Publications by authors named "Kirthi Raman Kumar"

6 Publications

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Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Regulates Peripheral B Cell Receptor Revision, Polyreactivity, and B1 Cells in Lupus.

J Immunol 2016 Feb 15;196(4):1507-16. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Division of Rheumatic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204; Center for Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390; and

C57BL/6 mice bearing the Sle2(z) lupus-susceptibility congenic interval on chromosome 4 display high titers of polyclonal autoantibodies with generalized B cell hyperactivity, hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus. In B6.Sle2(z)HEL(Ig).sHEL BCR-transgenic mice, Sle2(z) did not breach central tolerance, but it led to heightened expression of endogenous Ig H and L chains in splenic B cells, upregulation of RAG, and serological polyreactivity, suggestive of excessive receptor revision. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), a gene in the minimal subcongenic interval generated through recombinant mapping, was found to be upregulated in Sle2(z) B cells by microarray analysis, Western blot, and functional assays. Pharmacological inhibition of FAAH reversed the increase in receptor revision, RAG expression, and polyreactive autoantibodies in lupus-prone mice. These studies indicate that increased peripheral BCR revision, or selective peripheral expansion of BCR-revised B cells, may lead to systemic autoimmunity and that FAAH is a lupus-susceptibility gene that might regulate this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1500291DOI Listing
February 2016

Understanding B-cell tolerance through the use of immunoglobulin transgenic models.

Immunol Res 2008 ;40(3):208-23

Department of Internal Medicine/Rheumatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-8884, USA.

The appearance of autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases such as lupus suggests that B-cell tolerance to self is breached. Hence it becomes important to unravel the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for violations in various B-cell tolerance checkpoints in autoimmune diseases. B-cell immunoglobulin or B-cell receptor transgenic models have been of immense aid in uncovering many of these key tolerance checkpoints during normal B-cell development. By breeding these transgenic models onto mice that are engineered to lack or hyperexpress various B-cell molecules, including signaling intermediates, researchers have delineated the role of these molecules in B-cell tolerance. These transgenic models have also been useful in delineating the impact of various lupus prone genomes and lupus susceptibility loci on B-cell tolerance. This review focuses on some of the more well-studied B-cell receptor transgenic models and the lessons they have taught us over the past two decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-007-8008-7DOI Listing
July 2008

Shared signaling networks active in B cells isolated from genetically distinct mouse models of lupus.

J Clin Invest 2007 Aug;117(8):2186-96

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-8884, USA.

Though B cells play key roles in lupus pathogenesis, the molecular circuitry and its dysregulation in these cells as disease evolves remain poorly understood. To address this, a comprehensive scan of multiple signaling axes using multiplexed Western blotting was undertaken in several different murine lupus strains. PI3K/AKT/mTOR (mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin), MEK1/Erk1/2, p38, NF-kappaB, multiple Bcl-2 family members, and cell-cycle molecules were observed to be hyperexpressed in lupus B cells in an age-dependent and lupus susceptibility gene-dose-dependent manner. Therapeutic targeting of the AKT/mTOR axis using a rapamycin (sirolimus) derivative ameliorated the serological, cellular, and pathological phenotypes associated with lupus. Surprisingly, the targeting of this axis was associated with the crippling of several other signaling axes. These studies reveal that lupus pathogenesis is contingent upon the activation of an elaborate network of signaling cascades that is shared among genetically distinct mouse models and raise hope that targeting pivotal nodes in these networks may offer therapeutic benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI30398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1913486PMC
August 2007

Lupus susceptibility genes may breach tolerance to DNA by impairing receptor editing of nuclear antigen-reactive B cells.

