Publications by authors named "Kirill S Golokhvast"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

In-silico Exploration of Channel Type and Efflux Silicon Transporters and Silicification Proteins in 80 Sequenced Viridiplantae Genomes.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 20;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 42, 44 Bolshaya Morskaya Street, 190000 St. Petersburg, Russia.

Silicon (Si) accumulation protects plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. It is transported and distributed within the plant body through a cooperative system of channel type (e.g., ) and efflux (Lsi2s e.g., ) Si transporters (SITs) that belong to Noduline-26 like intrinsic protein family of aquaporins and an uncharacterized anion transporter family, respectively. Si is deposited in plant tissues as phytoliths and the process is known as biosilicification but the knowledge about the proteins involved in this process is limited. In the present study, we explored channel type SITs and Lsi2s, and siliplant1 protein (Slp1) in 80 green plant species. We found 80 channel type SITs and 133 Lsi2s. The channel type SITs characterized by the presence of two NPA motifs, GSGR or STAR selectivity filter, and 108 amino acids between two NPA motifs were absent from Chlorophytes, while Streptophytes evolved two different types of channel type SITs with different selectivity filters. Both channel type SITs and Lsi2s evolved two types of gene structures each, however, Lsi2s are ancient and were also found in Chlorophyta. Homologs of Slp1 (225) were present in almost all Streptophytes regardless of their Si accumulation capacity. In Si accumulator plant species, the Slp1s were characterized by the presence of H, D-rich domain, P, K, E-rich domain, and P, T, Y-rich domain, while moderate Si accumulators lacked H, D-rich domain and P, T, Y-rich domains. The digital expression analysis and coexpression networks highlighted the role of channel type and Lsi2s, and how Slp1 homologs were ameliorating plants' ability to withstand different stresses by co-expressing with genes related to structural integrity and signaling. Together, the in-silico exploration made in this study increases our knowledge of the process of biosilicification in plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709012PMC
November 2020

Telomerase and telomeres in aging theory and chronographic aging theory (Review).

Mol Med Rep 2020 Sep 25;22(3):1679-1694. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece.

The current review focuses on the connection of telomerase and telomeres with aging. In this review, we describe the changes in telomerase and telomere length (TEL) during development, their role in carcinogenesis processes, and the consequences of reduced telomerase activity. More specifically, the connection of TEL in peripheral blood cells with the development of aging‑associated diseases is discussed. The review provides systematic data on the role of telomerase in mitochondria, the biology of telomeres in stem cells, as well as the consequences of the forced expression of telomerase (telomerization) in human cells. Additionally, it presents the effects of chronic stress exposure on telomerase activity, the effect of TEL on fertility, and the effect of nutraceutical supplements on TEL. Finally, a comparative review of the chronographic theory of aging, presented by Olovnikov is provided based on currently available scientific research on telomere, telomerase activity, and the nature of aging by multicellular organisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411297PMC
September 2020

The response ranges of pulmonary function and the impact criteria of weather and industrial influence on patients with asthma living in Vladivostok.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Jun 19;18(1):235-242. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Vladivostok Branch of Federal State Budgetary Science Institution, Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration, Institute of Medical Climatology and Rehabilitative Treatment, Vladivostok, Russian Federation.

Purpose: To determine the response of pulmonary function (PF) to the influence of environmental factors in patients with different levels of asthma control.

Materials And Methods: Patients with controlled (136 people) and uncontrolled (96 people) asthma living in the conditions of monsoon climate and technogenic pollution in Vladivostok were examined. Discriminant analysis that provides the basis for dividing initial data into classes, as according to standards and expert estimates, was used to calculate ranges of PF response in asthma patients. The selection of discriminant functions with the highest values of constant and coefficient made it possible to identify the optimal quantitative ranges.

Results: Analysis of the discriminant value of Wilks' lambda (α) has shown that the intensity of PF response to climatic and technogenic factors varies depending on level of disease control (controlled asthma - α = 0.67-0.79, uncontrolled asthma - α =0.05-0.44). The criteria and ranges of PF response also differ depending on level of disease control. In controlled asthma, PF response reflects an adaptive-compensatory dependence. The reaction to the environmental factors is rather weak; therefore, it could be detected by only more sensitive examination method (body plethysmography). In uncontrolled asthma, the response to the influence of environment quality is active and could be clearly identified by spirography.

