Publications by authors named "Kirsten G Coupland"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Differences in proliferation rate between CADASIL and control vascular smooth muscle cells are related to increased TGFβ expression.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 06 13;22(6):3016-3024. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Karolinska Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Neurogeriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Huddinge, Sweden.

Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familial fatal progressive degenerative disorder. One of the pathological hallmarks of CADASIL is a dramatic reduction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in cerebral arteries. Using VSMCs from the vasculature of the human umbilical cord, placenta and cerebrum of CADASIL patients, we found that CADASIL VSMCs had a lower proliferation rate compared to control VSMCs. Exposure of control VSMCs and endothelial cells (ECs) to media derived from CADASIL VSMCs lowered the proliferation rate of all cells examined. By quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we observed increased Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) gene expression in CADASIL VSMCs. Adding TGFβ-neutralizing antibody restored the proliferation rate of CADASIL VSMCs. We assessed proliferation differences in the presence or absence of TGFβ-neutralizing antibody in ECs co-cultured with VSMCs. ECs co-cultured with CADASIL VSMCs exhibited a lower proliferation rate than those co-cultured with control VSMCs, and neutralization of TGFβ normalized the proliferation rate of ECs co-cultured with CADASIL VSMCs. We suggest that increased TGFβ expression in CADASIL VSMCs is involved in the reduced VSMC proliferation in CADASIL and may play a role in situ in altered proliferation of neighbouring cells in the vasculature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5980144PMC
June 2018

Role of the Long Non-Coding RNA MAPT-AS1 in Regulation of Microtubule Associated Protein Tau (MAPT) Expression in Parkinson's Disease.

PLoS One 2016 23;11(6):e0157924. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

Studies investigating the pathogenic role of the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene in Parkinson's disease (PD) have indicated that DNA methylation of the promoter region is aberrant in disease, leading to dysregulated MAPT expression. We examined two potential regulators of MAPT gene expression in respect to PD, a promoter-associated long non-coding RNA MAPT-AS1, and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), enzymes responsible for new and maintenance of DNA methylation. We assessed the relationship between expression levels of MAPT and the candidate MAPT-AS1, DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B transcripts in four brain regions with varying degrees of cell loss and pathology (putamen, anterior cingulate cortex, visual cortex and cerebellum) in N = 10 PD and N = 10 controls. We found a significant decrease in MAPT-AS1 expression in PD (p = 7.154 x 10-6). The transcript levels of both MAPT-AS1 (p = 2.569 x 10-4) and DNMT1 (p = 0.001) correlated with those of MAPT across the four brain regions, but not with each other. Overexpression of MAPT-AS1 decreased MAPT promoter activity by ∼2.2 to 4.3 fold in an in vitro luciferase assay performed in two cell lines (p ≤ 2.678 x 10-4). Knock-down expression of MAPT-AS1 led to a 1.3 to 6.3 fold increase in methylation of the endogenous MAPT promoter (p ≤ 0.011) and a 1.2 to 1.5 fold increased expression of the 4-repeat MAPT isoform transcript (p ≤ 0.013). In conclusion, MAPT-AS1 and DNMT1 have been identified as potential epigenetic regulators of MAPT expression in PD across four different brain regions. Our data also suggest that increased MAPT expression could be associated with disease state, but not with PD neuropathology severity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0157924PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4919105PMC
July 2017

Effect of PSEN1 mutations on MAPT methylation in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2015 ;12(8):745-51

Neuroscience Research Australia, Barker St, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

The MAPT gene is a risk locus for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including idiopathic Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. We examined whether altered DNA methylation of the MAPT promoter, with its potential to modulate gene expression, was a common phenomenon in Alzheimer's disease patients with differing aetiologies. We measured MAPT promoter methylation in a brain tissue cohort of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) with defined causative mutations in the PSEN1 gene (Normal = 10, PSEN1 AD = 10), and idiopathic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (Normal = 12, LOAD = 12). We found a brain-region-specific decrease in MAPT promoter methylation in PSEN1 AD patients. Overexpression of PSEN1 reduced MAPT promoter activity in an in vitro luciferase study, and led to an increase in methylation of the endogenous MAPT promoter. Overexpression of PSEN1 with a deletion of exon 9 mutation (Δex9) led to a smaller reduction in MAPT promoter activity relative to wild-type PSEN1 in the luciferase assay, consistent with a decreased ability to modulate endogenous MAPT gene methylation. Our study indicates a novel effect of PSEN1 on MAPT methylation, and suggests a mutation-specific effect of the PSEN1 Δex9 mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205012666150710110756DOI Listing
July 2016

DNA methylation of the MAPT gene in Parkinson's disease cohorts and modulation by vitamin E in vitro.

