Publications by authors named "Kirk L Parkin"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Activity-guided isolation of phase II enzyme inducers from buckwheat flour methanolic extracts.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Oct 10;98(13):4911-4918. Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: Buckwheat is an important alternative crop and a raw material for functional food formulation. Phase II detoxification proteins/enzymes provide cytoprotective roles against oxidative stress and inflammation originating from various stressors. We aimed to identify and characterize potential phase II enzyme inducers from methanolic extracts of buckwheat flour, using an activity-guided fractionation based on the induction of quinone reductase (QR) (EC 1.6.5.2) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

Results: We isolated the QR inducers N-trans-feruloyltyramine (I), syringic acid (II), quercetin (III) and myricetin (IV). The relative QR-inducing ability, as well as the concentration required to double QR specific activity (CD values, in parentheses), decreased in the order: quercetin (3.0 µmol L ) > N-trans-feruloyltyramine (24 µmol L ) > myricetin (58 µmol L ) > syringic acid (5.4 mmol L ). Quercetin and N-trans-feruloyltyramine exhibited the greatest extent of QR induction of an approximately four-fold maximum induction and these compounds also exhibited the greatest values for the ratio of IC (i.e. level to reduce viability by 50%): CD values of 11 and > 8.3, respectively, among the four QR inducers isolated. Isobologram analyses for binary combinations of compounds I-IV revealed primarily antagonistic interactions for QR induction.

Conclusion: These findings add to our understanding of the nutraceutical potential of buckwheat as a chemoprophylactic dietary component. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9023DOI Listing
October 2018

Identification of bioactive metabolites dihydrocanadensolide, Kojic acid, and vanillic acid in soy sauce using GC-MS, NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

J Agric Food Chem 2014 Aug 11;62(33):8392-401. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland , College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

Microbial transformations of intrinsic substrates offer immense potential for generating new bioactive compounds in fermented food products. The aim of this work was to characterize the secondary metabolites in soy sauce, one of the oldest fermented condiments. Ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of soy sauce was separated using flash column chromatography, crystallized, and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), and mass spectroscopy. Dihydrocanadensolide (DHC), an antiulcer agent, was identified in a food for the first time. The natural stereostructure of DHC, which remained controversial for several decades, was determined as (3S,3aS,6R,6aR)-6-butyl-3-methyltetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]furan-2,4-dione using SC-XRD analysis. Kojic acid (KA) and vanillic acid (VA) were also identified from EAE as bioactive metabolic products of fungi and yeasts. Moreover, a new polymorphic form of KA was determined by SC-XRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf502159mDOI Listing
August 2014

Apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced by S-alkenylmercaptocysteine (CySSR) species derived from Allium tissues in combination with sodium selenite.

Food Chem Toxicol 2014 Jun 12;68:1-10. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin, 1605 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53562, USA. Electronic address:

S-Allylmercaptocysteine (CySSA) from garlic is known to exhibit anti-cancer effects. Apoptosis induction by CySSA was contrasted with S-1-propenylmercaptocysteine (CySSPe) (the major onion analog) in the presence of Na2SeO3 (Se) in breast cancer cells MCF-7. The dose of CySSA or CySSPe alone required to reduce viable cells by 50% was >400μM, and this was reduced to 62μM and 91μM for CySSA+Se and CySSPe+Se, respectively, at molar ratios of 39:1. Synergism of the mixtures was confirmed by isobologram analysis and the treatments evoked enhanced thiol efflux from MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. Cell cycle arrest occurred at the G2/M and sub-G1 interphases. Both CySSR+Se mixtures reduced the levels of Akt. CySSPe+Se elevated GSK-3 protein levels, whereas CySSA+Se did not. CySSR+Se mixtures enhanced phospho-c-Jun levels, with CySSA+Se more potent than CySSPe+Se. Corresponding increases in phospho-p53, Bax and Bad levels were observed, indicating apoptosis occurred via the mitochondrial pathway. Lack of caspases 6/7 activation implicated a caspase-independent pathway for apoptosis. Reduction of imported CySSR and export of thiols by MCF-7 cells facilitates the reduction of selenite to yield H2Se, a cytotoxic agent. This appears to be the first report of an anti-cancer effect of CySSPe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2014.03.002DOI Listing
June 2014

Glutathione conjugation attenuates biological activities of 6-dehydroshogaol from ginger.

