Publications by authors named "Kiva A Fisher"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Community Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with a Local Bar Opening Event - Illinois, February 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 9;70(14):528-532. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

During February 2021, an opening event was held indoors at a rural Illinois bar that accommodates approximately 100 persons. The Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) and local health department staff members investigated a COVID-19 outbreak associated with this opening event. Overall, 46 COVID-19 cases were linked to the event, including cases in 26 patrons and three staff members who attended the opening event and 17 secondary cases. Four persons with cases had COVID-19-like symptoms on the same day they attended the event. Secondary cases included 12 cases in eight households with children, two on a school sports team, and three in a long-term care facility (LTCF). Transmission associated with the opening event resulted in one school closure affecting 650 children (9,100 lost person-days of school) and hospitalization of one LTCF resident with COVID-19. These findings demonstrate that opening up settings such as bars, where mask wearing and physical distancing are challenging, can increase the risk for community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. As community businesses begin to reopen, a multicomponent approach should be emphasized in settings such as bars to prevent transmission* (1). This includes enforcing consistent and correct mask use, maintaining ≥6 ft of physical distance between persons, reducing indoor bar occupancy, prioritizing outdoor seating, improving building ventilation, and promoting behaviors such as staying at home when ill, as well as implementing contact tracing in combination with isolation and quarantine when COVID-19 cases are diagnosed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7014e3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8030980PMC
April 2021

Identifying COVID-19 Risk Through Observational Studies to Inform Control Measures.

JAMA 2021 04;325(14):1464-1465

COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.1995DOI Listing
April 2021

Symptoms and recovery among adult outpatients with and without COVID-19 at 11 healthcare facilities-July 2020, United States.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 05 6;15(3):345-351. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

CDC COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Symptoms of mild COVID-19 illness are non-specific and may persist for prolonged periods. Effects on quality of life of persistent poor physical or mental health associated with COVID-19 are not well understood.

Methods: Adults aged ≥18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and matched control patients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection at outpatient facilities associated with 11 medical centers in the United States were interviewed to assess symptoms, illness duration, and health-related quality of life. Duration of symptoms, health-related quality of life measures, and days of poor physical health by symptoms experienced during illness were compared between case patients and controls using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Symptoms associated with COVID-19 case status were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Among 320 participants included, 157 were COVID-19 cases and 163 were SARS-CoV-2 negative controls. Loss of taste or smell was reported by 63% of cases and 6% of controls and was strongly associated with COVID-19 in logistic regression models (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 32.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.6-83.1). COVID-19 cases were more likely than controls to have experienced fever, body aches, weakness, or fatigue during illness, and to report ≥1 persistent symptom more than 14 days after symptom onset (50% vs 32%, P < .001). Cases reported significantly more days of poor physical health during the past 14 days than controls (P < .01).

Conclusions: Differentiating COVID-19 from other acute illnesses will require widespread diagnostic testing, especially during influenza seasons. Persistent COVID-19-related symptoms may negatively affect quality of life, even among those initially presenting with mild illness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051737PMC
May 2021

Rapid Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Detention Facility, Louisiana, USA, May-June, 2020.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Feb 4;27(2):421-429. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

To assess transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a detention facility experiencing a coronavirus disease outbreak and evaluate testing strategies, we conducted a prospective cohort investigation in a facility in Louisiana, USA. We conducted SARS-CoV-2 testing for detained persons in 6 quarantined dormitories at various time points. Of 143 persons, 53 were positive at the initial test, and an additional 58 persons were positive at later time points (cumulative incidence 78%). In 1 dormitory, all 45 detained persons initially were negative; 18 days later, 40 (89%) were positive. Among persons who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 47% (52/111) were asymptomatic at the time of specimen collection; 14 had replication-competent virus isolated. Serial SARS-CoV-2 testing might help interrupt transmission through medical isolation and quarantine. Testing in correctional and detention facilities will be most effective when initiated early in an outbreak, inclusive of all exposed persons, and paired with infection prevention and control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2702.204158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853536PMC
February 2021

Theory-based Behavioral Predictors of Self-reported Use of Face Coverings in Public Settings during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States.

Ann Behav Med 2021 02;55(1):82-88

Office of the Director, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Investigating antecedents of behaviors, such as wearing face coverings, is critical for developing strategies to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine associations between theory-based behavioral predictors of intention to wear a face covering and actual wearing of a face covering in public.

Methods: Data from a cross-sectional panel survey of U.S. adults conducted in May and June 2020 (N = 1,004) were used to test a theory-based behavioral path model. We (a) examined predictors of intention to wear a face covering, (b) reported use of cloth face coverings, and (c) reported use of other face masks (e.g., a surgical mask or N95 respirator) in public.