Conclusions: The climatic and technogenic environment of Vladivostok causes strong pathogenic impact on patients with uncontrolled asthma. The effects of dust fraction 0-1 μm, deeply penetrating into respiratory organs, and day-to-day variability of wind speed, which induces weather sensitivity, are particularly adverse.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00458-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203380PMC
June 2020

Behavioral impacts of a mixture of six pesticides on rats.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 15;727:138491. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russian Federation; Pacific Geographical Institute FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

Pesticides can potentially contribute to the development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. This study evaluates the effects of a six-pesticide mixture at doses around the no-observed-adverse-effectlevels (0 × NOAEL, control) and 0.25, 1 and 5 × NOAEL on behavior of Wistar rats. After 3, 6 and 12 months, rats were observed for neurobehavioral changes using the techniques of elevated plus maze and universal problemchamber, and the experiment was conducted thrice. The 3-month exposure revealed a decrease in the cognitive ability at the dose of 5 × NOAEL, and a dose-dependent research activity and anxiety. The 6-month exposurerevealed non-monotonic effects on the cognitive ability, with a decrease by 0.25 and 5 × NOAEL, as well as non-monotonic effects on anxiety, withan increase by 0.25 and 1 × NOAEL. A decrease was also observed in research activity at 5 × NOAEL. However, the 12-month exposure resulted to an increase in cognitive ability by 0.25 × NOAEL and in anxiety by 1 × NOAEL, as well as to a dose-dependent research activity. Repeating the trial showed that the cognitive ability increased from one trial to another, while the researching activity decreased and the anxiety increased by 0× NOAEL. In the groups exposed to pesticides mixture, the trends were different, showing that the exposure to pesticides combined with repeated trials, also influence the response of the animals. The resultsdemonstrate the occurrence of several dose-dependent behavioral responses, with negative effects occurring at doses that are considered safe. This study provides novel insights about time-dependent mixtures biology, and an important perspective to consider when conducting risk assessments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138491DOI Listing
July 2020

Too Real to Be Virtual: Autonomic and EEG Responses to Extreme Stress Scenarios in Virtual Reality.

Behav Neurol 2020 12;2020:5758038. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Far Eastern Regional Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Education, Vladivostok, Russia.

The evolution of virtual reality (VR) technologies requires setting boundaries of its use. In this study, 3 female participants were experiencing VR scenarios with stressful content and their activity of the autonomic nervous system and EEG were recorded. It has been discovered that virtual reality can evoke acute stress reactions accompanied by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and a decrease in the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. The high-stress response is accompanied by a decrease in the power of the EEG, and, on the contrary, the activation of the avoidance reaction is accompanied by an increase in the power of the EEG alpha waves. Therefore, the use of stressful VR content can cause high emotional stress to a user and restrictions should be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5758038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7091527PMC
January 2021

Dart Throwing with the Open and Closed Eyes: Kinematic Analysis.

Comput Math Methods Med 2019 19;2019:4217491. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Regional Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Education, 690922 Vladivostok, Russia.

Eye-hand coordination during dart throwing includes both the sensory and motor components, as well as cognitive variables, for example, the direction of the subject's attention to the target or to the hand kinematic. In the present study, subjects performed dart throws in the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions with simultaneous recording of the kinematics of the throwing hand. The results showed that the position of the hand in its raising phase was closer to the torso when performing more accurate throws with the eyes-open condition compared to more peripheral throws and throws performed in the eyes-closed condition. Following the dart release, the position of the hand in the eyes-open condition was lower compared to the eyes-closed condition. Additionally, in the eyes-closed condition, raising the hand in its backward moving phase negatively predicts the throwing accuracy. Thus, the early phase of the movement is associated with attention, and the final phase is associated with the visual feedback about the throwing accuracy. Raising the hand in the eyes-closed condition reflects an increase in muscle tension, which leads to a decrease in the accuracy of movement. The results of the study can be applied in sports and in the treatment of hand-eye-coordination disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4217491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885837PMC
May 2020

Transgenic crops for the agricultural improvement in Pakistan: a perspective of environmental stresses and the current status of genetically modified crops.

GM Crops Food 2020 3;11(1):1-29. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Center of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Transgenic technologies have emerged as a powerful tool for crop improvement in terms of yield, quality, and quantity in many countries of the world. However, concerns also exist about the possible risks involved in transgenic crop cultivation. In this review, literature is analyzed to gauge the real intensity of the issues caused by environmental stresses in Pakistan. In addition, the research work on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) development and their performance is analyzed to serve as a guide for the scientists to help them select useful genes for crop transformation in Pakistan. The funding of GMOs research in Pakistan shows that it does not follow the global trend. We also present socio-economic impact of GM crops and political dimensions in the seed sector and the policies of the government. We envisage that this review provides guidelines for public and private sectors as well as the policy makers in Pakistan and in other countries that face similar environmental threats posed by the changing climate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645698.2019.1680078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158921PMC
February 2020

Toxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from different types of vehicles on marine microalgae.