Food Chem 2013 Sep 26;140(1-2):1-8. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin, 1605 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706, USA.

6-Dehydroshogaol (6-DHSG) is a bioactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound isolated from fresh ginger with anti-inflammatory and phase II enzyme inducing activities. Here we describe the glutathione (GSH)-dependent metabolism and the effect of this metabolic transformation on the biological activities of 6-DHSG. Compared with other ginger compounds, such as 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, 6-DHSG showed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The biological activities of 6-DHSG were attenuated by sulfhydryl antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), but not ascorbic acid (ASC). 6-DHSG was metabolised by GSH to form a GSH conjugate (GS-6-DHSG) in RAW 264.7 cells, via a potential mechanism involving the catalytic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST). GS-6-DHSG showed reduced biological activities compared with 6-DHSG in multiple biological assays. Together, these results indicate that GSH conjugation attenuates the biological activities of 6-DHSG and other α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.02.073DOI Listing
September 2013

A tissue homogenate method to prepare gram-scale Allium thiosulfinates and their disulfide conjugates with cysteine and glutathione.

J Agric Food Chem 2013 Mar 15;61(12):3030-8. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Department of Food Science, Babcock Hall, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1605 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

The health benefits of Allium vegetables are widely attributed to the enzyme-derived organosulfur compounds called thiosulfinates (TS). However, the lack of a suitable method to prepare TS in good yields has hampered the evaluation of their biological activities. This paper describe a simple enzymatic method using Allium tissue homogenates as a reaction system to prepare gram-scale TS, including those enriched in 1-propenyl groups, which are particularly difficult to obtain. This method is simple, easy to scale up, and requires no column purification step, making it suitable for practical large-scale production of Allium TS. The prepared TS were further utilized to prepare the disulfide conjugates with cysteine and glutathione (CySSR and GSSR, R = methyl, ethyl, propyl, 1-propenyl, and allyl), which are the presumptive metabolites of TS. Among all of the Allium CySSR and GSSR conjugates, the newly prepared glutathione conjugate with 1-propenyl TS, GSSPe, showed the most potent effect to induce quinone reductase (QR, a representative phase II enzyme) in murine hepatoma cells (Hepa 1c1c7) and inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells (RAW 264.7).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf4003818DOI Listing
March 2013

S-alk(en)ylmercaptocysteine: chemical synthesis, biological activities, and redox-related mechanism.

J Agric Food Chem 2013 Feb 14;61(8):1896-903. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States.

S-Alk(en)ylmercaptocysteine (CySSR, R = methyl, ethyl, propyl, 1-propenyl, and allyl), which are the putative metabolites of Allium thiosulfinates, were chemically synthesized. CySSR, but not the corresponding monosulfide species S-alk(en)yl cysteine (CySR), were able to induce quinone reductase (QR, a representative phase II enzyme) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells and inhibit nitric oxide (NO, an inflammatory biomarker) formation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate the importance of the disulfide bond for the biological activities of CySSR. Glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), but not other types of cellular antioxidants, suppressed multiple biological activities of CySSR in vitro. The inhibitory effects of GSH and NAC on the biological activities of CySSR were correlated with a glutaredoxin (Grx)-dependent intracellular reduction of CySSR to generate cysteine and RSH, which were secreted into the extracellular medium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf305486qDOI Listing
February 2013

Organoselenium compounds modulate extracellular redox by induction of extracellular cysteine and cell surface thioredoxin reductase.

Chem Res Toxicol 2013 Mar 12;26(3):456-64. Epub 2013 Feb 12.

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin, 1605 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, United States.

