Publications by authors named "Kirsi Joronen"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Feasibility of apparent diffusion coefficient in predicting the technical outcome of MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroids - a comparison with the Funaki classification.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):85-94

Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) classification in predicting the technical outcome of magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids and to compare it to the Funaki classification.

Materials And Methods: Forty-two patients with forty-eight uterine fibroids underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before MRgHIFU treatment. The DW images were acquired with five different b-values. Correlations between ADC values and treatment parameters were assessed. Optimal ADC cutoff values were determined to predict technical outcomes, that is, nonperfused volume ratios (NPVr) such that three classification groups were created (NPVr of <30%, 30-80%, or >80%). Results were compared to the Funaki classification using receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, with statistical significance being tested with the Chi-square test.

Results: A statistically significant negative correlation (Spearman's = -0.31, -value < 0.05) was detected between ADC values and NPV ratios. ROC curve analysis indicated that optimal ADC cutoff values of 980 × 10mm/s (NPVr > 80%) and 1800 × 10mm/s (NPVr < 30%) made it possible to classify fibroids into three groups: ADC I (NPVr > 80%), ADC II (NPVr 30-80%) and ADC III (NPVr < 30%). Analysis of the whole model area under the curve resulted in values of 0.79 for the ADC classification (-value = 0.0007) and 0.62 for the Funaki classification (-value = 0.0527).

Conclusions: Lower ADC values prior to treatment correlate with higher NPV ratios. The ADC classification seems to be able to predict the NPV ratio and may even outperform the Funaki classification. Based on these results DWI and ADC maps should be included in the MRI screening protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2021.1874545DOI Listing
January 2021

Oxytocin selectively reduces blood flow in uterine fibroids without an effect on myometrial blood flow: a dynamic contrast enhanced MRI evaluation.

Int J Hyperthermia 2020 ;37(1):1293-1300

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Introduction: Uterine fibroids are the most common benign neoplasms in women. The administration of intravenous oxytocin is known to increase the efficacy of a non-invasive thermal ablation method (MR-HIFU) for treating fibroids. However, it is not known whether this phenomenon is caused by the effect of the oxytocin on the myometrium or the fibroid itself. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of oxytocin on the blood flow of fibroids, myometrium and skeletal muscle using a quantitative perfusion MRI technique.

Materials And Methods: 17 premenopausal women with fibroids considered to be treated with MR-HIFU and 11 women with no fibroids were enrolled in the study. An extended MRI protocol of the pelvis was acquired for each subject. Later another MRI scan was performed with continuous intravenous infusion of oxytocin. The effect of oxytocin was analyzed from quantitative perfusion imaging. The study was registered in clinicaltrials.gov NCT03937401.

Results: Oxytocin decreased the blood flow of each fibroid; the median blood flow of fibroid was 39.9 ml/100 g tissue/min without and 3.5 mL/100 g/min with oxytocin ( ≤ 0.0001). Oxytocin did not affect the blood flow of the myometrium in either group. Oxytocin increased the blood flow of the skeletal muscle in both groups ( = 0.04).

Conclusion: Oxytocin is effective in decreasing the blood flow in fibroids while having minor or no effect on the blood flow of normal myometrium. Routine use of oxytocin in HIFU therapy may make the therapy suitable to a larger group of women in a safe manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2020.1846792DOI Listing
January 2020

Comprehensive feature selection for classifying the treatment outcome of high-intensity ultrasound therapy in uterine fibroids.

Sci Rep 2019 07 29;9(1):10907. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, 20521, Turku, Finland.

The study aim was to utilise multiple feature selection methods in order to select the most important parameters from clinical patient data for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment outcome classification in uterine fibroids. The study was retrospective using patient data from 66 HIFU treatments with 89 uterine fibroids. A total of 39 features were extracted from the patient data and 14 different filter-based feature selection methods were used to select the most informative features. The selected features were then used in a support vector classification (SVC) model to evaluate the performance of these parameters in predicting HIFU therapy outcome. The therapy outcome was defined as non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio in three classes: <30%, 30-80% or >80%. The ten most highly ranked features in order were: fibroid diameter, subcutaneous fat thickness, fibroid volume, fibroid distance, Funaki type I, fundus location, gravidity, Funaki type III, submucosal fibroid type and urinary symptoms. The maximum F1-micro classification score was 0.63 using the top ten features from Mutual Information Maximisation (MIM) and Joint Mutual Information (JMI) feature selection methods. Classification performance of HIFU therapy outcome prediction in uterine fibroids is highly dependent on the chosen feature set which should be determined prior using different classifiers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47484-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662821PMC
July 2019

