Publications by authors named "Kirsten Dansey"

22 Publications

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Commentary: Of Mice to Men: Mitigating Spinal Cord Injury During Complex Thoracic Aortic Surgery.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence RI. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semtcvs.2021.02.009DOI Listing
March 2021

Racial Differences in Isolated Aortic, Concomitant Aortoiliac, and Isolated Iliac Aneurysms: This is a Retrospective Observational Study.

Ann Surg 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

*The Divisions of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA †The Department of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands ‡The Department of Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA §The Department of Surgery, Howard University and Hospital, Washington, D.C.

Objective: Our aim was to describe the racial and ethnic differences in presentation, baseline and operative characteristics, and outcomes after aortoiliac aneurysm repair.

Summary Of Background Data: Previous studies have demonstrated racial and ethnic differences in prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms and showed more complex iliac anatomy in Asian patients.

Methods: We identified all White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic patients undergoing aortoiliac aneurysm repair in the VQI from 2003 to 2019. We compared baseline comorbidities, operative characteristics, and perioperative outcomes by race and ethnicity.

Results: In our 60,435 patient cohort, Black patients, followed by Asian patients, were most likely to undergo repair for aortoiliac (W:23%, B:38%, A:31%, H:22%, P < 0.001) and isolated iliac aneurysms (W:1.0%, B:3.1%, A:1.5%, H:1.6%, P < 0.001), and White and Hispanic patients were most likely to undergo isolated aortic aneurysm repair (W:76%, B:59%, A:68%, H:76%, P < 0.001). Black patients were more likely to undergo symptomatic repair and underwent rupture repair at a smaller aortic diameter. The iliac aneurysm diameter was largest in Black and Asian patients. Asian patients were most likely to have aortic neck angulation above 60 degree, graft oversizing above 20%, and completion endoleaks. Also, Asian patients were more likely to have a hypogastric artery aneurysm and to undergo hypogastric coiling.

Conclusion: Asian and Black patients were more likely to undergo repair for aortoiliac and isolated iliac aneurysms compared to White and Hispanic patients who were more likely to undergo repair for isolated aortic aneurysms. Moreover, there were significant racial differences in the demographics and anatomic characteristics that could be used to inform operative approach and device development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004731DOI Listing
December 2020

Epidemiology of Endovascular and Open Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in the United States from 2004-2015 and Implications for Screening.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Feb 13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Divisions of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Contemporary national trends in repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and intact abdominal aortic aneurysms are relatively unknown. Furthermore, screening is only covered for patient's 65 to 75 years old with a family history or men with a smoking history. It is unclear what proportion of patients who present with a ruptured aneurysm would have been candidates for screening.

Methods: Using the National Inpatient Sample from 2004 to 2015, we identified rupture and intact AAA admissions and repairs based on International Classification of Diseases codes. We generated the screening eligible cohort using previously identified proportions of male smokers (87%) and all patients with a family history of aneurysm (10%) and applied these proportions to patients aged 65-75. We accounted for those who may have had a prior AAA diagnosis (17%) either from screening or incidental detection in patients over age 75 presenting with rupture. The primary outcomes were treatment and in-hospital mortality stratified by patients meeting criteria for screening versus those who did not.

Results: We evaluated 65,125 admissions for ruptured AAA and 461,191 repairs for intact AAA. Overall, an estimated 45,037 (68%) of patients admitted and 25,777 (59%) of patients undergoing repair for ruptured AAA did not meet criteria for screening. Of the patients who did not qualify; 27,653 (63%) were older than 75 years old; 10,603 (24%) were younger than 65 years old; and 16,103 (36%) were females. EVAR use increased for ruptured AAA from 10% in 2004 to 55% in 2015 (P<0.001) with an operative mortality of 35%, and for intact AAA from 45% in 2004 to 83% in 2015 (P<0.001) with an operative mortality of 2.0%.

Conclusions: The majority of patients who underwent repair for ruptured AAA did not qualify for screening. EVAR is the primary treatment for both ruptured AAA and intact AAA with a relatively low in-hospital mortality. Therefore, expansion of screening criteria to include selected women and a wider age range should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.01.044DOI Listing
February 2021

Editor's Choice - Mortality is High Following Elective Open Repair of Complex Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 Jan 9;61(1):90-97. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the 30 day mortality of elective open complex abdominal aortic aneurysm (cAAA) repair and identify factors associated with death.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study using a Targeted Vascular Module from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). All patients undergoing elective repair for juxta- and suprarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), or type IV thoraco-abdominal aneurysms (TAAA) from 2011 to 2017 were identified. Thirty day mortality and complication rates for open repair were established. A comparison endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) group was extracted from the same time period, and inverse probability weighting was applied for comparison. Logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with open repair mortality.