Mov Disord 2014 Nov 27;29(13):1606-14. Epub 2013 Dec 27.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which environmental factors influence disease risk and may act via an epigenetic mechanism. The microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a susceptibility gene for idiopathic PD. Methylation levels were determined by pyrosequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA in a leukocyte cohort (358 PD patients and 1084 controls) and in two brain cohorts (Brain1, comprising 69 cerebellum controls; and Brain2, comprising 3 brain regions from 28 PD patients and 12 controls). In vitro assays involved the transfection of methylated promoter-luciferase constructs or treatment with an exogenous micronutrient. In normal leukocytes, the MAPT H1/H2 diplotype and sex were predictors of MAPT methylation. Haplotype-specific pyrosequencing confirmed that the H1 haplotype had higher methylation than the H2 haplotype in normal leukocytes and brain tissues. MAPT methylation was negatively associated with MAPT expression in the Brain1 cohort and in transfected cells. Methylation levels differed between three normal brain regions (Brain2 cohort, putamen < cerebellum < anterior cingulate cortex). In PD samples, age at onset was positively associated with MAPT methylation in leukocytes. Moreover, there was hypermethylation in the cerebellum and hypomethylation in the putamen of PD patients compared with controls (Brain2 cohort). Finally, leukocyte methylation status was positively associated with blood vitamin E levels, and the effect was more significant in H2 haplotype carriers; this result was confirmed in cells that were exposed to 100 μM vitamin E. The significant effects of sex, diplotype, and brain region suggest that hypermethylation of the MAPT gene is neuroprotective by reducing MAPT expression. The effect of vitamin E on MAPT represents a possible gene-environment interaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.25784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074263PMC
November 2014

Sigma nonopioid intracellular receptor 1 mutations cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration-motor neuron disease.

Ann Neurol 2010 Nov;68(5):639-49

Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the most common cause of early-onset dementia. Pathological ubiquitinated inclusion bodies observed in FTLD and motor neuron disease (MND) comprise trans-activating response element (TAR) DNA binding protein (TDP-43) and/or fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein. Our objective was to identify the causative gene in an FTLD-MND pedigree with no mutations in known dementia genes.

Methods: A mutation screen of candidate genes, luciferase assays, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to identify the biological role of the putative mutation. Neuropathological characterization of affected individuals and western blot studies of cell lines were performed to identify the pathological mechanism of the mutation.

Results: We identified a nonpolymorphic mutation (c.672*51G>T) in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the Sigma nonopioid intracellular receptor 1 (SIGMAR1) gene in affected individuals from the FTLD-MND pedigree. The c.672*51G>T mutation increased gene expression by 1.4-fold, corresponding with a significant 1.5-fold to 2-fold change in the SIGMAR1 transcript or Sigma-1 protein in lymphocyte or brain tissue. Brains of SIGMAR1 mutation carriers displayed a unique pathology with cytoplasmic inclusions immunopositive for either TDP-43 or FUS but not Sigma-1. Overexpression of SIGMAR1 shunted TDP-43 and FUS from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by 2.3-fold and 5.2-fold, respectively. Treatment of cells with Sigma-1 ligands significantly altered translocation of TDP-43 by up to 2-fold.

Interpretation: SIGMAR1 is a causative gene for familial FTLD-MND with a unique neuropathology that differs from other FTLD and MND cases. Our findings also suggest Sigma-1 drugs as potential treatments for the TDP-43/FUS proteinopathies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.22274DOI Listing
November 2010