Pelvic floor disorders and health-related quality of life in older women: Results from the Women's Gynaecological Health study in Lieto, Finland.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2019 May - Jun;82:226-231. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Hospital District of Southwest Finland Turku, 20520, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, FI-20014, Finland.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders and to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among older women. We also compared participants' HRQoL with the age-matched general female population and analysed factors associated with HRQoL.

Study Design: This is a population-based study of a cohort of women born in 1948 and in 1950 (n = 143) which is also part of the Women's Gynaecological Health study in Lieto, Finland.

Methods: The data were collected by questionnaires which pertained to socio-demographics, health-related variables, pelvic floor disorders and HRQoL (15D). Linear model was conducted to estimate a model of factors that associated with HRQoL.

Results: The prevalence of urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse was 50%, 13% and 12%, respectively. The overall HRQoL score of the study cohort is broadly similar to that of the agematched general Finnish female population (mean±SD15D scores 0.905±0.084 vs 0.912±0.077). Higher number of medications was the most important explanatory factor for lower HRQoL.

Conclusion: Urinary incontinence was common; however, the impact on HRQoL was minor. The overall HRQoL score of the study cohort was broadly similar to that of age-matched general female population. Women who used a higher number of medications had lower HRQoL compared to women who used fewer medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2019.03.001DOI Listing
February 2020

Wedged gel pad for bowel manipulation during MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy to treat uterine fibroids: a case report.

J Ther Ultrasound 2018 28;6:10. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

1Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: Magnetic resonance guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) therapy is not feasible in all patients with uterine fibroids because of limiting anatomical factors such as scar tissue, bowel loops or other obstacles in the sonication path. These may prevent the treatment or limit the treatment window, and therefore, also the volume where HIFU therapy can be delivered. Bowel loops present a particular problem because of bowel gas bubbles and hard particles which may cause reflection or absorption of ultrasound energy, potentially leading to thermal damage and even bowel perforation. Most commonly used techniques for bowel repositioning are bladder and/or rectum filling but these are not always sufficient to reposition the bowel loops. With more efficient bowel repositioning technique, the number of eligible patients for MR-HIFU treatment could be increased, and therapy efficacy be improved in cases where bowel loops limit the treatment window.

Case Presentation: A wedged exterior gel pad was used in two patients presented with in total of four symptomatic fibroids undergoing MR-HIFU treatment when bladder and/or rectum filling was not sufficient to reposition the bowel loops. No severe adverse effects were observed in these cases. The non-perfused volume ratios (NPVs) immediately after treatment were 86% and 39% for the first patient, and 3% for the second patient.

Conclusions: Our preliminary experience suggests that the use of a wedged gel pad during MR-HIFU treatment could be an effective tool to manipulate the bowels in cases where the bladder and/or rectum filling is not sufficient to reposition the bowel loops. A wedged gel pad could also be used in other situations to achieve better treatment coverage to the uterine fibroid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40349-018-0116-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260726PMC
November 2018

Clinical course of untreated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 under active surveillance: systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ 2018 02 27;360:k499. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: To estimate the regression, persistence, and progression of untreated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) lesions managed conservatively as well as compliance with follow-up protocols.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data Sources: Medline, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from 1 January 1973 to 20 August 2016.

Eligibility Criteria: Studies reporting on outcomes of histologically confirmed CIN2 in non-pregnant women, managed conservatively for three or more months.

Data Synthesis: Two reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Random effects model was used to calculate pooled proportions for each outcome, and heterogeneity was assessed using I statistics.

Main Outcome Measures: Rates of regression, persistence, or progression of CIN2 and default rates at different follow-up time points (3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 60 months).

