Spearman r value 0.29, P < 0.02).

Conclusion: Patients that were overhydrated had higher cTnT, and had deaths that were more likely to be cardiac related. Reduction in OH correlated with lowering of cTnT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5527/wjn.v5.i5.448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5011251PMC
September 2016

Can Bioimpedance Measurements of Lean and Fat Tissue Mass Replace Subjective Global Assessments in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients?

J Ren Nutr 2015 Nov 11;25(6):480-7. Epub 2015 Jul 11.

Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, The Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: Malnutrition and protein energy wasting (PEW) determined by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is associated with increased mortality. There is an inverse relationship between body mass and overhydration in dialysis patients. Is the predictive accuracy of SGA (for death) independent of hydration status? Can bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis of lean tissue index (LTI) and fat tissue index (FTI) accurately identify dialysis patients with protein energy wasting and increased mortality?

Methods: We report an observational study of 455 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.

Results: We found that 96 patients (21%) were malnourished (SGA score between 1 and 5), and 192 (42%) had LTI values below 10th centile (age, gender adjusted). FTI was significantly lower in the SGA-defined malnourished cohort. By contrast, there was an inverse relationship between LTI and FTI. Malnourished (by SGA) patients were significantly more overhydrated (P < .0001), but SGA remained highly predictive of survival in multivariate analysis that included hydration status (hazard ratio: 3.12, 95% confidence interval 1.86-5.23, P < .0001). Obesity (patients with the highest 20% FTI) predicted survival (hazard ratio of death was 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.85, P < .02) on univariate but not multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: We have confirmed that SGA is an accurate predictor of mortality in PD patients, and its predictive value is independent of the hydration status. Predictive power of SGA was not affected when LTI and FTI were included in multivariate analysis. Patients with low LTI were different from patients with low SGA (associated with high FTI). Sensitivity and specificity of Body Composition Monitor to diagnose patients with low SGA readings were poor (area under the curve for receiver operator characteristics analysis 0.66). The phenomenon of reverse epidemiology (high FTI predicting a survival advantage) was found in our PD cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2015.05.003DOI Listing
November 2015

Increasing the use of biocompatible, glucose-free peritoneal dialysis solutions.

World J Nephrol 2015 Feb;4(1):92-7

Ahad Qayyum, Klara Paudel, Stanley L Fan, Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, The Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London E1 1BB, United Kingdom.

A major concern inhibiting some clinicians from embracing peritoneal dialysis (PD) as the preferred first modality of dialysis is the effects of PD solutions on the peritoneal membrane. These anatomical and functional changes predispose to complications like peritonitis, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis and ultrafiltration failure. In recent years, "biocompatible" and glucose-sparing PD regimens have been developed to minimize damage to the peritoneal membrane. Can the use of these more expensive solutions be justified on current evidence? In this review of the literature, we explore how we may individualize the prescription of biocompatible PD fluid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5527/wjn.v4.i1.92DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4317632PMC
February 2015

Lack of motivation: a new modifiable risk factor for peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis?

J Ren Care 2015 Mar 19;41(1):33-42. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK.

Aim: Can we identify modifiable risk factors for peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD)? We aimed to determine whether housing standard, PD exchange technique or patient motivation might be modifiable risks for peritonitis. We also explored the relationship between lack of motivation and depression.

Methods: Nurse home visits assessed PD exchange technique, environment and patient motivation. Motivation scores were correlated separately with an Apathy Evaluation Score and a depression score using PHQ-9 questionnaires.

Results: Home hygiene, exchange technique and motivation were above average in 53%, 56% and 60%, respectively in 104 patients undergoing PD. After 15 months, 25.9% patients developed peritonitis but nurses' ratings of homes and exchange techniques were not predictive. Low patient motivation was predictive. Patients rated to have above or below median motivation had significantly different Apathy Scores (p = 0.0002). Unmotivated depressed patients were significantly more likely to develop peritonitis compared to motivated depressed patients.

Conclusion: Lack of motivation predicted peritonitis particularly if associated with depression. Further studies are required focusing on specific motivation scoring schemes and the psychosocial support that might lead to better outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jorc.12101DOI Listing
March 2015

Comparing lung ultrasound with bioimpedance spectroscopy for evaluating hydration in peritoneal dialysis patients.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2015 Jan;20(1):1-5

Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK.

Background: Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), ultrasound lung comets (ULC) and serum biomarkers (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, NT-proBNP) have all been used to assist clinicians to determine hydration status in dialysis patients.

Methods: We performed simultaneous BIS, ULC and NT-proBNP measurements in 27 peritoneal dialysis patients to determine the concordance of the three methods.

Results: Patients with evidence of increasing lung congestion (as determined by ultrasound) were more likely to be diabetic, have systolic hypertension and have higher NT-proBNP (r = 0.65, P < 0.0005). Although there was a trend for patients with high ULC to be overhydrated as determined by BIS, this did not reach statistical significance. Moreover, the correlation between BIS and NT-proBNP (though statistically significant at r = 0.47, P < 0.02) appeared to be weaker.

Conclusion: BIS and ULC may be complementary, providing different information, whereas BIS may be more specific to hydration. ULC and NT-proBNP may indicate left ventricular failure coexisting with overhydration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nep.12342DOI Listing
January 2015

Is there an end in sight for encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis?

