Publications by authors named "Kit L Shaw"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Busulfan Pharmacokinetics in Adenosine Deaminase-Deficient Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Gene Therapy.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 10 9;26(10):1819-1827. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, California; Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California; The Broad Stem Cell Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

The pharmacokinetics of low-dose busulfan (BU) were investigated as a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen for autologous gene therapy (GT) in pediatric subjects with adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency disease (ADA SCID). In 3 successive clinical trials, which included either γ-retroviral (γ-RV) or lentiviral (LV) vectors, subjects were conditioned with BU using different dosing nomograms. The first cohort received BU doses based on body surface area (BSA), the second cohort received doses based on actual body weight (ABW), and in the third cohort, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was used to target a specific area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). Neither BSA-based nor ABW-based dosing achieved a consistent cumulative BU AUC; in contrast, TDM-based dosing led to more consistent AUC. BU clearance increased as subject age increased from birth to 18 months. However, weight and age alone were insufficient to accurately predict the dose that would consistently achieve a target AUC. Furthermore, various clinical, laboratory, and genetic factors (eg, genotypes for glutathione-S-transferase isozymes known to participate in BU metabolism) were analyzed, but no single finding predicted subjects with rapid versus slow clearance. Analysis of BU AUC and the postengraftment vector copy number (VCN) in granulocytes, a surrogate marker of the level of engrafted gene-modified hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), demonstrated gene marking at levels sufficient for therapeutic benefit in the subjects who had achieved the target BU AUC. Although many factors determine the ultimate engraftment following GT, this work demonstrates that the BU AUC correlated with the eventual level of engrafted gene-modified HSPCs within a vector group (γ-RV versus LV), with significantly higher levels of granulocyte VCN in the recipients of LV-modified grafts compared to recipients of γ-RV-transduced grafts. Taken together, these findings provide insight into low-dose BU pharmacokinetics in the unique setting of autologous GT for ADA SCID, and these dosing principles may be applied to future GT trials using low-dose BU to open the bone marrow niche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529956PMC
October 2020

Lentiviral gene therapy for X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

Nat Med 2020 02 27;26(2):200-206. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder of phagocytic cells. We report the initial results of nine severely affected X-linked CGD (X-CGD) patients who received ex vivo autologous CD34 hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell-based lentiviral gene therapy following myeloablative conditioning in first-in-human studies (trial registry nos. NCT02234934 and NCT01855685). The primary objectives were to assess the safety and evaluate the efficacy and stability of biochemical and functional reconstitution in the progeny of engrafted cells at 12 months. The secondary objectives included the evaluation of augmented immunity against bacterial and fungal infection, as well as assessment of hematopoietic stem cell transduction and engraftment. Two enrolled patients died within 3 months of treatment from pre-existing comorbidities. At 12 months, six of the seven surviving patients demonstrated stable vector copy numbers (0.4-1.8 copies per neutrophil) and the persistence of 16-46% oxidase-positive neutrophils. There was no molecular evidence of either clonal dysregulation or transgene silencing. Surviving patients have had no new CGD-related infections, and six have been able to discontinue CGD-related antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary objective was met in six of the nine patients at 12 months follow-up, suggesting that autologous gene therapy is a promising approach for CGD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0735-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115833PMC
February 2020

Clinical efficacy of gene-modified stem cells in adenosine deaminase-deficient immunodeficiency.

J Clin Invest 2017 May 27;127(5):1689-1699. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Background: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) of gene-modified cells is an alternative to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and allogeneic HSCT that has shown clinical benefit for adenosine deaminase-deficient (ADA-deficient) SCID when combined with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) and ERT cessation. Clinical safety and therapeutic efficacy were evaluated in a phase II study.

Methods: Ten subjects with confirmed ADA-deficient SCID and no available matched sibling or family donor were enrolled between 2009 and 2012 and received transplantation with autologous hematopoietic CD34+ cells that were modified with the human ADA cDNA (MND-ADA) γ-retroviral vector after conditioning with busulfan (90 mg/m2) and ERT cessation. Subjects were followed from 33 to 84 months at the time of data analysis. Safety of the procedure was assessed by recording the number of adverse events. Efficacy was assessed by measuring engraftment of gene-modified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, ADA gene expression, and immune reconstitution.