Results: 36 studies that included 3160 women were identified (seven randomised trials, 16 prospective cohorts, and 13 retrospective cohorts; 50% of the studies were at low risk of bias). At 24 months, the pooled rates were 50% (11 studies, 819/1470 women, 95% confidence interval 43% to 57%; I=77%) for regression, 32% (eight studies, 334/1257 women, 23% to 42%; I=82%) for persistence, and 18% (nine studies, 282/1445 women, 11% to 27%; I=90%) for progression. In a subgroup analysis including 1069 women aged less than 30 years, the rates were 60% (four studies, 638/1069 women, 57% to 63%; I=0%), 23% (two studies, 226/938 women, 20% to 26%; I=97%), and 11% (three studies, 163/1033 women, 5% to 19%; I=67%), respectively. The rate of non-compliance (at six to 24 months of follow-up) in prospective studies was around 10%.

Conclusions: Most CIN2 lesions, particularly in young women (<30 years), regress spontaneously. Active surveillance, rather than immediate intervention, is therefore justified, especially among young women who are likely to adhere to monitoring.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO 2014: CRD42014014406.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5826010PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k499DOI Listing
February 2018

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in tumor therapy.

Duodecim 2017;133(2):143-9

HIFU (high intensity focused ultrasound) is a method in which high-frequency ultrasound is focused on a tissue in order to achieve a thermal effect and the subsequent percutaneously ablation, or tissue modulation. HIFU is non-invasive and results in an immediate tissue destruction effect corresponding to surgery, either percutaneously or through body cavities. HIFU can be utilized in the treatment of both benign and malignant tumors. In neurological diseases, focused HIFU can be used in the treatment of disorders of the basal ganglia.
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January 2018

Long-term Impact of Mode of Delivery on Stress Urinary Incontinence and Urgency Urinary Incontinence: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Eur Urol 2016 07 10;70(1):148-158. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Departments of Urology and Public Health, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Context: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) are associated with physical and psychological morbidity, and large societal costs. The long-term effects of delivery modes on each kind of incontinence remain uncertain.

Objective: To investigate the long-term impact of delivery mode on SUI and UUI.

Evidence Acquisition: We searched Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and relevant major conference abstracts up to October 31, 2014, including any observational study with adjusted analyses or any randomized trial addressing the association between delivery mode and SUI or UUI ≥1 yr after delivery. Two reviewers extracted data, including incidence/prevalence of SUI and UUI by delivery modes, and assessed risk of bias.

Evidence Synthesis: Pooled estimates from 15 eligible studies demonstrated an increased risk of SUI after vaginal delivery versus cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-2.19; I(2)=57%; risk difference: 8.2%). Metaregression demonstrated a larger effect of vaginal delivery among younger women (p=0.005). Four studies suggested no difference in the risk of SUI between spontaneous vaginal and instrumental delivery (aOR: 1.11; 95% CI, 0.84-1.45; I(2)=50%). Eight studies suggested an elevated risk of UUI after vaginal delivery versus cesarean section (aOR: 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02-1.65; I(2)=37%; risk difference: 2.6%).

Conclusions: Compared with cesarean section, vaginal delivery is associated with an almost twofold increase in the risk of long-term SUI, with an absolute increase of 8%, and an effect that is largest in younger women. There is also an increased risk of UUI, with an absolute increase of approximately 3%.

Patient Summary: In this systematic review we looked for the long-term effects of childbirth on urinary leakage. We found that vaginal delivery is associated with an almost twofold increase in the risk of developing leakage with exertion, compared with cesarean section, with a smaller effect on leakage in association with urgency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2016.01.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5009182PMC
July 2016

Long-term outcome after transvaginal mesh repair of pelvic organ prolapse.

Int Urogynecol J 2016 Jul 2;27(7):1069-74. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, 20520, Turku, Finland.

Introduction And Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to report long-term subjective and objective outcomes after the transvaginal mesh (TVM) procedure in long-term. Possible late-onset complications were of particular interest.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of TVM performed using Prolift™ transvaginal mesh measuring subjective outcome using validated questionnaires. Objective outcome was assessed using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system using two definitions: POP-Q stage ≤ 1, and vaginal wall prolapse at or above the hymen or vaginal apex not descending below the upper third of the vagina. Complications were reported with the Prosthesis/Graft Complication Classification Code designed by the International Continence Society/International Urogynecological Association (ICS/IUGA).

