Publications by authors named "Kitsada Wudhikarn"

41 Publications

Isolated Extramedullary Relapse After Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Myeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients: Case Reports and Literature Review.

Transplant Proc 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand; Research Unit in Translational Hematology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Isolated extramedullary relapse (iEMR) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is rare and has a dismal prognosis. Among 67 patients with AML after allo-HSCT, iEMR and bone marrow relapse occurred in 6% and 20.9%, respectively, with a median time to relapse of 11.5 and 6.5 months, respectively. Here, we presented 4 iEMR-AML cases. Common relapse locations occurred in the central nervous system, skin, and lymph nodes. We also report a rare case of cardiac iEMR that responded to chemoradiotherapy. Two cases responded to local/systemic treatments, which resulted in prolonged survival. Another case had iEMR in the presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Bone marrow relapse occurring after iEMR was typical and found in three-fourths of the cases. In conclusion, iEMR-AML occurrence after allo-HSCT is not rare in Thai patients. Its unpredictability and lack of graft-versus-leukemia effect highlight the importance of monitoring EMR carefully and promptly providing treatments once it is detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.02.030DOI Listing
May 2021

Interventions and Outcomes of Adult Patients with B-ALL Progressing After CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy.

Blood 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States.

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has become a breakthrough treatment for patients with relapsed/refractory B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). However, despite the high initial response rate, the majority of adult patients with B-ALL progress after CD19 CAR T therapy. Data on the natural history, management, and outcome of adult B-ALL progressing after CD19 CAR T cells have not been described in detail. Herein, we report comprehensive data of 38 adult B-ALL patients who progressed after CD19 CAR T therapy at our institution. The median time to progression after CAR T therapy was 5.5 months. Median survival after post-CAR T progression was 7.4 months. A high disease burden at the time of CAR T cell infusion was significantly associated with risk of post-CAR T progression. Thirty patients (79%) received salvage treatment for post-CAR T disease progression and 13 patients (43%) achieved complete remission (CR), but remission duration was short. Notably, 7 of 12 patients (58.3%) achieved CR after blinatumomab and/or inotuzumab administered after post-CAR T failure. Multivariate analysis demonstrated longer remission duration from CAR T cells was associated with superior survival after progression following CAR T therapy. In conclusion, overall prognosis of adult B-ALL patients progressing after CD19 CAR T cells was poor though a subset of patients achieved sustained remissions to salvage treatments including blinatumomab, inotuzumab and re-infusion of CAR T cells. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to reduce risk of progression after CAR T therapy and improve outcomes of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009515DOI Listing
April 2021

The International Prognostic Index Is Associated with Outcomes in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma after Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 18;27(3):233-240. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Intensive Care Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College; New York, New York. Electronic address:

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown excellent activity against relapsed and refractory (R/R) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). CAR T cell therapy is associated with early toxicities, including cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. The incidence and severity of these toxicities has been associated in part with baseline disease and patient characteristics, which also may impact overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). However, there are limited data on patient selection and how to better predict toxicities or outcomes. Indexes used in patients with DLBCL, such as the International Prognostic Index (IPI and age-adjusted IPI [aaIPI]) and in transplantation recipients, such as the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI), have not been evaluated in this setting. Here we evaluated 4 indices- IPI, aaIPI, HCT-CI, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)-and their associations with early CAR T cell related-toxicities and outcomes. We demonstrated an association between high-risk IPI or aaIPI and inferior PFS in patients with R/R DLBCL treated with CAR T cell therapy. We also found an association between aaIPI and IPI with OS and neurotoxicity, respectively. CCI was not associated with toxicities or outcomes, and owing to the small sample size, we could not draw a conclusion regarding associations with the HCT-CI. Both the IPI and aaIPI are widely used tools that can now provide better information to guide selection of patients who would best benefit from CD19 CAR T cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010220PMC
March 2021

Future of CAR T cells in multiple myeloma.