Results: Of the 957 patients who underwent an elective open cAAA repair over the study period, 65 (6.8%) died. The mean age of the patient was 71.3 ± 8.0 years. The distribution by aneurysm type was 605 juxtarenal AAA (28 deaths, 4.6%); 284 suprarenal AAA (16 deaths, 9.5%), and 68 type IV TAAA (10 deaths, 14.7%). During the same time period, there were 1149 endovascular repairs for cAAA, with 43 deaths (3.7%). After inverse probability weighting and weighted logistic regression, open repair 30 day mortality yielded an OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1, p = .01 compared with EVAR. Factors independently associated with death included more proximal extent aneurysm (referent [ref]: juxtarenal: OR 2.0 per extent increase, 95% CI 1.4-3.0, p < .001), BMI < 18.5 (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-10.1, p = .003), history of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.4, p = .001), more severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) (ref: none/mild): OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, p = .004), and age (OR 1.06/year, 95% CI 1.02-1.09, p = .002.

Conclusion: The 30 day mortality was 4.6% for juxtarenal AAA, 9.5% for suprarenal AAA, and 14.7% for type IV TAAA. The open repair odds of 30 day mortality was nearly twice that of endovascular repair for cAAA. Independent associations with death included BMI <18.5, more severe CKD level, more proximally extending aneurysm, age, and history of advanced COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855830PMC
January 2021

A comparison of administrative data and quality improvement registries for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Mar 16;73(3):874-888. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: Databases are essential in evaluating surgical outcomes and gauging the implementation of new techniques. However, there are important differences in how data from administrative databases and surgical quality improvement (QI) registries are collected and interpreted. Therefore, we aimed to compare trends, demographics, and outcomes of open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in an administrative database and two QI registries.

Methods: We identified patients undergoing open and endovascular repair of intact and ruptured AAAs between 2012 and 2015 within the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), and the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI). We described the differences and trends in overall AAA repairs for each data set. Moreover, patient demographics, comorbidities, mortality, and complications were compared between the data sets using Pearson χ test.

Results: A total of 140,240 NIS patients, 10,898 NSQIP patients, and 26,794 VQI patients were included. Ruptured repairs composed 8.7% of NIS, 11% of NSQIP, and 7.9% of VQI. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) rates for intact repair (range, 83%-84%) and ruptured repair (range, 51%-59%) were similar in the three databases. In general, rates of comorbidities were lower in NIS than in the QI registries. After intact EVAR, in-hospital mortality rates were similar in all three databases (NIS 0.8%, NSQIP 1.0%, and VQI 0.8%; P = .06). However, after intact open repair and ruptured repair, in-hospital mortality was highest in NIS and lowest in VQI (intact open: NIS 5.4%, NSQIP 4.7%, and VQI 3.5% [P < .001]; ruptured EVAR: NIS 24%, NSQIP 20%, and VQI 16% [P < .001]; ruptured open: NIS 36%, NSQIP 31%, and VQI 26% [P < .001]). After stratification by intact and ruptured presentation and repair strategy, several discrepancies in morbidity rates remained between the databases. Overall, the number of cases in NSQIP represents 7% to 8% of the repairs in NIS, and the number of cases in VQI grew from 12% in 2012 to represent 23% of the national sample in 2015.

Conclusions: NIS had the largest number of patients as it represents the nationwide experience and is an essential tool to evaluate trends over time. The lower in-hospital mortality seen in NSQIP and VQI questions the generalizability of the studies that use these QI registries. However, with a growing number of hospitals engaging in granular QI initiatives, these QI registries provide a valuable resource to potentially improve the quality of care provided to all patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.06.105DOI Listing
March 2021

Surgical treatment patterns and clinical outcomes of patients treated for expanding aneurysm sacs with type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Feb 29;73(2):484-493. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: Persistent type II endoleaks (T2ELs) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with sac growth have been associated with adverse events, including rupture. Whereas intervention in the presence of aneurysm growth has become an accepted treatment paradigm for T2ELs, the efficacy and clinical success of such interventions remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the treatment patterns and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing T2EL interventions after EVAR.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients treated for expanding aneurysm sacs with T2ELs after EVAR at an academic medical center between 2006 and 2017. The primary outcomes assessed were need for repeated intervention; intervention types; and achievement of clinical success, defined as stable aneurysm sac size on computed tomography angiography after treatment.

Results: Fifty-six patients underwent 119 interventions, of which 107 (90%) were technically successful. The median time from EVAR to index T2EL procedure was 37 months (interquartile range, 17-56 months), and the median follow-up time from first T2EL procedure was 27 months (interquartile range, 10-51 months). The most common index procedure was transarterial lumbar embolization (64%), followed by transarterial inferior mesenteric artery (20%), transcaval (14%), and translumbar embolization (1.8%). Thirty-three (59%) patients required further procedures for persistent aneurysm sac expansion. For subsequent T2EL interventions, the most common endovascular procedure was transarterial lumbar embolization (21%), followed by transcaval (21%), translumbar (11%), and transarterial inferior mesenteric artery embolization (8.6%). Twelve patients (21%) were found to have loss of proximal or distal seal on subsequent imaging and required graft extensions to stabilize aneurysm sac size. Ten patients (18%) ultimately underwent graft explantation or sacotomy with oversewing of the endoleak source. Freedom from any endoleak-related reintervention was 57% at 1 year and 36% at 3 years. Freedom from open treatment was 93% at 1 year and 82% at 3 years. Of the 44 patients with ≥6-month follow-up, 39 (89%) achieved clinical success. However, only 11 patients (25%) achieved clinical success without any further reintervention, and 29 patients (66%) achieved clinical success without open treatment.