Results: With the exception of the oldest subject (15 years old at enrollment), all subjects remained off ERT with normalized peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) ADA activity, improved lymphocyte numbers, and normal proliferative responses to mitogens. Three of nine subjects were able to discontinue intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy. The MND-ADA vector was persistently detected in PBMCs (vector copy number [VCN] = 0.1-2.6) and granulocytes (VCN = 0.01-0.3) through the most recent visits at the time of this writing. No patient has developed a leukoproliferative disorder or other vector-related clinical complication since transplant.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate clinical therapeutic efficacy from gene therapy for ADA-deficient SCID, with an excellent clinical safety profile.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00794508.

Funding: Food and Drug Administration Office of Orphan Product Development award, RO1 FD003005; NHLBI awards, PO1 HL73104 and Z01 HG000122; UCLA Clinical and Translational Science Institute awards, UL1RR033176 and UL1TR000124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI90367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5409097PMC
May 2017

A modified γ-retrovirus vector for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

N Engl J Med 2014 Oct;371(15):1407-17

From the Departments of Biotherapy (S.H.-B.-A., J. Blondeau, L.C., F.T., M.C.) and Immunology and Pediatric Hematology (S.B., G.C., D.M., B.N., C.P., F.T., A.F.) and the Centre d'Étude des Déficits Immunitaires (C.P.), Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), the Biotherapy Clinical Investigation Center, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Ouest, AP-HP, INSERM (S.H.-B.-A., J. Blondeau, L.C., F.T., M.C.), Unité de Technologies Chimiques et Biologiques pour la Santé, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 8258-INSERM Unité 1022, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Université Paris Descartes (S.H.-B.-A.), Immunology Laboratory, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Paris-Sud, AP-HP, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre (S.H.-B.-A.), Imagine Institute, Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité University (S.B., J. Blondeau, L.C., D.M., B.N., C.P., E.S., A.F., M.C.), INSERM Unités Mixtes de Recherche 1163, Laboratory of Human Lymphohematopoiesis (J. Blondeau, L.C., E.S., F.T., A.F., M.C.), Groupe Immunoscope, Immunology Department, Institut Pasteur (A.L.), and Collège de France (A.F.) - all in Paris; Division of Hematology-Oncology (S.-Y.P., H.B., D.G., C.E.H., G.H., L.E.L., W.B.L., D.A.W.) and Division of Immunology (L.D.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (S.-Y.P., D.G., L.E.L., W.B.L., D.A.W.), Harvard Medical School (S.-Y.P., M.A., L.E.L., W.B.L., J.R., L.E.S., A.T., L.D.N., D.A.W.), Center for Human Cell Therapy, Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital (M.A., J.R., L.E.S., A.T.), Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (J.R.), and the Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research (L.D.N.) - all in Boston; Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust (H.B.G., J.X.-B., A.J.T.) and Section of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, University College London Institute of Child Health (H.B.G., K.F.B., A.

Background: In previous clinical trials involving children with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), a Moloney murine leukemia virus-based γ-retrovirus vector expressing interleukin-2 receptor γ-chain (γc) complementary DNA successfully restored immunity in most patients but resulted in vector-induced leukemia through enhancer-mediated mutagenesis in 25% of patients. We assessed the efficacy and safety of a self-inactivating retrovirus for the treatment of SCID-X1.

Methods: We enrolled nine boys with SCID-X1 in parallel trials in Europe and the United States to evaluate treatment with a self-inactivating (SIN) γ-retrovirus vector containing deletions in viral enhancer sequences expressing γc (SIN-γc).