Perit Dial Int 2014 Sep-Oct;34(6):576-8

Royal London Hospital - Nephrology, London, United Kingdom Royal London Hospital - Renal Unit, Whitechapel, London, United Kingdom

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/pdi.2014.00087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4164398PMC
June 2015

Prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypothyroidism in a population undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

Authors:
Klara Paudel

J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Apr 15;8(4):MC01-4. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

Clinical Fellow in Nephrology, Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, Barts Health NHS Trust , London, UK .

Background: The prevalence of hypothyroidism in persons with chronic kidney disease is documented to be higher, compared to the normal population. However, no data is available about the prevalence rate of hypothyroidism among hemodialysis patients in Nepal.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was done on consecutive patients enrolled for maintenance hemodialysis in the Hemodialysis Unit of Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, during the period of one year (1(st) January 2011 to 31(st) December 2011). Total 64 subjects with end stage renal disease were recruited for the study. Thyroid function tests were performed at the time of starting regular hemodialysis. Classical symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were assessed in all patients.

Results: Among the study subjects 17 (26.6%) had serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels above the laboratory reference range (>6.16 μIU/ml). Among them 12 (18.7%) patients had clinically significant symptoms or signs requiring thyroxin replacement. Cold intolerance, constipation, tingling sensation, dry skin, periorbital odema, pericardial effusion, pleural effusion and ascites were found at significantly higher rate in the hypothyroid patient group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The diagnosis of hypothyroidism can be easily missed in the end-stage kidney disease population, because the symptoms of chronic kidney disease and hypothyroidism overlap. In our study we have found high prevalence of hypothyroidism. Clinicians should pay attention on this factor and screen routinely for thyroid disorders in the chronic kidney disease population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/7821.4246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4064857PMC
April 2014

Successful use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in 2 adults with a gastrostomy.

Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Aug 6;64(2):316-7. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Barts Health NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.05.005DOI Listing
August 2014

Reactions of nepali adults to warning labels on cigarette packages: a survey with employee and medical students of a tertiary care medical college of Western region of Nepal.

J Clin Diagn Res 2013 Oct 5;7(10):2216-22. Epub 2013 Oct 5.

Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Gandaki Medicial College Teaching Hospital , Pokhara, Nepal .

Background: For the past 30 years, there have been no changes in the text-only cigarette warning labels in Nepal. During this same time period, other countries placed large graphic warning labels on cigarette packages. The purpose of the current study was primarily to compare the differences in reactions to different types of warning labels on cigarette packages, with a specific focus on whether the new warning label adopted by WHO FCTC was better than the text only label used by Nepal.

Material And Methods: This study was conducted in Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital (GMCTH) in 2012, in a tertiary care hospital located in the western region of Nepal. Eligible study participants included in this survey were those aged 18 years and over and those who are studying MBBS/Nursing or who were employees of GMCTH. 500 participants finished the survey. Participants were shown nine types of warning labels found on cigarette packages.They comprised one text only warning label used within Nepalese market and eight foreign brand labels. Participants were asked about the impact of the warning labels on: their knowledge of harm from smoking, giving cigarettes as a gift, and quitting smoking.

Results: On comparing the Nepalese warning label with other foreign labels with regards to providing knowledge of harm warning, impact of quitting smoking and giving cigarettes as a gift, the overseas labels were found to be more effective. Both smokers and non-smokers thought that warning labels with text plus graphics were substantially more of a deterrent than text-only labels.

Conclusion: The findings from this study support previous research that has found that text-plus graphic warning labels were more salient and potentially more effective than text-only labels.Warning labels are one of the component of comprehensive tobacco control and smoking cessation efforts. Stronger warnings on cigarette packages need to be part of a larger Nepalese public health educational efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2013/5588.3475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3843434PMC
October 2013

The diagnostic significance of the holter monitoring in the evaluation of palpitation.

J Clin Diagn Res 2013 Mar 1;7(3):480-3. Epub 2013 Mar 1.

Associate Professor, Department of Medicine.

Purpose: To determine the diagnostic yield of the 24-hour Holter monitoring in the patients who were evaluated for palpitations.

Methods: A prospective, single-centre study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of the Holter monitoring. The inclusion criteria was age greater then 18 years with the symptom of unexplained recurrent palpitations. The exclusion criteria was patients with known medical causes of palpitation, a history of documented arrhythmias, or a history of or the current use of anti-arrhythmic drugs. The outcomes included a diagnostic Holter monitor recording.

Results: The data analysis of the 335 patients who were studied, showed that there were 160 (47.8%) females and 175 (52.2%) males with a mean age of 55± 18.85 years (18 to 90 years). Ventricular ectopics as bigeminy in 36.7% patients and as couplets in 20% patients, were detected. Non-sustained VT was detected in 5.7% patients, VT was detected in 0.9% cases and SVT was detected in 12.5% cases. 3.58% cases had paraxosymal atrial flutter/fibrillation. The ST segment shift which is suggestive of silent ischaemia, was present in 17.6% of the study population. Second or higher degrees of AV blocks were noted in 2 cases, while one patient had the WPW syndrome. Ventricular bigeminy, couplets, VT,SVT and AF were statistically significant in the patients who were over the age of 50 years as compared to those who were less than 50 years.

Conclusion: In patients with non-specific symptoms, Holter monitoring has a significant role in the primary diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia or arrhythmia as a cause of such symptoms in the older age groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2013/4923.2802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3616560PMC
March 2013
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