Results: We found that being female, perceived importance of others wanting the respondent to wear a face covering, confidence to wear a face covering, and perceived importance of personal face covering use was positively associated with intention to wear a face covering in public. Intention to wear a face covering was positively associated with self-reported wearing of a cloth face covering if other people were observed wearing cloth face coverings in public at least "rarely" (aOR = 1.43), with stronger associations if they reported "sometimes" (aOR = 1.83), "often" (aOR = 2.32), or "always" (aOR = 2.96). For other types of face masks, a positive association between intention and behavior was only present when observing others wearing face masks "often" (aOR = 1.25) or "always" (aOR = 1.48).

Conclusions: Intention to wear face coverings and observing other people wearing them are important behavioral predictors of adherence to the CDC recommendation to wear face coverings in public.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abm/kaaa109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799273PMC
February 2021

Identification of Presymptomatic and Asymptomatic Cases Using Cohort-Based Testing Approaches at a Large Correctional Facility-Chicago, Illinois, USA, May 2020.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 03;72(5):e128-e135

Cermak Health Services, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Correctional and detention facilities are at high risk of experiencing outbreaks. We aimed to evaluate cohort-based testing among detained persons exposed to laboratory-confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in order to identify presymptomatic and asymptomatic cases.

Methods: During 1-19 May 2020, 2 testing strategies were implemented in 12 tiers or housing units of the Cook County Jail, Chicago, Illinois. Detained persons were approached to participate in serial testing (n = 137) and offered tests at 3 time points over 14 days (day 1, days 3-5, and days 13-14). The second group was offered a single test and interview at the end of a 14-day quarantine period (day 14 group) (n = 87).

Results: 224 detained persons were approached for participation and, of these, 194 (87%) participated in ≥1 interview and 172 (77%) had ≥1 test. Of the 172 tested, 19 were positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the serial testing group, 17 (89%) new cases were detected, 16 (84%) on day 1, 1 (5%) on days 3-5, and none on days 13-14; in the day 14 group, 2 (11%) cases were identified. More than half (12/19; 63%) of the newly identified cases were presymptomatic or asymptomatic.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the utility of cohort-based testing promptly after initiating quarantine within a housing tier. Cohort-based testing efforts identified new SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic and presymptomatic infections that may have been missed by symptom screening alone.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799274PMC
March 2021

Telework Before Illness Onset Among Symptomatic Adults Aged ≥18 Years With and Without COVID-19 in 11 Outpatient Health Care Facilities - United States, July 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Nov 6;69(44):1648-1653. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Since March 2020, large-scale efforts to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have continued. Mitigation measures to reduce workplace exposures have included work site policies to support flexible work site options, including telework, whereby employees work remotely without commuting to a central place of work.* Opportunities to telework have varied across industries among U.S. jobs where telework options are feasible (1). However, little is known about the impact of telework on risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. A case-control investigation was conducted to compare telework between eligible symptomatic persons who received positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results (case-patients, 153) and symptomatic persons with negative test results (control-participants, 161). Eligible participants were identified in outpatient health care facilities during July 2020. Among employed participants who reported on their telework status during the 2 weeks preceding illness onset (248), the percentage who were able to telework on a full- or part-time basis was lower among case-patients (35%; 42 of 120) than among control-participants (53%; 68 of 128) (p<0.01). Case-patients were more likely than were control-participants to have reported going exclusively to an office or school setting (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-2.7) in the 2 weeks before illness onset. The association was also observed when further restricting to the 175 participants who reported working in a profession outside the critical infrastructure (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.6). Providing the option to work from home or telework when possible, is an important consideration for reducing the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. In industries where telework options are not available, worker safety measures should continue to be scaled up to reduce possible worksite exposures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6944a4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643895PMC
November 2020

Community and Close Contact Exposures Associated with COVID-19 Among Symptomatic Adults ≥18 Years in 11 Outpatient Health Care Facilities - United States, July 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Sep 11;69(36):1258-1264. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Community and close contact exposures continue to drive the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CDC and other public health authorities recommend community mitigation strategies to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1,2). Characterization of community exposures can be difficult to assess when widespread transmission is occurring, especially from asymptomatic persons within inherently interconnected communities. Potential exposures, such as close contact with a person with confirmed COVID-19, have primarily been assessed among COVID-19 cases, without a non-COVID-19 comparison group (3,4). To assess community and close contact exposures associated with COVID-19, exposures reported by case-patients (154) were compared with exposures reported by control-participants (160). Case-patients were symptomatic adults (persons aged ≥18 years) with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Control-participants were symptomatic outpatient adults from the same health care facilities who had negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Close contact with a person with known COVID-19 was more commonly reported among case-patients (42%) than among control-participants (14%). Case-patients were more likely to have reported dining at a restaurant (any area designated by the restaurant, including indoor, patio, and outdoor seating) in the 2 weeks preceding illness onset than were control-participants (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-3.8). Restricting the analysis to participants without known close contact with a person with confirmed COVID-19, case-patients were more likely to report dining at a restaurant (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.9-4.3) or going to a bar/coffee shop (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.5-10.1) than were control-participants. Exposures and activities where mask use and social distancing are difficult to maintain, including going to places that offer on-site eating or drinking, might be important risk factors for acquiring COVID-19. As communities reopen, efforts to reduce possible exposures at locations that offer on-site eating and drinking options should be considered to protect customers, employees, and communities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6936a5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499837PMC
September 2020