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2020 12;2020(1):272-279

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Despite the significant improvement in survival outcomes of multiple myeloma (MM) over the past decade, it remains an incurable disease. Patients with triple-class refractory MM have limited treatment options and a dismal prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy targeting B-cell maturation antigen has transformed the treatment armamentarium of relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM), with unprecedented overall response rates in this difficult-to-treat patient population. However, a significant proportion of patients ultimately relapse despite achieving deep remission. Several innovative approaches, including alternative/dual-antigen-specific CAR T-cell constructs, genetically engineered "off-the-shelf" CAR T cells, and strategies to counteract an immunosuppressive microenvironment, may dramatically reshape the field of CAR T-cell therapy in the future. These strategies are being actively investigated in preclinical and early clinical trial settings with the hopes of enhancing the durability of responses and, thereby, improving the overall survival of RRMM patients after CAR T-cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/hematology.2020000111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727578PMC
December 2020

Frequent mutations in HLA and related genes in extranodal NK/T cell lymphomas.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 01 23;62(1):95-103. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Extranodal NK/T cell lymphomas (ENKTCLs) are aggressive Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/NK neoplasms that predominantly affect Asians. To explore the causative somatic events, we conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis of 19 ENKTCL patients by whole-genome ( = 2), whole-exome ( = 16), and targeted sequencing ( = 15). Commonly deregulated gene pathways in ENKTCLs included epigenetic modifiers (58%, 11/19) followed by human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and related genes including , , and (32%, 6/19), and JAK-STAT pathway (26%, 5/19). Conspicuously, loss-of-function mutations in were recurrently identified in ENKTCLs (16%, 3/19). HLA protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 16 patients and lower expression was associated with advanced stages at presentation ( = .007). In conclusion, the defective antigen presenting pathway is common and related to disease progression, suggesting immune escape as a pathogenic mechanism of ENKTCLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1821011DOI Listing
January 2021

The influence of programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2) expression on survival outcome and tumor microenvironment in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 21;61(14):3395-3403. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

The frequency and significance of programmed cell death ligand (PD-L) 2 expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remain undefined. We described the expression pattern of PD-L/PD-1 in 88 DLBCL patients using immunohistochemistry. The association between PD-L expression and clinical characteristics/outcomes were analyzed. PD-L1 and PD-L2 were expressed in 14.8% and 68.2% of DLBCL patients with median positivity on tumor cells of 100% and 90%, respectively. PD-1 on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was expressed in 12.5% of patients. Interestingly, 45.5% of patients had PD-L2 expressing TILs which were significantly associated with bulky disease ( = .046) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase ( = .048). PD-L1 and/or PD-L2 expression on lymphoma cells was associated with inferior progression-free survival (Hazard ratio [HR] 2.20; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.004-4.84,  = .049) and overall survival (HR 2.27; 95%CI 1.03-4.98,  = .042), using multivariate analysis. In summary, PD-L2 expression on DLBCL is common and, together with PD-L1, were related to poor outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1808209DOI Listing
December 2020

Infection during the first year in patients treated with CD19 CAR T cells for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Blood Cancer J 2020 08 5;10(8):79. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is an effective treatment for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In addition to cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity (ICANS), B cell aplasia and hypogammaglobulinemia are common toxicities predisposing these patients to infections. We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL treated with FDA-approved CD19 CAR T cells and report the incidence, risk factors, and management of infections during the first year after treatment. A total of 101 infectious events were observed, including 25 mild, 51 moderate, 23 severe, 1 life-threatening, and 1 fatal infection. Bacteria were the most common causative pathogens. The cumulative incidence of overall, bacterial, severe bacterial, viral, and fungal infection at 1 year were 63.3%, 57.2%, 29.6%, 44.7%, and 4%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, the use of systemic corticosteroids for the management of CRS or ICANS was associated with an increased risk of infections and prolonged admission. Impaired performance status and history of infections within 30 days before CAR T cell therapy was a risk factor for severe bacterial infection. In conclusion, infections were common within the first 60 days after CAR T cell therapy, however, they were not associated with an increased risk of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00346-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7405315PMC
August 2020

DLBCL patients treated with CD19 CAR T cells experience a high burden of organ toxicities but low nonrelapse mortality.

Blood Adv 2020 07;4(13):3024-3033

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome are the most notable toxicities of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. In addition, CAR T-cell-mediated toxicities can involve any organ system, with varied impacts on outcomes, depending on patient factors and involved organs. We performed detailed analysis of organ-specific toxicities and their association with outcomes in 60 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with CD19 CAR T cells by assessing all toxicities in organ-based groups during the first year posttreatment. We observed 539 grade ≥2 and 289 grade ≥3 toxicities. Common grade ≥3 toxicities included hematological, metabolic, infectious, and neurological complications, with corresponding 1-year cumulative incidence of 57.7%, 54.8%, 35.4%, and 18.3%, respectively. Patients with impaired performance status had a higher risk of grade ≥3 metabolic complications, whereas elevated lactate dehydrogenase was associated with higher risks of grade ≥3 neurological and pulmonary toxicities. CRS was associated with higher incidence of grade ≥3 metabolic, pulmonary, and neurologic complications. The 1-year nonrelapse mortality and overall survival were 1.7% and 69%, respectively. Only grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicities were associated with an increased mortality risk. In summary, toxicity burdens after CD19 CAR T-cell therapy were high and varied by organ systems. Most toxicities were manageable and were rarely associated with mortality. Our study emphasizes the importance of toxicity assessment, which could serve as a benchmark for further research to reduce symptom burdens and improve tolerability in patients treated with CAR T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362382PMC
July 2020