J Immunol 2007 Jul;179(2):1340-52

Department of Internal Medicine and Center for Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

An NZM2410-derived lupus susceptibility locus on murine chromosome 4, Sle2(z), has previously been noted to engender generalized B cell hyperactivity. To study how Sle2(z) impacts B cell tolerance, two Ig H chain site-directed transgenes, 3H9 and 56R, with specificity for DNA were backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 background with or without Sle2(z). Interestingly, the presence of the NZM2410 "z" allele of Sle2 on the C57BL/6 background profoundly breached B cell tolerance to DNA, apparently by thwarting receptor editing. Whereas mAbs isolated from the spleens of B6.56R control mice demonstrated significant usage of the endogenous (i.e., nontargeted) H chain locus and evidence of vigorous L chain editing; Abs isolated from B6.Sle2(z).56R spleens were largely composed of the transgenic H chain paired with a spectrum of L chains, predominantly recombined to J(k)1 or J(k)2. In addition, Sle2(z)-bearing B cells adopted divergent phenotypes depending on their Ag specificity. Whereas Sle2(z)-bearing anti-DNA transgenic B cells were skewed toward marginal zone B cells and preplasmablasts, B cells from the same mice that did not express the transgene were skewed toward the B1a phenotype. This work illustrates that genetic loci that confer lupus susceptibility may influence B cell differentiation depending on their Ag specificity and potentially contribute to antinuclear autoantibody formation by infringing upon B cell receptor editing. Taken together with a recent report on Sle1(z), these studies suggest that dysregulated receptor-editing of nuclear Ag-reactive B cells may be a major mechanism through which antinuclear Abs arise in lupus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.179.2.1340DOI Listing
July 2007

Regulation of B cell tolerance by the lupus susceptibility gene Ly108.

Science 2006 Jun;312(5780):1665-9

Department of Internal Medicine (Rheumatology), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

The susceptibility locus for the autoimmune disease lupus on murine chromosome 1, Sle1z/Sle1bz, and the orthologous human locus are associated with production of autoantibody to chromatin. We report that the presence of Sle1z/Sle1bz impairs B cell anergy, receptor revision, and deletion. Members of the SLAM costimulatory molecule family constitute prime candidates for Sle1bz, among which the Ly108.1 isoform of the Ly108 gene was most highly expressed in immature B cells from lupus-prone B6.Sle1z mice. The normal Ly108.2 allele, but not the lupus-associated Ly108.1 allele, was found to sensitize immature B cells to deletion and RAG reexpression. As a potential regulator of tolerance checkpoints, Ly108 may censor self-reactive B cells, hence safeguarding against autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1125893DOI Listing
June 2006

Enhanced expression of stem cell antigen-1 (Ly-6A/E) in lymphocytes from lupus prone mice correlates with disease severity.

J Autoimmun 2005 Nov 24;25(3):215-22. Epub 2005 Oct 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology, and the Center for Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, 75235, USA.

B6.Sle1 mice, congenic for the NZM2410-derived lupus susceptibility locus, Sle1 on chromosome 1 exhibit many of the features seen in human lupus including activated lymphocytes and high titers of antinuclear autoantibodies. Among the different surface molecules that were aberrantly expressed on the B6.Sle1 lymphocytes was Ly-6A/E. Splenic B- and T-lymphocytes but not myeloid cells from B6.Sle1 mice exhibited enhanced levels of Ly-6A/E compared to B6 controls. In particular, MZ B cells, GC B cells and B-cell blasts expressed the highest levels of Ly-6A/E in both strains, with the levels being even higher on B6.Sle1 derived cells. Following stimulation with LPS or anti-IgM, there was a profound up-regulation in Ly-6A/E, particularly on MZ B cells and B-cell blasts. CD4 and CD8 T cells also up-regulated Ly-6A/E after stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. These studies were extended to additional autoimmune strains including B6.Sle3, B6.Sle1.lpr and BXSB. Importantly, Ly-6A/E levels on lymphocytes were commensurate with the degree of disease exhibited by these lupus strains. Finally, it appears that increased interferon levels, in addition to antigen receptor stimulation, may also be a factor accounting for elevated Ly-6A/E in lupus. Given these observations it is important to elucidate the functional role of Ly-6A/E in lupus in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2005.09.015DOI Listing
November 2005