Results: Of 195 patients, 161 (82.6 %) participated this study after a median of 7 years. The scores in questionnaires evaluating urinary (UI) or anal incontinence and constipation or pelvic floor symptoms were low, indicating favorable surgical outcomes. Altogether, 80.1 % of patients were satisfied with the procedure. Anatomical cure was 56.4 % and 69.3 % depending on the definition used. Reoperation due to POP in any compartment was performed in 16.2 % of patients. Mesh exposure rate was 23 %, most of these being asymptomatic and of late onset.

Conclusions: Outcome of the TVM procedure was satisfactory. Anatomical cure was inferior to subjective cure. Mesh exposure rate was high; most exposures observed in the long-term were of late onset and were asymptomatic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-015-2939-7DOI Listing
July 2016

[Sepsis after thermoablation and sterilization].

Duodecim 2015 ;131(4):347-9

Endometrial ablation is a commonly used procedure in the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. The procedure is considered quite safe, but may also involve severe complications. We present a patient who developed life-threatening sepsis after the procedure.
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August 2015

Spontaneous development of synovitis and cartilage degeneration in transgenic mice overexpressing cathepsin K.

Arthritis Rheum 2005 Dec;52(12):3713-7

University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Objective: Several recent studies have demonstrated that cathepsin K, a proteolytic enzyme capable of degrading native fibrillar collagen, is overexpressed in osteoarthritic cartilage and inflamed synovial tissue. However, it is not known whether increased cathepsin K production is a primary or a secondary event in these diseases. The availability of transgenic UTU17 mice, which exhibit constitutive overexpression of the cathepsin K gene, prompted us to study possible arthritic changes in their knee joints.

Methods: Progression of synovitis and articular cartilage degeneration in the knee joints of UTU17 mice and their nontransgenic littermates was monitored by histologic analyses at 7 and 12 months of age. Distribution of cathepsin K in the knee joints was studied by immunohistochemistry.

Results: At the age of 7 months, UTU17 mice exhibited clear signs of synovitis, with strong immunostaining for cathepsin K in the synovial lining and the stroma, while control knee joints appeared normal. At 12 months, marked synovial thickening and fibrosis and severe degradation of cartilage and subchondral bone were observed in UTU17 mouse knee joints. In areas of cartilage degeneration, both chondrocytes and cells of hypertrophic synovia were positive for cathepsin K. At 12 months, synovia of control mice revealed only a few isolated cathepsin K-positive cells and mild changes in articular cartilage.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of the cathepsin K gene under its own promoter in transgenic mice makes them susceptible to progressive synovitis, which, upon aging, results in synovial hyperplasia and fibrosis and subsequent destruction of articular cartilage and bone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.21423DOI Listing
December 2005

Temporospatial expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases in mouse antigen-induced arthritis.

Histochem Cell Biol 2005 Dec 27;124(6):535-45. Epub 2005 Aug 27.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520, Turku, Finland.

Several lines of evidence speak for an important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the development of progressive joint destruction. To better understand the role of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in this process, we have used the antigen-induced arthritis model to study the temporospatial expression of several MMPs and TIMPs during the progression of arthritis. Arthritis was induced by a single intra-articular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) into one or both knee joints of adult mice previously immunised against mBSA. Samples were collected at 3, 7, 21 and 42 days after induction of arthritis for histology and RNA extraction, and analysed by Northern hybridisation, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for production of several MMPs and TIMPs -1, -2 and -3. A systematic analysis of MMP and TIMP mRNA levels in mouse knee joints demonstrated a general upregulation of both MMPs and TIMPs during progression of arthritis. Upregulation of MMP-9, -13 and -14 coincided with the advancement of cartilage degeneration, but the expression patterns of MMP-9 and -13 also followed the course of synovial inflammation. TIMPs were steadily upregulated throughout the examination period. Immunohistochemical localisation of MMPs and TIMPs suggested the synovium to be the major source of MMP and TIMP production in arthritis, although articular cartilage chondrocytes also showed an increased production of both MMPs and TIMPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-005-0011-2DOI Listing
December 2005