Event-free survival at 12 months is a strong surrogate endpoint for stage 1 diffuse large B cell lymphoma: a report from Nation Wide Registry Thai Lymphoma Study Group.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 11 23;61(11):2614-2621. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Event-free survival at 12 months (EFS12) is a surrogate endpoint for long-term outcomes in many histologic lymphoma subtypes. However, most reports have primarily investigated the implication of EFS12 in advanced-stage non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). There are limited data regarding the significance of EFS12 in early-stage NHL. Herein, we evaluated the prognostic significance of EFS12 in patients with stage 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Out of 282 patients with stage 1 DLBCL who received intensive therapy, 227 (80.5%) achieved EFS12. The 4-year overall survival (OS) was 91.4% and 4.0% for patients who achieved and failed to achieve EFS12, respectively. Multivariable analyses demonstrated response to treatment and achievement of EFS12 as independent predictors for OS. In conclusion, our study demonstrated EFS12 as a powerful prognostic factor for stage 1 DLBCL. Further validation in more extensive prospective studies is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1780586DOI Listing
November 2020

Dissecting factors influencing response to CAR T cell therapy in B lymphoid hematologic malignancies: from basic to practice.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 10 10;61(10):2324-2334. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Leukemia Service, Division of Hematologic Malignancy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Over the past recent years, CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cell has transformed the treatment of relapsed/refractory (R/R) B lymphoid hematologic malignancy. CAR T cell therapy elicits an excellent anti-tumor effect and extends long-term disease-free remission in these difficult-to-treat patients. Notwithstanding, despite the impressive anti-tumor efficacy, some patients fail to attain clinical response or relapse after extended follow-up. The success of CAR T cell therapy involves complex interplays between host, tumor, and CAR T cell-associated arrays. Researchers have extensively explored potential predictive biomarkers for response to CAR T cell therapy. Ability to identify clinical and biological factors associated with improved response will help determine appropriate patients for CAR T cell treatment and enhance the clinical outcome of this novel therapeutic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1761967DOI Listing
October 2020

Monoclonal antibodies in multiple myeloma: Current and emerging targets and mechanisms of action.

Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2020 03 11;33(1):101143. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Myeloma Service, Division of Hematologic Malignancy, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA; Department of Medicine, Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York, USA. Electronic address:

The recent development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized the treatment armamentarium for multiple myeloma. The success of daratumumab and elotuzumab in relapsed/refractory patients, has generated tremendous enthusiasm for mAbs in this disease. Combination treatment with other anti-myeloma treatment modalities and clinical evaluation in newly diagnosed patients are expected to fundamentally change the natural history of the disease. Advances in biopharmaceutical engineering together with a robust interest in novel mAb-derivatives, including antibody drug conjugates and poly-specific antibodies are the next rapidly approaching treatment frontier in multiple myeloma. In this review, we comprehensively outline the currently available evidence and the future landscape of mAbs and mAb-derivative therapies in multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beha.2020.101143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060936PMC
March 2020

Comparing CAR T-cell toxicity grading systems: application of the ASTCT grading system and implications for management.

Blood Adv 2020 02;4(4):676-686

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Various grading systems are currently used for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell-related toxicity, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS). We compared the recently proposed American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT) grading system to other grading scores in 2 populations of adults: patients (n = 53) with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) treated with 1928z CAR T-cells (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01044069), and patients (n = 49) with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with axicabtagene-ciloleucel (axi-cel) or tisagenlecleucel after US Food and Drug Administration approval. According to ASTCT grading, 82% of patients had CRS, 87% in the B-ALL and 77% in the DLBCL groups (axi-cel: 86%, tisagenlecleucel: 54%), whereas 50% of patients experienced ICANS, 55% in the B-ALL and 45% in the DLBCL groups (axi-cel: 55%, tisagenlecleucel: 15%). All grading systems agreed on CRS and ICANS diagnosis in 99% and 91% of cases, respectively. However, when analyzed grade by grade, only 25% and 54% of patients had the same grade in each system for CRS and ICANS, respectively, as different systems score symptoms differently (upgrading or downgrading their severity), leading to inconsistent final grades. Investigation of possible management implications in DLBCL patients showed that different recommendations on tocilizumab and steroids across current guidelines potentially result in either overtreating or delaying treatment. Moreover, because these guidelines are based on single products and different grading systems, they cannot be universally applied. To avoid discrepancies in assessing and managing toxicities of different products, we propose that unified grading be used across clinical trials and in practice and that paired management guidelines with product-specific indications be developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042979PMC
February 2020