Conclusions: Despite high technical success, endoleak recurrence after T2EL treatment is common, and multiple interventions are often needed to stabilize aneurysm sac size in patients diagnosed with T2EL-associated sac growth. Notably, one in five patients treated for T2ELs was discovered, on further evaluation, to have proximal or distal seal zone loss that necessitated repair to achieve sac stability. Thus, thorough assessment of all endoleak types should be performed in patients with T2ELs associated with sac growth before T2EL treatment to ensure appropriate care and to minimize ineffective interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.05.062DOI Listing
February 2021

Protamine use in transfemoral carotid artery stenting is not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Jan 12;73(1):142-150.e4. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Background: Protamine use in carotid endarterectomy has been shown to be associated with fewer perioperative bleeding complications without higher rates of thromboembolic events. However, the effect of protamine use on complications after transfemoral carotid artery stenting (CAS) is unclear, and concerns remain about thromboembolic events.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed for patients undergoing transfemoral CAS in the Vascular Quality Initiative from March 2005 to December 2018. We assessed in-hospital outcomes using propensity score-matched cohorts of patients who did and did not receive protamine. The primary outcome was in-hospital stroke or death. Secondary outcomes included bleeding complications, stroke, death, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure exacerbation. Bleeding complications were categorized as bleeding resulting in intervention or blood transfusions.

Results: Of the 17,429 patients undergoing transfemoral CAS, 2697 (15%) patients received protamine. We created 2300 propensity score-matched pairs of patients who did and did not receive protamine. There were no statistically significant differences in stroke or death between the two cohorts (protamine, 2.5%; no protamine, 2.9%; relative risk [RR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.21; P = .37). Protamine use was not associated with statistically significant differences in perioperative bleeding complications resulting in interventional treatment (0.9% vs 0.5%; RR, 2.10; 95% CI, 0.99-4.46; P = .05) or blood transfusion (1.2% vs 1.2%; RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.53-1.61; P = .78). There were also no statistically significant differences for the individual outcomes of stroke (1.8% vs 2.3%; RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.52-1.16; P = .22), death (0.9% vs 0.8%; RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.62-2.19; P = .63), transient ischemic attack (1.4% vs 1.3%; RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.67-1.82; P = .70), myocardial infarction (0.5% vs 0.4%; RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.52-2.78; P = .67), or heart failure exacerbation (1.0% vs 0.9%; RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.58-1.90; P = .88). Protamine use in patients presenting with symptomatic carotid stenosis was associated with lower risk of stroke or death (3.0% vs 4.3%; RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47-0.998; P = .048), whereas there were no statistically significant differences in stroke or death with protamine use in asymptomatic patients (1.6% vs 1.0%; RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.67-3.92; P = .28).

Conclusions: Heparin reversal with protamine after transfemoral CAS is not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events, and its use in symptomatic carotid disease is associated with a lower risk of stroke or death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.04.526DOI Listing
January 2021

Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair With Left Subclavian Artery Coverage Is Associated With a High 30-Day Stroke Incidence With or Without Concomitant Revascularization.

J Endovasc Ther 2020 10 21;27(5):769-776. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

To evaluate the perioperative stroke incidence following thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with differing left subclavian artery (LSA) coverage and revascularization approaches in a real-world setting of a nationwide clinical registry. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program registry was interrogated from 2005 to 2017 to identify all nonemergent TEVAR and/or open LSA revascularization procedures. In this time frame, 2346 TEVAR cases met the selection criteria for analysis. The 30-day stroke incidence was compared between patients undergoing TEVAR with (n=888) vs without (n=1458) LSA coverage, for those with (n=228) vs without (n=660) concomitant LSA revascularization among those with coverage, and following isolated LSA revascularization for occlusive disease (n=768). Multivariable logistic regression was employed for risk-adjusted analyses and to identify factors associated with stroke following TEVAR. Results of the regression analyses are presented as the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). The stroke incidence was 2.3% following TEVAR without vs 5.2% with LSA coverage (p<0.001). In TEVARs with LSA coverage, the stroke incidence was 7.5% when the LSA was concomitantly revascularized and 4.4% without concomitant revascularization, while stroke occurred in 0.5% of isolated LSA revascularizations. Of 33 TEVAR patients experiencing a perioperative stroke, 8 (24%) died within 30 days. LSA coverage was associated with stroke both with concomitant revascularization (OR 4.0, 95% CI 2.2 to 7.5, p<0.001) and without concomitant revascularization (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8, p=0.002). Other preoperative factors associated with stroke were dyspnea (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.0, p=0.014), renal dysfunction (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.8, p=0.049), and international normalized ratio ≥2.0 (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 13, p=0.045). Stroke following TEVAR with LSA coverage occurs frequently in the real-world setting, and concurrent LSA revascularization was not associated with a lower stroke incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526602820923044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804158PMC
October 2020

Contemporary mortality after emergent open repair of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Jan 29;73(1):39-47.e1. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: Mortality after open repair for emergent complex abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is poorly defined. This study evaluated the 30-day mortality of open complex AAA repair performed for rupture or other emergent indication using a national surgical registry. We subsequently identified factors associated with mortality.