Results: All patients received bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells transduced with the SIN-γc vector, without preparative conditioning. After 12.1 to 38.7 months of follow-up, eight of the nine children were still alive. One patient died from an overwhelming adenoviral infection before reconstitution with genetically modified T cells. Of the remaining eight patients, seven had recovery of peripheral-blood T cells that were functional and led to resolution of infections. The patients remained healthy thereafter. The kinetics of CD3+ T-cell recovery was not significantly different from that observed in previous trials. Assessment of insertion sites in peripheral blood from patients in the current trial as compared with those in previous trials revealed significantly less clustering of insertion sites within LMO2, MECOM, and other lymphoid proto-oncogenes in our patients.

Conclusions: This modified γ-retrovirus vector was found to retain efficacy in the treatment of SCID-X1. The long-term effect of this therapy on leukemogenesis remains unknown. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01410019, NCT01175239, and NCT01129544.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1404588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4274995PMC
October 2014

Gene therapy for adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency: clinical comparison of retroviral vectors and treatment plans.

Blood 2012 Nov 11;120(18):3635-46. Epub 2012 Sep 11.

Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.

We conducted a gene therapy trial in 10 patients with adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency using 2 slightly different retroviral vectors for the transduction of patients' bone marrow CD34(+) cells. Four subjects were treated without pretransplantation cytoreduction and remained on ADA enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) throughout the procedure. Only transient (months), low-level (< 0.01%) gene marking was observed in PBMCs of 2 older subjects (15 and 20 years of age), whereas some gene marking of PBMC has persisted for the past 9 years in 2 younger subjects (4 and 6 years). Six additional subjects were treated using the same gene transfer protocol, but after withdrawal of ERT and administration of low-dose busulfan (65-90 mg/m(2)). Three of these remain well, off ERT (5, 4, and 3 years postprocedure), with gene marking in PBMC of 1%-10%, and ADA enzyme expression in PBMC near or in the normal range. Two subjects were restarted on ERT because of poor gene marking and immune recovery, and one had a subsequent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These studies directly demonstrate the importance of providing nonmyeloablative pretransplantation conditioning to achieve therapeutic benefits with gene therapy for ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2012-02-400937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3488882PMC
November 2012

A tale of two SCIDs.

Sci Transl Med 2011 Aug;3(97):97ps36

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation may be curative for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, for a majority of infants with SCID a suitable donor is not available, and even with a matched donor, allogeneic HSC transplantation itself carries potential complications such as graft-versus-host disease as well as side effects from myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In the past decade, substantial advances have been made in the transplantation of gene-modified autologous HSCs, especially for two forms of SCID: X-linked SCID (SCID-X1) and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient SCID. Two new reports in this issue of Science Translational Medicine add to the accumulating findings from gene therapy trials in Italy, France, and the United States that show clinical benefits of this alternative treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3002594DOI Listing
August 2011

Foamy virus envelope glycoprotein is sufficient for particle budding and release.

J Virol 2003 Feb;77(4):2338-48

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 845 19th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Foamy viruses (FVs) are classified in the family Retroviridae, but recent data have shown that they are not conventional retroviruses. Notably, several characteristics of their particle replication strategies are more similar to those of hepatitis B virus (HBV) than those of typical retroviruses. Compared to conventional retroviruses, which require only Gag proteins for budding and release of virus-like particles (VLPs), both FV and HBV require Env proteins. In the case of HBV, Env (S protein) alone is sufficient to form subviral particles (SVPs). Because FVs also depend on Env for budding, we tested whether FV Env alone could produce SVPs. The Env proteins of FV and murine leukemia virus (MuLV) were both released into cell culture supernatants and migrated into isopycnic gradients; however, unlike MuLV Env, FV Env displayed characteristics of SVPs. FV Env particles were of greater density than those of MuLV (1.11 versus 1.07 g/ml, respectively), which strongly suggested that the released proteins of FV Env were particulate. When we examined FV SVPs by immunoelectron microscopy, we found particles that were consistent in morphology, size, and staining with gold beads, similar to FV VLPs and unlike the particle-like structures of MuLV Env, which were more consistent with vesicles produced from nonspecific membrane "blebbing." Taken together, our results demonstrated that FV Env alone is sufficient for particle budding. This finding is unique among retroviruses and further demonstrated the similarities between FV and HBV.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC141096PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.4.2338-2348.2003DOI Listing
February 2003