Disease risk and GVHD biomarkers can stratify patients for risk of relapse and nonrelapse mortality post hematopoietic cell transplant.

Leukemia 2020 07 4;34(7):1898-1906. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program, Children's Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

The graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) can prevent relapse but the risk of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) leads to prolonged intensive immunosuppression and possible blunting of the GVL effect. Strategies to reduce immunosuppression in order to prevent relapse have been offset by increases in severe GVHD and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). We recently validated the MAGIC algorithm probability (MAP) that predicts the risk for severe GVHD and NRM in asymptomatic patients using serum biomarkers. In this study we tested whether the MAP could identify patients whose risk for relapse is higher than their risk for severe GVHD and NRM. The multicenter study population (n = 1604) was divided into two cohorts: historical (2006-2015, n = 702) and current (2015-2017, n = 902) with similar NRM, relapse, and survival. On day 28 post-HCT, patients who had not developed GVHD (75% of the population) and who possessed a low MAP were at much higher risk for relapse (24%) than severe GVHD and NRM (16 and 9%); this difference was even more pronounced in patients with a high disease risk index (relapse 33%, NRM 9%). Such patients are good candidates to test relapse prevention strategies that might enhance GVL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0726-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332389PMC
July 2020

The MAGIC algorithm probability is a validated response biomarker of treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease.

Blood Adv 2019 12;3(23):4034-4042

Division of Haematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

The Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium (MAGIC) algorithm probability (MAP), derived from 2 serum biomarkers, measures damage to crypts in the gastrointestinal tract during graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that changes in MAP after treatment could validate it as a response biomarker. We prospectively collected serum samples and clinical stages of acute GVHD from 615 patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation in 20 centers at initiation of first-line systemic treatment and 4 weeks later. We computed MAPs and clinical responses and compared their abilities to predict 6-month nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in the validation cohort (n = 367). After 4 weeks of treatment, MAPs predicted NRM better than the change in clinical symptoms in all patients and identified 2 groups with significantly different NRM in both clinical responders (40% vs 12%, P < .0001) and nonresponders (65% vs 25%, P < .0001). MAPs successfully reclassified patients for NRM risk within every clinical grade of acute GVHD after 4 weeks of treatment. At the beginning of treatment, patients with a low MAP that rose above the threshold of 0.290 after 4 weeks of treatment had a significant increase in NRM, whereas patients with a high MAP at onset that fell below that threshold after treatment had a striking decrease in NRM that translated into clear differences in overall survival. We conclude that a MAP measured before and after treatment of acute GVHD is a response biomarker that predicts long-term outcomes more accurately than change in clinical symptoms. MAPs have the potential to guide therapy for acute GVHD and may function as a useful end point in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963240PMC
December 2019

Novel DDX41 variants in Thai patients with myeloid neoplasms.

Int J Hematol 2020 Feb 11;111(2):241-246. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Germline DDX41 mutations were recently reported to cause MDS/AML and donor-derived leukemia after transplantation. While previously described in Western countries, DDX41 variants have not been reported in a Southeast Asian population. We performed targeted sequencing of blood or bone marrow samples from 109 Thai patients with myeloid malignancies. Among the 109 patients (75 MDS, 8 MPN, 11 MDS/MPN and 15 AML), the most frequent mutations were in ASXL1 (17.4%), TET2 (16.5%) and SRSF2 (12.8%), respectively. DDX41 variants were detectable in six (5.5%) cases. Four patients exhibited three presumable germline DDX41 mutations: p.S21fs (n = 2), p.F235fs (n = 1), and p.R339H (n = 1). While p.S21fs was previously reported in myeloid neoplasm, the latter two variants have not been described. Two of these cases harbored concomitant probable germline/somatic DDX41 mutations (p.S21fs/p.R525H and p.R339H/p.K494T), while the other two patients carried only somatic mutations (p.R525H and p.F438L). The p.K494T and p.F438L variants have not been previously reported. In patients with DDX41 alterations, the diagnoses were MDS with excess blasts (4), secondary AML (1) and low-risk MDS (1). In conclusion, we identified DDX41 variants in Thai patients with myeloid malignancies in which these variants could be used to assess predisposition to MDS in Southeast Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02770-3DOI Listing
February 2020

Event free survival at 24 months is a strong surrogate prognostic endpoint of peripheral T cell lymphoma.