The effect of selenium compounds on extracellular redox modulating capacity was studied in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and differentiated human THP-1 monocytes. The arylselenium compounds benzeneselenol (PhSeH), dibenzyl diselenide (DBDSe), diphenyl diselenide (DPDSe), and ebselen were capable of inducing extracellular cysteine accumulation via a cystine- and glucose-dependent process. Extracellular cysteine production was dose-dependently inhibited by glutamate, an inhibitor of cystine/glutamate antiporter (Xc(-) transporter), supporting the involvement of Xc(-) transporter for cystine uptake in the above process. These arylselenium compounds also induced cellular thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) expression, particularly at the exofacial surface of cells. TrxR1 knockdown using small interfering RNA attenuated TrxR increases and cysteine efflux induced in cells by DPDSe. Sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), selenomethionine (SeMet), seleno-l-cystine (SeCySS), and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) did not have these effects on macrophages under the same treatment conditions. The effects of organoselenium compounds on extracellular redox may contribute to the known, but inadequately understood, biological effects of selenium compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx300515jDOI Listing
March 2013

In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of 1-dehydro-[6]-gingerdione, 6-shogaol, 6-dehydroshogaol and hexahydrocurcumin.

Food Chem 2012 Nov 11;135(2):332-7. Epub 2012 May 11.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, PR China.

Hexahydrocurcumin, 1-dehydro-[6]-gingerdione, 6-dehydroshogaol and 6-shogaol were evaluated for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in the present study. The relative antioxidant potencies of ginger compounds decreased in similar order of 1-dehydro-[6]-gingerdione, hexahydrocurcumin>6-shogaol>6-dehydroshogaol in both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picyrlhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. All tested compounds could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-elicited increase of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) in murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) in a concentration-dependent manner but hexahydrocurcumin of 7μM and 6-shogaol of 7μM. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed for 6-dehydroshogaol and 6-shogaol at 14μM with the inhibition of 53.3% and 48.9%, respectively. Furthermore, both 6-dehydroshogaol and 1-dehydro-[6]-gingerdione significantly suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins in a concentration-dependent fashion. These results contribute to our theoretical understanding of the potential beneficial effects of consuming ginger as a food and/or dietary supplement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.145DOI Listing
November 2012

Bioactivities of kernel extracts of 18 strains of maize (Zea mays).

J Food Sci 2010 Oct 20;75(8):C667-72. Epub 2010 Sep 20.

Dept. of Food Science, 1605 Linden Drive, Babcock Hall, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of maize kernels from 18 varieties/strains were prepared for the evaluation of inhibitory activities toward α-glucosidase and scavenging activities toward nitric oxide (NO•) and superoxide (•O(2)(-)). All ethanolic extracts of maize strains tested inhibited yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) α-glucosidase with the highest potency (49% to 54%) found for 2 purple and a yellow strains. However, inhibitory effects of maize extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase were as a whole about 10% as effective as with the yeast enzyme. Maize extracts were capable of scavenging NO• at the level of 0.25 mg/mL to extents ranging from 24% to 50% and 26% to 57%, respectively, for aqueous and ethanolic extracts. All tested aqueous extracts were also capable of scavenging •O(2)(-), with efficacies ranging from 8% to 38%, at the level of 1.5 mg/mL, whereas almost none of the ethanolic extracts scavenged •O(2)(-), except for one purple strain (approximately 10% effective). The effectiveness in the enzyme inhibition and antioxidant assays did not correlate with total phenolic and/or anthocyanin levels, nor with the nature of pigmentation among the maize strains evaluated. Practical Application: A diversity of pigmented maize strains was evaluated for biological activities related to mitigating oxidative stress and slowing down glucose absorption from the diet. Certain strains tended to be more abundant in these biological activities and have potential to be used in dietary regimes that are designed to promote human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01784.xDOI Listing
October 2010

β-carboline derivatives and diphenols from soy sauce are in vitro quinone reductase (QR) inducers.

J Agric Food Chem 2011 Mar 18;59(6):2332-40. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Department of Food Science, Babcock Hall, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1605 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States.

A murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cellular bioassay was used to guide the isolation of phase II enzyme inducers from fermented soy sauce, using quinone reductase (QR) as a biomarker. A crude ethyl acetate extract, accounting for 8.7% of nonsalt soluble solids of soy sauce, was found to double relative QR specific activity at 25 μg/mL (concentration required to double was defined as a "CD value"). Further silica gel column fractionation yielded 17 fractions, 16 of which exhibited CD values for QR induction of <100 μg/mL. The four most potent fractions were subfractionated by column and preparative thin layer chromatography, leading to the isolation and identification of two phenolic compounds (catechol and daidzein) and two β-carbolines (flazin and perlolyrin), with respective CD values of 8, 35, 42, and 2 μM. Western blots confirmed that the increases in QR activity corresponded to dose-dependent increases in cellular levels of NAD[P]H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 protein by these four QR inducers. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the ability of β-carboline-derived alkaloids to induce phase II enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf104653nDOI Listing
March 2011

Phase II-inducing, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of corn (Zea mays L.) from phenotypes of white, blue, red and purple colors processed into masa and tortillas.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2011 Mar;66(1):41-7

UNIDA, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, MCol. Formando Hogar, Veracruz, México.

White, blue, red and purple corns (Zea mays L.) were lime-cooked to obtain masa for tortillas. The total phenolics and anthocyanins content, antioxidant activity expressed as total reducing power (TRP), peroxyl radical bleaching (PRAC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) and quinone reductase (QR) induction in the murine hepatoma (Hepa 1 c1c7 cell line) as a biological marker for phase II detoxification enzymes were investigated. Among the extracts prepared from raw corn varieties the highest concentration of total phenolics, anthocyanins, antioxidant index and induction of QR-inducing activity were found in the Veracruz 42 (Ver 42) genotype. The nixtamalization process (masa) reduced total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities and the ability for QR induction when was compared to raw grain. Processing masa into tortillas also negatively affected total phenolics, anthocyanin concentration, antioxidant activities, and QR induction in the colored corn varieties. The blue variety and its corresponding masa and tortillas did not induce QR. Ver 42 genotype and their products (masa and tortilla) showed the greatest antioxidant activity and capacity to induce QR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-011-0210-zDOI Listing
March 2011

Cysteine and glutathione mixed-disulfide conjugates of thiosulfinates: chemical synthesis and biological activities.

J Agric Food Chem 2010 Feb;58(3):1564-71

Department of Food Science, Babcock Hall, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1605 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

The chemical syntheses of cysteine (CYS) and glutathione (GSH) mixed -disulfide conjugates (CySSR, GSSR, respectively) of mercapto residues representing most of the R groups of thiosulfinates (R = methyl, ethyl, propyl, and allyl) are described. Gram-scale conjugates were prepared as >98% pure preparations, with 80% reaction yield for each of the two seminal synthesis steps, with structures confirmed by (1)H NMR and high-resolution MS analyses. These conjugates are derivatives of thiosulfinates that may be evolved in processed foods, in the digestive tract, and through in vivo metabolism. The prepared conjugates were found to be able to induce quinone reductase (QR, a representative phase II enzyme) in murine hepatoma cells (Hepa 1c1c7) and to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells (RAW 264.7), indicating they have potential cancer preventive and anti-inflammatory activities. Among the prepared conjugates, the allyl conjugates of CYS and GSH, S-allylmercaptocysteine (CySSA) and S-allylmercaptoglutathione (GSSA), showed the most potent activity regarding QR induction and NO production inhibition. The conjugates with saturated R groups were also active and conferred biological activity as cystine and oxidized glutathione exhibited no effects in these cellular assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9029354DOI Listing
February 2010

Phenolic derivatives from soy flour ethanol extract are potent in vitro quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents.

J Agric Food Chem 2008 Nov;56(22):10473-80

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1565, USA.

The fractionation of soy flour directed by a cellular bioassay for induction of phase 2 detoxification enzymes was used to identify quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents. A phospholipid-depleted, 80% methanol-partitioned isolate from a crude ethanol extract of soy flour was resolved using normal phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC). Early eluting fractions were found to be the most potent QR inducing agents among the separated fractions. Fraction 2 was the most potent, doubling QR at <2 mug/mL. Further fractionation of this isolate led to the identification of several constituents. Fatty acids and sn-1 and sn-2 monoacylglycerols were identified, but were not highly potent QR inducers. Benzofuran-3-carbaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldeyde, 4-ethoxybenzoic acid, 4-ethoxycinnamic acid, benzofuran-2-carboxylic ethyl ester, and ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) were also identified as QR inducing constituents of this fraction. FAEE was the most potent of the identified constituents, doubling QR specific activity at 3.2 muM in the cellular bioassay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf801541tDOI Listing
November 2008

Natrinema gari sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon isolated from fish sauce in Thailand.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2008 Oct;58(Pt 10):2378-83

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand.

Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, halophilic archaea, designated strains HIS40-3(T) and HDS3-1, were isolated from anchovy fish sauce (nam-pla) collected from two different locations in Thailand. The two strains were able to grow at 20-60 degrees C (optimum 37-40 degrees C), at 1.7-5.1 M NaCl (optimum 2.6-3.4 M NaCl) and at pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 6.0-6.5). Hypotonic treatment with less than 1.7 M NaCl caused cell lysis. The major polar lipids of the isolates were C(20)C(20) and C(20)C(25) derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, two glycolipids and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C contents were 64.0-65.4 mol%. In addition to phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that strains HIS40-3(T) and HDS3-1 were related most closely to species of the genus Natrinema. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains HIS40-3(T) and HDS3-1 and the type strains of recognized Natrinema species were 99.1-96.6 %. The two novel strains could be distinguished from recognized Natrinema species on the basis of low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness and differences in whole-cell protein patterns and phenotypic properties. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains were 99.7 and 77.7 %, respectively, suggesting that they should be classified as representing a single species. Based on these taxonomic data, strains HIS40-3(T) and HDS3-1 are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Natrinema, for which the name Natrinema gari sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HIS40-3(T) (=BCC 24370(T) =JCM 14663(T) =PCU 303(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.65644-0DOI Listing
October 2008

Isolation and identification of potential cancer chemopreventive agents from methanolic extracts of green onion (Allium cepa).

Phytochemistry 2007 Apr 12;68(7):1059-67. Epub 2007 Mar 12.

Department of Food Science, Babcock Hall, 1605 Linden Drive, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes confer amelioration of risk arising from potentially carcinogenic chemicals derived both endogenously, and exogenously, from food and the environment. In this study, efforts were made to isolate and identify potentially cancer preventive constituents from methanolic extracts of green onion (Allium cepa) directed by the quinone reductase (QR) induction bioassay using murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells. Crude methanolic extracts of green onion tissue were solvent-partitioned, and subsequently fractionated by flash chromatography, thin layer chromatography and high pressure preparative liquid chromatography to afford pure QR-inducing isolates. Multiple isolates were found active at inducing QR. One newly identified compound, 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-propylsulfanyl-5H-furan-2-one (3), and four known compounds: 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (1), acetovanillone (2), methyl 4-hydroxyl cinnamate (4) and ferulic acid methyl ester (5), were isolated and identified as active agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.01.021DOI Listing
April 2007

Induction of phase II enzyme activity by various selenium compounds.

Nutr Cancer 2006 ;55(2):210-23

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Twenty-seven selenium compounds and sixteen structurally related organosulfur compounds were tested for quinone reductase (QR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) inducing activity in murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells. Sixteen selenium compounds were able to double QR activity, and seven of them also doubled GST activity. The nine most potent compounds, dimethyl diselenide, 2,5-diphenyl- selenophene, dibenzyl diselenide, methylseleninic acid, diphenyl diselenide, benzeneseleninic acid, benzene selenol, triphenylselenonium chloride, and ebselen (2-phenyl- 1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one), doubled QR-specific activity at levels lower than 7 microM. The concentration-dependence of QR induction and cell growth inhibition were linearly correlated (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.96) among the group of organoselenium compounds with putative selenol-generating potential, implying that both responses of Hepa 1c1c7 cells were based on these selenol metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc5502_13DOI Listing
February 2007

Betalains, phase II enzyme-inducing components from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extracts.

Nutr Cancer 2005 ;53(1):91-103

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA.

Crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of root tissue of red (Rd) and high-pigment (HP) beet (Beta vulgaris L.) strains exhibited antioxidant and phase II enzyme-inducing activities, and these extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. These bioactivities tended to become co-enriched in early and late eluting fractions, comprising 5-25% of the material recovered from the column. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) was used to resolve and identify multiple betalain components in the most potent quinone reductase (QR)-inducing fractions. Active fractions were found to contain vulgaxanthins I and II, and (iso)betanin, but other components remained unidentified. Two of the isolated active fractions were incorporated into rodent diets at 10-150 ppm over a 2-mo period to assess bioavailability and in vivo efficacy for phase II enzyme induction in various organs. No statistically significant effect of diet was obtained, and wide ranges of tissue enzyme levels among individual animals were observed. This lack of effect and diversity in response to diet may be related to the wide range in absorptive capacity of and/or insufficient level or enrichment of the active agents or to difficulties in assessing such activity in vivo. Subsequent to the animal studies, betanin was isolated in pure form, identified by MS analysis, and confirmed to be QR inducers in the bioassay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc5301_11DOI Listing
June 2006

Fate and kinetic modeling of reactivity of alkanesulfenic acids and thiosulfinates in model systems and onion homogenates.

J Agric Food Chem 2002 Apr;50(9):2652-9

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Babcock Hall, 1605 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

The dynamic changes in thiosulfinate profiles were studied in reaction systems containing a crude onion alliinase, S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide substrates (1) and preformed thiosulfinates (4). Regioisomeric excesses of one of two possible heterologous 4 species (RS(O)SR', where R does not equal R') could be manipulated under conditions where alliinase, 1, and 4 levels were varied. Regioisomeric excesses could be explained by a thiosulfinate (4)/alkanesulfenic acid (2) trapping mechanism, with the greatest control over product profile governed by the rate of 2 generation in the system. The series of reactions existing in this dynamic reaction system was kinetically modeled with reasonable fits to the experimental data. The application of the 4/2 trapping strategy to manipulate thiosulfinate and related organosulfur product profiles in diluted onion homogenates was demonstrated using exogenous MeS(O)SMe (4a), PrS(O)SPr (4c), and AllS(O)SAll (4d) as the preformed thiosulfinate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0110147DOI Listing
April 2002

In vitro stability and chemical reactivity of thiosulfinates.

J Agric Food Chem 2002 Apr;50(9):2644-51

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Food Science, Babcock Hall, 1605 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

A model reaction system was used to generate pure thiosulfinates (3) from S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides (1) to facilitate studies on the intrinsic pH and thermal sensitivities of individual thiosulfinate species. Thiosulfinate decay could be characterized as first-order processes over the pH range of 1.2-9.0 and at 20-80 degrees C. The stability of thiosulfinates was greatest at pH 4.5-5.5, followed by pH 1.2, pH 6.5-7.5, and pH 8.0-9.0. Thiosulfinates with longer and saturated alk(en)yl groups were generally more stable than those with shorter and unsaturated alk(en)yl groups. Thiosulfinates underwent thioalkyl-exchange reactions at pH 8-9 without loss of total thiosulfinate levels within 60-90 min at 20 degrees C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf011013eDOI Listing
April 2002

Antioxidant functions of selected allium thiosulfinates and S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides.

J Agric Food Chem 2002 Apr;50(9):2488-93

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Food Science, Babcock Hall, 1605 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Pure thiosulfinates, R-S(O)S-R (2), where R = Me (2a), Pr (2b), or All (2c), at levels up to 4 mM were not capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Relative to standard antioxidants (ascorbic acid, n-propyl gallate, butylated hydroxytoluene, Trolox, and reduced glutathione), these thiosulfinates were 1-3 orders of magnitude less efficient at reducing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 0.5-2 orders of magnitude less efficient at quenching singlet oxygen, and about equally effective at scavenging hydroxyl radical. Generally, AllS(O)SAll (2c) was the most effective and PrS(O)SPr (2b) was the least effective thiosulfinate in these assays, except that MeS(O)SMe (2a) exhibited no quenching effect toward singlet oxygen. These thiosulfinates were also incapable at levels up to 0.1 mM (where they were toxic) of in vitro induction of quinone reductase (QR) in murine hepatoma (hepa 1c1c7) cells. However, S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (isoalliin, 1a) and cycloalliin (3) induced QR in this system at 2 mM and 1 mM, respectively, although doubling of QR required levels of 10-15 mM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf011137rDOI Listing
April 2002