Methods: The targeted vascular module from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was queried to identify patients undergoing open repair for juxtarenal and suprarenal AAAs or type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysms (TAAAs) for rupture or other emergent indication from 2011 to 2017. Univariate analyses were performed using the Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors independently associated with mortality.

Results: We included 374 patients who underwent an emergent complex open AAA repair during the study period. There were 142 (38%) cases performed for rupture with hypotension, 141 (38%) for rupture without hypotension, 40 (11%) for symptomatic AAA, and 51 (14%) for another indication. The distribution by aneurysm type was 224 juxtarenal AAAs, 122 suprarenal AAAs, and 28 type IV TAAAs. Overall, there was a 30-day mortality of 32% (118 deaths). For those with juxtarenal AAA repair, 67 (30%) patients died within 30 days; there were 38 (31%) deaths within 30 days in those with suprarenal AAA, and 13 (46%) deaths within 30 days in those with type IV TAAA. On univariate analysis, preoperative variables associated with death were increasing age, use of a transperitoneal surgical approach, lower preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, low baseline albumin concentration (<3.5 g/dL), need for preoperative transfusion, low body mass index (<18.5 kg/m), and hypotension at presentation. Intraoperative variables associated with mortality were supraceliac clamp location and concurrent renal revascularization. On multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with death included rupture with associated hypotension (reference: other emergent indication; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.28; confidence interval [CI], 1.75-5.41; P < .001), age >60 years (reference: <60 years; AOR, 1.59; CI, 1.18-2.13; P = .002), longitudinal laparotomy incision (reference: retroperitoneal; AOR, 3.28; CI, 1.75-6.16; P < .001), and supraceliac cross-clamp (reference: clamp above one renal artery; AOR, 2.14; CI, 1.31-3.50; P = .003).

Conclusions: Nearly one-third of patients die within 30 days of emergent open complex AAA repair. Mortality is particularly high for patients with type IV TAAAs, approaching 50%. Predictors of 30-day mortality include rupture with associated hypotension, increasing age, supraceliac clamp location, and longitudinal transperitoneal repair approach. These results will help inform surgical decisions preoperatively and intraoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.03.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606433PMC
January 2021

Stroke rate after endovascular aortic interventions in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative.

J Vasc Surg 2020 11 2;72(5):1593-1601. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: The stroke rate after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), particularly complex EVAR such as fenestrated EVAR (FEVAR) and chimney EVAR (chEVAR), is not well defined. Whereas stroke is a well-established risk of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), the impact of procedural characteristics on stroke remains unclear. Therefore, we characterized the risk of stroke after endovascular aortic interventions in the Vascular Quality Initiative database and identified procedural characteristics associated with stroke.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing infrarenal EVAR, complex EVAR, and TEVAR within the Vascular Quality Initiative between 2011 and 2019. Complex EVAR included FEVAR (with either a Food and Drug Administration-approved custom-manufactured device or physician-modified endovascular graft) and chEVAR. We excluded emergent procedures. The primary outcome was in-hospital stroke. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify procedural characteristics associated with stroke.

Results: We identified 41,540 EVARs, 1371 complex EVARs, and 4600 TEVARs. The in-hospital stroke rate was 0.1% after EVAR, 0.9% after complex EVAR, and 2.9% after TEVAR. In patients undergoing EVAR, aneurysm diameter >6.5 mm (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.7; P = .03) and use of a proximal extension cuff (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4-7.9; P < .01) were independently associated with stroke. Among complex EVARs, stroke rate was 0.7% after FEVAR with a custom-manufactured device, 0.4% after FEVAR with a physician-modified endovascular graft, and 2.1% after chEVAR (P = .08). In multivariable analysis, arm access was associated with 8.4-fold higher odds of stroke (95% CI, 1.7-41; P < .01). Whereas chEVAR was associated with higher odds of stroke in crude analysis, this association did not persist after adjustment for arm access (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.2-4.4; P = .99). In patients undergoing TEVAR, more proximal landing zones were associated with higher risk of stroke compared with zone 4/5 (zone 3: OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 0.9-4.2]; zone 2: OR, 3.8 [95% CI, 1.8-8.2]; zone 0/1: OR, 6.3 [95% CI, 2.8-14]). In terms of procedural characteristics, any involvement of the left subclavian artery was associated with stroke (bypass: OR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.5-4.0]; stent: OR, 2.7 [95% CI, 0.9-8.5]; covered or occluded: OR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.5-4.1]).

Conclusions: Stroke, although rare after elective EVAR, is substantially more common after complex EVAR and TEVAR. Increasing procedural complexity in complex EVAR and TEVAR is associated with a higher stroke rate, a risk that should be factored into clinical decision-making. The strong association between stroke and upper extremity access during complex EVAR is alarming and warrants further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.02.015DOI Listing
November 2020

Midterm survival after endovascular repair of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms is improving over time.

J Vasc Surg 2020 08 21;72(2):556-565.e6. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: There is a growing body of literature raising concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), suggesting that long-term outcomes may be better after open AAA repair. However, the data investigating these long-term outcomes largely originate from early in the endovascular era and therefore do not account for increasing clinical experience and technologic improvements. We investigated whether 4-year outcomes after EVAR and open repair have improved over time.