Hematol Oncol 2019 Dec 12;37(5):578-585. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Event free survival at 24 months (EFS24) has been described as a powerful predictor for outcome in several subtypes of B cell lymphoma. However, it was limitedly described in T cell lymphoma. We explored the implication of EFS24 as a predictor marker for peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). We reviewed 293 systemic PTCL patients at 13 nationwide major university hospitals in Thailand from 2007 to 2014. The median event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of PTCL patients in our cohort was 16.3 and 27.7 months with corresponding 2-year EFS and 2-year OS of 45.8% and 51.9%, respectively. A total of 118 patients achieved EFS24 (no events during the first 24 mo). Patients who achieved EFS24 had better OS than patients who did not (2-y OS 92% vs 18.8%; HR, 0.1; P < .001). The standardized mortality ratio of patients achieving EFS24 was 18.7 (95% CI, 14.6-22.8). Multivariable analysis demonstrated performance status, histologic subtype, remission status, and EFS24 achievement as independent predictors for OS. Our study affirmed the value of EFS24 as a powerful prognostic factor for PTCL. Further validation in prospective study setting is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2687DOI Listing
December 2019

Better survivals in adolescent and Young adults, compared to adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia - A multicenter prospective registry in Thai population.

Leuk Res 2019 12 15;87:106235. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand.

Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an uncommon hematologic malignancy with high relapse and mortality rate. This study aimed to describe characteristics and outcomes of Thai ALL patients, and to determine the differences between adolescent and young adult (AYA) and adult ALL. ALL patients aged > 15 years were prospectively enrolled from 2015 to 2017. AYA patients were defined as age ≤ 39 years. Out of the 188 enrolled ALL patients, 9 were excluded due to changes in diagnosis or incomplete data. From the remaining 179 patients, 103 (57.5%) were AYA and 76 (42.5%) were adult. AYA ALL patients were predominantly male, had higher T-cell phenotype, higher white blood cells and hemoglobin, with lower frequency of Philadelphia chromosome or BCR-ABL1 mutation. All patients received treatment by adult hematologist, however 40.8% of AYA ALL patients were treated with pediatric adapted protocol. The effects of stem cell transplantation (SCT) and age were determined by stratified patients as: AYA - no SCT 91 (51.1%), AYA - SCT 12 (6.7%), adult - no SCT 64 (36.0%) and adult - SCT 11 (6.2%). The 2-year overall survival were: 53.9%, 60.6%, 39.2% and 70.1%, respectively. The 2-year event-free survival were: 45.0%, 54.0%, 21.0% and 49.9%, respectively. This is a large multicenter ALL cohort study conducted in Thailand. Patients who underwent SCT showed significantly improved OS and EFS, confirming the benefit of graft-versus-leukemia effect in ALL. However, further studies with longer follow-up, expanded use of SCT, use of molecular data, and minimal residual disease status are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2019.106235DOI Listing
December 2019

Factors associated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent hyporesponsiveness anemia in chronic kidney disease patients.

Hematol Rep 2019 Sep 18;11(3):8183. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine,Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok.

Anemia is one of the most common problems in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite comprehensive investigations in several cases, definite causes of anemia frequently remain unknown. Our study aimed to analyze the factors that possibly affect anemia in CKD patients who were referred for hematology consultation. A total of 87 patients were retrospectively included in the cohort. Forty-four cases were excluded, including 30 cases with unavailable intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) data, 11 cases with bone marrow diseases (8 Pure red cell aplasia, 3 Myelodysplastic syndrome) and 3 cases with thalassemia. In total, 43 patients were analyzed. Patients with high iPTH had a significantly lower Hemoglobin (Hb) level and required a higher dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) compared with the normal iPTH group (Hb 8.29 9.24 mg/dL, P=0.032 and ESAs dose of 16,352.94 . 12,444.44 U/week, P=0.024). Univariate, followed by stepwise multivariate analysis was performed and determined that serum phosphate (PO4) was significantly associated with lower Hb level (P=0.01 and P=0.013, respectively). In addition, Hb level was inversely correlated with iPTH and serum phosphate (PO4) level (r=-0.54, P<0.001 and r=-0.47, P=0.005; respectively). Mineral disequilibrium is an important factor associated with anemia in ESA hyporesponsive CKD. Also, hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism are significantly correlated with low Hb. As a result, we strongly suggest correction of mineral disequilibrium factors prior to performing bone marrow study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/hr.2019.8183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761458PMC
September 2019