Factors Associated with Cloth Face Covering Use Among Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, April and May 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Jul 17;69(28):933-937. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

On April 3, 2020, the White House Coronavirus Task Force and CDC announced a new behavioral recommendation to help slow the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by encouraging the use of a cloth face covering when out in public (1). Widespread use of cloth face coverings has not been studied among the U.S. population, and therefore, little is known about encouraging the public to adopt this behavior. Immediately following the recommendation, an Internet survey sampled 503 adults during April 7-9 to assess their use of cloth face coverings and the behavioral and sociodemographic factors that might influence adherence to this recommendation. The same survey was administered 1 month later, during May 11-13, to another sample of 502 adults to assess changes in the prevalence estimates of use of cloth face coverings from April to May. Within days of the release of the first national recommendation for use of cloth face coverings, a majority of persons who reported leaving their home in the previous week reported using a cloth face covering (61.9%). Prevalence of use increased to 76.4% 1 month later, primarily associated with increases in use among non-Hispanic white persons (54.3% to 75.1%), persons aged ≥65 years (36.6% to 79.2%), and persons residing in the Midwest (43.7% to 73.8%). High rates were observed in April and by May, increased further among non-Hispanic black persons (74.4% to 82.3%), Hispanic or Latino persons (77.3% to 76.2%), non-Hispanic persons of other race (70.8% to 77.3%), persons aged 18-29 years (70.1% to 74.9%) and 30-39 years (73.9% to 84.4%), and persons residing in the Northeast (76.9% to 87.0%). The use of a cloth face covering was associated with theory-derived constructs that indicate a favorable attitude toward them, intention to use them, ability to use them, social support for using them, and beliefs that they offered protection for self, others, and the community. Research is needed to understand possible barriers to using cloth face coverings and ways to promote their consistent and correct use among those who have yet to adopt this behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6928e3DOI Listing
July 2020

Serial Laboratory Testing for SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Incarcerated and Detained Persons in a Correctional and Detention Facility - Louisiana, April-May 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Jul 3;69(26):836-840. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by asymptomatic and presymptomatic persons poses important challenges to controlling spread of the disease, particularly in congregate settings such as correctional and detention facilities (1). On March 29, 2020, a staff member in a correctional and detention facility in Louisiana developed symptoms and later had a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2. During April 2-May 7, two additional cases were detected among staff members, and 36 cases were detected among incarcerated and detained persons at the facility; these persons were removed from dormitories and isolated, and the five dormitories that they had resided in before diagnosis were quarantined. On May 7, CDC and the Louisiana Department of Health initiated an investigation to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among incarcerated and detained persons residing in quarantined dormitories. Goals of this investigation included evaluating COVID-19 symptoms in this setting and assessing the effectiveness of serial testing to identify additional persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection as part of efforts to mitigate transmission. During May 7-21, testing of 98 incarcerated and detained persons residing in the five quarantined dormitories (A-E) identified an additional 71 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection; 32 (45%) were among persons who reported no symptoms at the time of testing, including three who were presymptomatic. Eighteen cases (25%) were identified in persons who had received negative test results during previous testing rounds. Serial testing of contacts from shared living quarters identified persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection who would not have been detected by symptom screening alone or by testing at a single time point. Prompt identification and isolation of infected persons is important to reduce further transmission in congregate settings such as correctional and detention facilities and the communities to which persons return when released.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6926e2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332096PMC
July 2020

Asthma status moderates the relationship between neighbourhood disadvantage and obesity in African American adolescent females.

Obes Sci Pract 2019 Dec 23;5(6):564-569. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans Louisiana.

Introduction: Significant health disparities exist in asthma and obesity for African American youths. Successful interventions present an opportunity to address these disparities but require detailed study in order to ensure generalizability. This study investigated the intersection of obesity, neighbourhood disadvantage, and asthma.

Methods: Data were extracted from 129 African American females ages 13 to 19 years (mean = 15.6 years [SD = 1.9]). Obesity was measured via body mass index (BMI). Asthma status was based on clinical diagnosis and/or results of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies during Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The concentrated disadvantage index (CDI) assessed neighbourhood disadvantage.

Results: Findings showed that 21.5% (n = 28) of participants were clinically defined as having asthma, 76.2% (n = 99) had obesity, and 24.9% (n = 31) were classified without obesity. The mean BMI was 35.1 (SD = 9.1) and the mean CDI was 1.0 (SD = 0.9). CDI and obesity were significantly associated in participants without asthma, but not in those with asthma. Multivariable linear regression results showed a significant interaction between CDI and asthma ( value = 2.2, = .03).

Conclusion: In sum, results from this study found that asthma moderated the relationship between neighbourhood disadvantage and obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/osp4.370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934428PMC
December 2019
-->