Methods: We identified all EVARs and open repairs for intact infrarenal AAA within the Vascular Quality Initiative database (2003-2018). We then stratified patients by procedure year into treatment cohorts of four years: 2003-2006, 2007-2010, 2011-2014, and 2015-2018. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards models to assess whether the survival after EVAR or open repair changed over time. In addition, we propensity matched EVAR and open repairs for each time cohort to investigate whether the relative survival benefit of EVAR over open repair changed over time.

Results: We included 42,293 EVARs (increasing from 549 performed between 2003 and 2006 to 25,433 between 2015 and 2018) and 5189 open AAA repairs (increasing from 561 to 2306). Four-year survival increased for the periods 2003-2006, 2007-2010, 2011-2014, and 2015-2018 after both EVAR (76.6% vs 79.7% vs 83.5% vs 87.3%; P < .001) and open repair (82.2% vs 85.8% vs 87.7% vs 88.9%; P = .026). After risk adjustment, compared with 2003-2006, hazard of mortality up to 4 years after EVAR was lower for those performed between 2011 and 2014 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.87; P = .001) and for those performed between 2015 and 2018 (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46-0.68; P < .001). In contrast, the risk-adjusted hazard of mortality was similar between open repair cohorts (2011-2014: HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.61-1.08; P = .15]; and 2015-2018: HR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.64-1.17; P = .34]). Finally, in matched EVAR and open repairs, there was no difference in mortality in the first three cohorts, whereas the hazard of mortality was lower for the 2015-2018 cohort (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51-0.84; P = .001).

Conclusions: Four-year survival improved in more recent years after EVAR but not after open repair. This finding suggests that midterm outcomes after EVAR are improving, perhaps because of technologic improvements and increased experience, information that should be considered by surgeons and policymakers alike in evaluating the value of contemporary EVAR and open AAA repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.10.082DOI Listing
August 2020

Five-year survival following endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is improving.

J Vasc Surg 2020 07 21;72(1):105-113.e4. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: Increasing experience and improving technology have led to the expansion of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). We investigated whether the 5-year survival after both EVAR and open repair for ruptured AAA changed over the last 14 years.

Methods: We identified repairs for ruptured infrarenal AAA within the Vascular Quality Initiative registry between 2004 and 2018. We compared the 5-year survival of both EVAR and open repair between the early (2004-2012) and late (2013-2018) cohorts. In addition, we compared EVAR with open repair in the early and late cohorts. We used propensity score modeling to create matching cohorts for each analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate survival proportions and univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to compare differences in hazard of mortality in the matched cohorts.

Results: We identified 4638 ruptured AAA repairs. This included 409 EVARs in the early cohort and 2250 in the late cohort, as well as 558 open repairs in the early cohort and 1421 in the late cohort. Propensity matching resulted in 366 matched pairs of late vs early EVAR and 391 matched-pairs of late vs early open repair. When comparing EVAR with open repair, propensity matching resulted in 277 matched pairs of early EVAR versus open, and 1177 matched pairs of late EVAR versus open. In matched EVAR patients, 5-year survival was higher in the late cohort (63% vs 49%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.97; P = .027), whereas there was no difference between matched late vs early for open repair patients (52% vs 59%; HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.85-1.28; P = .69). In the early cohort, there was no survival difference between EVAR and open repair (51% vs 46%; HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69-1.11; P = .28). However, in the late cohort EVAR was associated with higher survival compared with open repair (63% vs 54%; HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60-0.79; P < .001).

Conclusions: The 5-year survival after EVAR for ruptured AAA has improved over time, whereas survival after open repair remained constant. Consequently, the relative survival benefit of EVAR over open repair has increased over time, which should encourage further adoption of EVAR for ruptured AAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.10.074DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical impact of sex on carotid revascularization.

J Vasc Surg 2020 05 1;71(5):1587-1594.e2. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Background: The impact of sex in the management of carotid disease is unclear in the current literature. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of sex on perioperative outcomes following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS).

Methods: We included patients who underwent CEA or CAS between 2012 and 2017 in the Vascular Quality Initiative database. Our primary outcome was perioperative stroke/death. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital stroke, 30-day mortality, and in-hospital MI. We compared perioperative outcomes between female and male patients, stratified by treatment modality and symptom status, and used multivariable regression to account for differences in baseline characteristics.

Results: A total of 83,436 patients underwent either a CEA (71,383) or CAS (12,053). Asymptomatic and symptomatic CEA females were less likely to be on a preoperative antiplatelet agent, when compared to males. Females overall, were less likely to be on a preoperative statin and more likely to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Within the CAS cohort, females were more likely to have a previous ipsilateral CEA. There were no differences between males and females in major adverse events following CEA for asymptomatic disease. Following CEA for symptomatic disease, there was no difference in stroke/death rate or in-hospital stroke. However, females experienced a higher 30-mortality after adjustment (univariate: 1.0% vs 0.7%, P = .04; adjusted: odds ratio [OR], 1.4:1.02-1.94). Following CAS for asymptomatic disease, females experienced a higher rate of perioperative stroke/death (2.9% vs 1.9% P = .02; OR, 1.5: 1.05-2.03) and in-hospital stroke (2.1% vs 1.2% P = .01; OR, 1.8: 1.20-2.60). There were no differences in outcomes for symptomatic females vs males undergoing CAS.