Programmed Cell Death 1 and Programmed Cell Death Ligands in Extranodal Natural Killer/T Cell Lymphoma: Expression Pattern and Potential Prognostic Relevance.

Acta Haematol 2020 22;143(1):78-88. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand,

The programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligands (PD-1/PD-Ls) axis is a potential immune escape mechanism of cancers. However, data on the PD-1/PD-Ls pathway in EBV-associated extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) and its clinical implication are limited. Herein, we characterized PD-1/PD-L expression and its prognosis relevance in 49 ENKTL patients in Thailand. PD-L1 was expressed frequently on both lymphoma cells (61.2%) and stroma (77.5%), whereas PD-L2 expression was more common on lymphoma (63.2%) than stromal cells. PD-1 was positive in 20.5% of stroma, but undetectable on lymphoma cells. There was no association between baseline clinical characteristics and the expression PD-1/PD-Ls. The survival of patients with PD-Ls on tumor cells was poor. For PD-L1-positive versus negative cases, the 2-year event-free survival (EFS) was 42.2 versus 71.8% (p = 0.03) and 2-year overall survival (OS) was 45.4 versus 78.9% (p = 0.02), respectively. Comparing between patients with PD-L2-positive and PD-L2-negative lymphoma, the 2-year EFS was 37.1 versus 82.4% (p = 0.02) and 2-year OS was 45.2 versus 82.4% (p = 0.03), respectively. Neither PD-1 nor PD-Ls expression in the stroma predicted outcomes. In conclusion, PD-Ls were frequently expressed on ENKTL cells and associated with inferior outcomes. Therefore, PD-Ls are potential prognostic biomarkers and the roles of immune checkpoint blockade therapy in ENKTL deserve further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500974DOI Listing
April 2020

Characteristics, treatment patterns, prognostic determinants and outcome of peripheral T cell lymphoma and natural killer/T cell non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in older patients: The result of the nationwide multi-institutional registry Thai Lymphoma Study Group.

J Geriatr Oncol 2020 01 30;11(1):62-68. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Introduction: Peripheral T cell NHL (PTCL) and natural killer/T cell NHL (NKTCL) are relatively rare disorders. Data on clinical presentation, treatment and outcome are limited especially in older age groups.

Methods: We identified 127 patients with PTCL and NKTCL, excluding cutaneous T/NK cell lymphoma, aged over 60 years old from Thailand nationwide multicenter registry.

Results: Of 127 patients, median age of diagnosis was 67 years old. Patients aged older than 75 years old had similar characteristics to younger (60-74 years old) but higher comorbidity index. Seventy-nine patients (62.2%) received intensive/definite multi-agent chemotherapy, however, the proportion was significant lower in older patients (70.4% vs 34.5%, p < .001). After a median follow up duration of 17.3 months, 2-year progression free survival and overall survival were 38.1% and 48.5%. Univariate and multivariable analysis demonstrated older age, poor performance status and absence of definite multi-agent chemotherapy were associated with inferior survival. Definite multi-agent lymphoma specific chemotherapy was an independent factor for overall survival after adjustment for age, comorbidity index, performance status and prognostic index for T cell lymphoma.

Conclusion: Despite overall poor prognosis of PTCL and NKTCL in older adults, chemotherapy could result in objective response and long-term survival in selected patients of this vulnerable age group thus emphasizing the importance of comprehensive geriatric evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2019.03.016DOI Listing
January 2020

Frequent germline mutations of in sporadic subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2019 02;3(4):588-595

Department of Pathology and Tumor Biology, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma affecting younger patients and associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. To clarify the molecular pathogenesis of SPTCL, we analyzed paired tumor and germline DNAs from 13 patients by whole-exome sequencing. All cases were Asians and were phenotypically sporadic with no family history of SPTCL. Consistent with a recent report, germline mutations in , encoding T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM3), were identified in 11 of 13 (85%) cases. All mutated cases were primary SPTCL, whereas the 2 cases without mutation were secondary SPTCL associated with underlying diseases, including viral infection and autoimmune disease. Ten patients harbored homozygous p.Y82C mutations, and 1 showed compound heterozygous mutations (p.Y82C and p.T101I). Both missense mutations altered highly conserved residues located in the extracellular immunoglobulin variable-like domain. According to the Genome Aggregation Database of >138 500 general individuals, both mutations were documented with minor allele frequencies < 0.007, indicating remarkable enrichment of these alleles in SPTCL. SPTCL cells also harbored somatic mutations (6.2 per patient) that are frequently identified in genes associated with epigenetic regulation and signal transduction. In conclusion, individuals harboring biallelic (TIM3) germline mutations were highly susceptible to sporadic SPTCL, which was also associated with clonal somatic mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018028340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391671PMC
February 2019

Clinical presentation and treatment outcomes of primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma in Thailand.

Blood Res 2018 Dec 17;53(4):307-313. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Primary ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (POML) is the most common subtype of lymphoma involving the eyes in Thailand. We sought to assess the characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with POML in Thailand.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patient data and included patients diagnosed with POML between January 2004 and December 2016 at Chiang Mai University Hospital and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. We collected and analyzed patients' clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes.

Results: Among 146 patients with lymphoma involving the eyes, 121 (82%) were diagnosed with POML. Sixty-four (52.9%) were women with median age 58 (range, 22-86) years. The most common presenting symptom was orbital mass (71.1%). Common sites of origin were the orbit (46.3%) and lacrimal gland (34.7%). At presentation, 22.3% of patients had bilateral eye involvement. About half of patients had stage I disease (N=59, 56.2%) and 20% had stage IV. Most patients (73.3%) had a low-risk International Prognostic Index. Radiotherapy was the main treatment for patients with limited-stage disease (66.7% in stage I and 56.5% in stage II). The overall response rate was 100% with complete response rates 80%, 77.3%, and 64.7% for stages I, II, and IV, respectively. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 66.1% and 94.0%, respectively. For patients with limited-stage disease, radiotherapy significantly improved PFS compared with treatment not involving radiotherapy (5-year PFS 89.9% vs. 37.3%, =0.01).

Conclusion: We revealed that POML has good response to treatment, especially radiotherapy, with excellent long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5045/br.2018.53.4.307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300677PMC
December 2018

MAGIC biomarkers predict long-term outcomes for steroid-resistant acute GVHD.

Blood 2018 06 15;131(25):2846-2855. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is treated with systemic corticosteroid immunosuppression. Clinical response after 1 week of therapy often guides further treatment decisions, but long-term outcomes vary widely among centers, and more accurate predictive tests are urgently needed. We analyzed clinical data and blood samples taken 1 week after systemic treatment of GVHD from 507 patients from 17 centers of the Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium (MAGIC), dividing them into a test cohort (n = 236) and 2 validation cohorts separated in time (n = 142 and n = 129). Initial response to systemic steroids correlated with response at 4 weeks, 1-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and overall survival (OS). A previously validated algorithm of 2 MAGIC biomarkers (ST2 and REG3α) consistently separated steroid-resistant patients into 2 groups with dramatically different NRM and OS ( < .001 for all 3 cohorts). High biomarker probability, resistance to steroids, and GVHD severity (Minnesota risk) were all significant predictors of NRM in multivariate analysis. A direct comparison of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve for biomarker probability (0.82) was significantly greater than that for steroid response (0.68, = .004) and for Minnesota risk (0.72, = .005). In conclusion, MAGIC biomarker probabilities generated after 1 week of systemic treatment of GVHD predict long-term outcomes in steroid-resistant GVHD better than clinical criteria and should prove useful in developing better treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-01-822957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014357PMC
June 2018

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in South East Asia: An analysis of the histopathology, clinical features, and survival from Thailand.

Hematol Oncol 2018 Feb 23;36(1):28-36. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Departmentof Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand.