Conclusions: Females with carotid disease less frequently receive optimal medical treatment with antiplatelet agents and statins. This is an important target area for quality improvement issue in both females and males. Furthermore, among symptomatic CEA patients the female sex is associated with higher mortality and among asymptomatic CAS patients, females experience higher rates of stroke/death. These findings suggest that careful patient selection is necessary in the treatment of female patients. Quality improvement projects should be created to further investigate and eliminate the disparities of optimal medical management between the sexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.07.088DOI Listing
May 2020

Index and follow-up costs of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair from the Endurant Stent Graft System Post Approval Study (ENGAGE PAS).

J Vasc Surg 2020 09 19;72(3):886-895.e1. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: Trials for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) report lower perioperative mortality and morbidity, but also higher costs compared with open repair. However, few studies have examined the subsequent cost of follow-up evaluations and interventions. Therefore, we present the index and 5-year follow-up costs of EVAR from the Endurant Stent Graft System Post Approval Study.

Methods: From August 2011 to June 2012, 178 patients were enrolled in the Endurant Stent Graft System Post Approval Study de novo cohort and treated with the Medtronic Endurant stent graft system (Medtronic Vascular, Santa Rosa, Calif), of whom 171 (96%) consented for inclusion in the economic analysis and 177 participated in the quality-of-life (QOL) assessment over a 5-year follow-up period. Cost data for the index and follow-up hospitalizations were tabulated directly from hospital bills and categorized by Uniform Billing codes. Surgeon costs were calculated by Current Procedural Terminology codes for each intervention. Current Procedural Terminology codes were also used to calculate imaging and clinic follow-up reimbursement as surrogate to cost based on year-specific Medicare payment rates. Additionally, we compared aneurysm-related versus nonaneurysm-related subsequent hospitalization costs and report EuroQol 5D QOL dimensions.

Results: The mean hospital cost per person for the index EVAR was $45,304 (interquartile range [IQR], $25,932-$44,784). The largest contributor to the overall cost was operating room supplies, which accounted for 50% of the total cost at a mean of $22,849 per person. One hundred patients had 233 additional post index admission inpatient admissions; however, only 32 readmissions (14%) were aneurysm related, with a median cost of $13,119 (IQR, $4570-$24,153) compared with a nonaneurysm-related median cost of $6609 (IQR, $1244-$26,466). Additionally, 32 patients were admitted a total of 37 times for additional procedures after index admission, of which 14 (38%) were aneurysm-related. The median cost of hospitalization for aneurysm-related subsequent intervention was $22,023 (IQR, $13,177-$47,752), compared with a median nonaneurysm-related subsequent intervention cost of $19,007 (IQR, $8708-$33,301). After the initial 30-day visit, outpatient follow-up imaging reimbursement averaged $550 per person per year ($475 for computed tomography scans, $75 for the abdomen), whereas annual office visits averaged $107 per person per year, for a total follow-up reimbursement of $657 per person per year. There were no significant differences in the five EuroQol 5D QOL dimensions at each follow-up compared with baseline.

Conclusions: Costs associated with index EVAR are driven primarily by cost of operating room supplies, including graft components. Subsequent admissions are largely not aneurysm related; however, cost of aneurysm-related hospitalizations is higher than for nonaneurysm admissions. These data will serve as a baseline for comparison with open repair and other devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.11.028DOI Listing
September 2020

Aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores are associated with morbidity and mortality after endovascular aneurysm repair among patients with liver dysfunction.

J Vasc Surg 2020 09 19;72(3):904-909. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Background: Liver cirrhosis dramatically increases morbidity and mortality after open surgical procedures and is often a contraindication to open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, limited data have evaluated the effect of liver disease on outcomes after endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms.

Methods: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to evaluate all nonemergent endovascular aneurysm repairs (EVARs) from 2005 to 2016. The aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index is a sensitive, noninvasive screening tool used to screen for liver disease and was calculated for all patients. A value >0.5 was used to identify those with significant liver fibrosis. Demographics, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes were then compared between patients with and patients without fibrosis. Additional analysis was then completed to assess the effect of increasing Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score on 30-day outcomes. Multivariable regression was used to account for differences in baseline factors.

Results: EVAR was performed on 18,484 patients including 2286 with liver fibrosis and 16,198 without. Patients with liver fibrosis had an increased 30-day mortality (1.5% vs 2.4%; P < .01) and significantly higher rates of major morbidities including return to the operating room, pulmonary complications, transfusion, and discharge other than home. After multivariable analysis, patients with liver fibrosis had a significant increase in 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.1), return to the operating room (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8), pulmonary complications (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0), transfusion (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5-2.0), and discharge other than home (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8). In further analysis, mortality also increased in a stepwise fashion with increasing MELD score (MELD <10, 1.3%; MELD 10-15, 2.3%; MELD >15, 4.7%; P < .01), as did major complications (MELD <10, 7%; MELD 10-15, 11%; MELD >15, 15%; P < .01). These increases persisted in adjusted analysis.

Conclusions: Liver fibrosis significantly increases mortality and major morbidity after EVAR. The aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index and MELD score should be used for preoperative risk stratification. Moreover, current 30-day morbidity and mortality rates among patients with MELD scores >10 exceed 5%, which is higher than the annual rupture risk for aneurysms <6 cm. Therefore, an increased size threshold of >6 cm may be warranted before EVAR in patients with liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.10.101DOI Listing
September 2020

The Impact of Proximal Clamp Location on Peri-Operative Outcomes Following Open Surgical Repair of Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 Mar 18;59(3):411-418. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Open surgical repair of juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) requires an aortic cross clamp location above at least one renal artery. This study investigated the impact of clamp location on peri-operative outcomes using a United States based nationwide clinical registry.

Methods: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program targetted vascular module was used to identify all elective open juxtarenal AAA repairs (2011-2017). Outcomes were compared between clamping above one vs. above both renal arteries, and above one or both renal arteries vs. supracoeliac clamping. The primary outcome was 30 day mortality and secondary outcomes included post-operative renal dysfunction (creatinine increase ≥ 177 μmol/L or new dialysis) and unplanned re-operations. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to perform risk adjusted analyses.

Results: A total of 615 repairs were identified, with a clamp location above one renal artery in 42%, above both renal arteries in 40%, and supracoeliac in 18% of cases. Procedures with a clamp location above one vs. above both renal arteries showed no difference in mortality (3.5% vs. 2.1%, p = .34) or renal dysfunction (6.9% vs. 4.9%, p = .34). In contrast, supracoeliac clamping compared with clamping above one or both renal arteries was associated with a higher mortality rate (8.0% vs. 2.8%, p = .023), renal dysfunction (12% vs. 6.0%, p = .017), and unplanned re-operations (24% vs. 10%, p < .001). In the multivariable adjusted models, outcomes were similar between clamping above both vs. above one renal artery, while supracoeliac clamping vs. clamping above one or both renal arteries was associated with higher mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.3-8.8; p = .013) and unplanned re-operation (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.1; p = .002).

Conclusion: Although there is no difference between clamping above one vs. both renal arteries during open juxtarenal AAA repair, a supracoeliac clamp location is associated with worse peri-operative outcomes. Surgeons should avoid supracoeliac clamping when clamping above one or both renal arteries is technically possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.10.004DOI Listing
March 2020

Sex differences in perioperative outcomes after complex abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2020 02 4;71(2):374-381. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Divisions of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: Female sex is associated with worse outcomes after infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. However, the impact of female sex on complex AAA repair is poorly characterized. Therefore, we compared outcomes between female and male patients after open and endovascular treatment of complex AAA.

Methods: We identified all patients who underwent complex aneurysm repair between 2011 and 2017 in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program targeted vascular module. Complex repairs were defined as those for juxtarenal, pararenal, or suprarenal aneurysms. We compared rates of perioperative adverse events between female and male patients stratified by open AAA repair and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). We calculated propensity scores and used inverse probability-weighted logistic regression to identify independent associations between female sex and our outcomes.

Results: We identified 2270 complex aneurysm repairs, of which 1260 were EVARs (21.4% female) and 1010 were open repairs (30.7% female). After EVAR, female patients had higher rates of perioperative mortality (6.3% vs 2.4%; P = .001) and major complications (15.9% vs 7.6%; P < .001) compared with male patients. In contrast, after open repair, perioperative mortality was not significantly different (7.4% vs 5.6%; P = .3), and the rate of major complications was similar (29.4% vs 27.4%; P = .53) between female and male patients. Furthermore, even though perioperative mortality was significantly lower after EVAR compared with open repair for male patients (2.4% vs 5.6%; P = .001), this difference was not significant for women (6.3% vs 7.4%; P = .60). On multivariable analysis, female sex remained independently associated with higher perioperative mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.9; P = .007) and major complications (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.2; P = .002) in patients treated with EVAR but showed no significant association with mortality (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.5-1.6; P = .69) or major complications (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.5; P = .74) after open repair. However, the association of female sex with higher perioperative mortality in patients undergoing complex EVAR was attenuated when diameter was replaced with aortic size index in the multivariable analysis (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9-3.9; P = .091).

Conclusions: Female sex is associated with higher perioperative mortality and more major complications than for male patients after complex EVAR but not after complex open repair. Continuous efforts are warranted to improve the sex discrepancies in patients undergoing endovascular repair of complex AAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.04.479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942245PMC
February 2020

Lower Extremity Revascularization in End-Stage Renal Disease.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2016 Nov 23;50(8):582-585. Epub 2016 Oct 23.