Systemic reports on the descriptive epidemiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from Southeast Asia are scarce. A nationwide multi-institutional registry was conducted to compare the histopathology, clinical features, and survival of Thai adult patients with NHL using large registries, especially those from Far East Asia (FEA). Using a web-based registry system, 13 major medical centers from the 4 geographic regions of Thailand prospectively collected, from 2007 to 2014, the diagnostic pathology, according to the World Health Organization classification, 2008, clinical features and survival of 4056 patients who were newly diagnosed with NHL. The median age of the patients was 56 years (range, 16-99 years). The male-to-female ratio was 1.3:1. From the total of 4056 patients, T/NK-cell lymphoma (TNKCL) accounted for 12.6% of cases, and 5.1% had human immunodeficiency virus-associated lymphoma. The four leading histological subtypes were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (58.1%); follicular lymphoma (5.6%); extranodal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (5.2%); and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (4.0%). With a median follow-up duration of 46.1 months, the median overall survival of B-cell NHL was significantly longer than that of patients with TNKCL (76.5 vs 28.8 months, P = .0001). Compared to FEA, the Thai registry had an approximately one-half lower relative frequency of TNKCL; the prevalence of extranodal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma was much lower than in Korea, and the frequency of extranodal TNKCL, nasal type, was strikingly low compared to China. It is concluded that while the median age of Thai patients with NHL was approximately a decade younger than for Caucasians, the long-term survival rates for most histological subtypes were comparable. While the histological distribution generally complied with the characteristic Asian features, some differences from FEA were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2392DOI Listing
February 2018

An early-biomarker algorithm predicts lethal graft-versus-host disease and survival.

JCI Insight 2017 02 9;2(3):e89798. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

No laboratory test can predict the risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) or severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cellular transplantation (HCT) prior to the onset of GVHD symptoms. Patient blood samples on day 7 after HCT were obtained from a multicenter set of 1,287 patients, and 620 samples were assigned to a training set. We measured the concentrations of 4 GVHD biomarkers (ST2, REG3α, TNFR1, and IL-2Rα) and used them to model 6-month NRM using rigorous cross-validation strategies to identify the best algorithm that defined 2 distinct risk groups. We then applied the final algorithm in an independent test set ( = 309) and validation set ( = 358). A 2-biomarker model using ST2 and REG3α concentrations identified patients with a cumulative incidence of 6-month NRM of 28% in the high-risk group and 7% in the low-risk group ( < 0.001). The algorithm performed equally well in the test set (33% vs. 7%, < 0.001) and the multicenter validation set (26% vs. 10%, < 0.001). Sixteen percent, 17%, and 20% of patients were at high risk in the training, test, and validation sets, respectively. GVHD-related mortality was greater in high-risk patients (18% vs. 4%, < 0.001), as was severe gastrointestinal GVHD (17% vs. 8%, < 0.001). The same algorithm can be successfully adapted to define 3 distinct risk groups at GVHD onset. A biomarker algorithm based on a blood sample taken 7 days after HCT can consistently identify a group of patients at high risk for lethal GVHD and NRM. The National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.89798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5291735PMC
February 2017

Secondary central nervous system relapse in diffuse large B cell lymphoma in a resource limited country: result from the Thailand nationwide multi-institutional registry.

Ann Hematol 2017 Jan 18;96(1):57-64. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, 1873 Rama IV road Pathumwan, Bangkok, Thailand.

Secondary central nervous system (CNS) relapse is a serious and fatal complication of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Data on secondary CNS (SCNS) relapse were mostly obtained from western countries with limited data from developing countries. We analyzed the data of 2034 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients enrolled into the multi-center registry under Thai Lymphoma Study Group from setting. The incidence, September 2006 to December 2013 to represent outcome from a resource limited pattern, management, and outcome of SCNS relapse were described. The 2-year cumulative incidence (CI) of SCNS relapse was 2.7 %. A total of 729, 1024, and 281 patients were classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk CNS international prognostic index (CNS-IPI) with corresponding 2-year CI of SCNS relapse of 1.5, 3.1, and 4.6 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated advance stage disease, poor performance status, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, presence of B symptoms, more than one extranodal organ involvement, high IPI, and high CNS-IPI group as predictive factors for SCNS relapse. Rituximab exposure and intrathecal chemoprophylaxis offered no protective effect against SCNS relapse. At the time of analysis, six patients were alive. Median OS in SCNS relapsed patients was significantly shorter than relapsed patients without CNS involvement (13.2 vs 22.6 months) (p < 0.001). Primary causes of death were progressive disease (n = 35, 63.6 %) and infection (n = 9, 16.7 %). In conclusion, although the incidence of SCNS relapse in our cohort was low, the prognosis was dismal. Prophylaxis for SCNS involvement was underused even in high-risk patients. Novel approaches for SCNS relapse prophylaxis and managements are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-016-2848-yDOI Listing
January 2017