1 Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who present with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have become an increasingly common and complex treatment problem for vascular surgeons. Dialysis patients have high short-term mortality rates regardless of whether revascularization is pursued. ESRD patients with CLI can be managed with: local wound care, endovascular or surgical revascularization, or amputation. Some patients may heal small foot wounds with local wound care alone, even if distal perfusion is marginal, as long as any infectious process has been controlled. Surgical revascularization has a mortality rate of 5-10% but has a high chance of limb salvage. However, overall 5-year survival may be as low as 28%. Endovascular therapy also carries a high perioperative mortality risk in this population with similar limb salvage rates. Amputation is indicated in patients with advanced stage CLI, as described by the Society for Vascular Surgery's Wound, Ischemia and foot Infection (WIfI) system. Statistical models predict that endovascular or surgical revascularization strategies are less costly and more functionally beneficial to patients than primary amputation alone. Decisions on how to manage ESRD patients with CLI are complex but revascularization can often result in limb salvage, despite limited overall survival. Dialysis patients with good life expectancy and good quality conduit may benefit most from surgical bypass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1538574416674843DOI Listing
November 2016

Early Post-Registry Experience With Drug-Eluting Stents in the Superficial Femoral Artery.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2016 Feb 11;50(2):80-3. Epub 2016 Feb 11.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, USF Health Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA.

Objective: Restenosis remains the primary failure mode after stent placement in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Drug-eluting technology aims to reduce intimal hyperplasia and subsequent stent failure, improving durability for endovascular management of SFA occlusive disease. We present our early experience with the Cook Zilver PTX stent.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected database of patients undergoing placement of the Cook Zilver PTX stent for SFA or popliteal disease since its availability to our institution in October 2013. Patients treated with additional non-PTX stents were excluded. Patient demographics, comorbidities, concomitant procedures, TASC classification, procedural details, and follow-up were reviewed.

Results: Thirty-one limbs in 30 patients were treated with Zilver PTX stents, 5 limbs were excluded for concomitant use of non-PTX stents, leaving 26 limbs in 26 patients for analysis. Indications for intervention were claudication in 17 (65.4%), rest pain in 1 (3.8%), and tissue loss in 8 (30.8%). A median of 2 PTX stents per limb was used to treat a mean length of 14.2 ± 11 cm with technical success of 100%. Concomitant inflow (N = 4) or atherectomy (N = 2) interventions were performed in 23%. Sixty-nine percent of lesions were TASC C (N = 7) or D (N = 11) and 42% were total occlusions. Over a mean 20-week follow-up, 2 occlusions were noted (mean 27 weeks), one was treated with surgical bypass and the other with endovascular salvage. Limb salvage in the series was 92.3% with 2 patients requiring major amputations for infected, non-healing wounds, despite patent stents.

Conclusion: On mean 20-week follow-up, we have seen 92.3% primary patency and 96.2% secondary patency. A larger number of patients and longer follow-up will be required to determine the true real-world efficacy of this drug-eluting device, but early experience is encouraging and warrants continued trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1538574416628651DOI Listing
February 2016

Integrated Vascular Surgery Resident Satisfaction.

Ann Vasc Surg 2015 Nov 24;29(8):1581-8. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

Background: This is the first survey to assess and quantify the level of satisfaction among the integrated vascular surgery residents.

Methods: An anonymous 13-question survey was electronically distributed to 225 members of the Society of Vascular Surgery Resident listserv. The questions were a combination of multiple choice, free response, and 5-point Leichhardt scale. Satisfaction was defined as a score of 3 or higher on a 5-point scale.

Results: Sixty-nine of 225 responded to the survey with fairly equal distribution across the postgraduate years. Trainees reported high rates of satisfaction, >90%, with regards to faculty, educational curriculum, case selection, their peers and interactions with the general surgery residents and faculty. Among nonvascular rotations, critical care, acute care services and/or trauma and cardiothoracic were most frequently rated as satisfactory (100%, 95%, and 92%, respectively). Minimally invasive and bariatric were rated as least satisfactory at 47% and 44%.

Conclusions: Overall vascular residents are satisfied with various aspects of their respective programs. Critical care, acute care services and/or trauma, and cardiothoracic were most universally deemed beneficial to overall education, whereas other rotations have more diverse responses, suggesting very program-specific distinctions between the services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2015.05.033DOI Listing
November 2015

carotid artery infection with septic embolization.

J Vasc Surg Cases 2015 Jun 21;1(2):81-83. Epub 2015 Apr 21.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla.

We present the case report of a carotid artery plaque infection, without mycotic aneurysm formation, that provided the nidus for septic embolization. The patient presented with transient neurologic symptoms, with no clinical signs or symptoms of sepsis. Multiple preoperative imaging modalities revealed critical carotid stenosis but no indication of an infection. Secondary carotid infection was discovered incidentally intraoperatively, and carotid reconstruction was completed with autogenous tissue. The patient transiently manifested sepsis only after the carotid reconstruction and recovered with the institution of parenteral antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsc.2015.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849890PMC
June 2015

Rapid aneurysm growth after transarterial chemoembolization.

J Vasc Surg Cases 2015 Mar 18;1(1):65-67. Epub 2015 Mar 18.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla.

Chemotherapy has been anecdotally related to aneurysm growth, but no correlation has been noted to date for localized transarterial chemoembolization. We present the case of a 64-year-old man with clearly documented accelerated aortic and iliac artery aneurysm dilation after two rounds of transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. Given the large size with rapid growth of his aneurysms and inability to be listed for transplant consideration before repair, he was offered endovascular repair and was successfully treated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsc.2014.12.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849894PMC
March 2015