Environ Res 2019 12 30;179(Pt A):108785. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, 690950, Russian Federation; Pacific Geographical Institute FEB RAS, Vladivostok, 690014, Russian Federation.

Air pollution caused by vehicle emissions remains a serious environmental threat in urban areas. Sedimentation of atmospheric aerosols, surface wash, drainage water, and urbane wastewater can bring vehicle particle emissions into the aquatic environment. However, the level of toxicity and mode of toxic action for this kind of particles are not fully understood. Here we explored the aquatic toxic effects of particulate matter emitted from different types of vehicles on marine microalgae Porphyridium purpureum and Heterosigma akashiwo. We used flow cytometry to evaluate growth rate inhibition, changes in the level of esterase activity, changes in membrane potential and size changes of microalgae cells under the influence of particulate matter emitted by motorcycles, cars and specialized vehicles with different types of engines and powered by different types of fuel. Both microalgae species were highly influenced by the particles emitted by diesel-powered vehicles. These particle samples had the highest impact on survival, esterase activity, and membrane potential of microalgae and caused the most significant increase in microalgae cell size compared to the particles produced by gasoline-powered vehicles. The results of the algae-bioassay strongly correlate with the data of laser granulometry analyses, which indicate that the most toxic samples had a significantly higher percentage of particles in the size range less than 1 μm. Visual observation with an optical microscope showed intensive agglomeration of the particles emitted by diesel-powered vehicles with microalgae cells. Moreover, within the scope of this research, we did not observe the direct influence of metal content in the particles to the level of their aquatic toxicity, and we can conclude that physical damage is the most probable mechanism of toxicity for vehicle emitted particles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108785DOI Listing
December 2019

Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polysaccharides from and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activity.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2019 May 14;8(5). Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 59626, Korea.

The use of green marine seaweed spp. as foods, feed supplements, and functional ingredients has gained increasing interest. Microwave-assisted extraction technology was employed to improve the extraction yield and composition of polysaccharides. The antioxidant activity of ulvan was also evaluated. The impacts of four independent variables, i.e., extraction time (X, 30 to 60 min), power (X, 500 to 700 W), water-to-raw-material ratio (X, 40 to 70), and pH (X, 5 to 7) were evaluated. The chemical structure of different polysaccharides fractions was investigated via FT-IR and the determination of their antioxidant activities. A response surface methodology based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction conditions as follows: extraction time of 43.63 min, power level of 600 W, water-to-raw-material ratio of 55.45, pH of 6.57, and maximum yield of 41.91%, with a desired value of 0.381. Ulvan exerted a strong antioxidant effect against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and showed reducing power in vitro. Ulvan protected RAW 264.7 cells against HO-induced oxidative stress by upregulating the expression and enhancing the activity of oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and superoxide dismutase (CAT). The results suggest that the polysaccharides from might be promising bioactive compounds for commercial use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6562377PMC
May 2019

Addressing concerns over the fate of DNA derived from genetically modified food in the human body: A review.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Feb 21;124:423-430. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Chonnam, 59626, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Global commercialization of GM food and feed has stimulated much debate over the fate of GM food-derived DNA in the body of the consumer and as to whether it poses any health risks. We reviewed the fate of DNA derived from GM food in the human body. During mechanical/chemical processing, integrity of DNA is compromised. Food-DNA can survive harsh processing and digestive conditions with fragments up to a few hundred bp detectable in the gastrointestinal tract. Compelling evidence supported the presence of food (also GM food) derived DNA in the blood and tissues of human/animal. There is limited evidence of food-born DNA integrating into the genome of the consumer and of horizontal transfer of GM crop DNA into gut-bacteria. We find no evidence that transgenes in GM crop-derived foods have a greater propensity for uptake and integration than the host DNA of the plant-food. We found no evidence of plant-food DNA function/expression following transfer to either the gut-bacteria or somatic cells. Strong evidence suggested that plant-food-miRNAs can survive digestion, enter the body and affect gene expression patterns. We envisage that this multi-dimensional review will address questions regarding the fate of GM food-derived DNA and gene-regulatory-RNA in the human body.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.12.030DOI Listing
February 2019

Impact evaluation of environmental factors on respiratory function of asthma patients living in urban territory.

Environ Pollut 2018 Apr 8;235:489-496. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Research Institute of Medical Climatology and Rehabilitation Treatment (Vladivostok Branch of Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration), 73g Russkaya Street, Vladivostok, 690105, Russia; Far Eastern Federal University, SEC Nanotechnology, Ajax Settlement, Russkiy Island, Vladivostok, 690922, Russia; Pacific Geographical Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 7 Radio Street, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia. Electronic address:

Background: Environmental pollution, local climatic conditions and their association with the prevalence and exacerbation of asthma are topics of intense current medical investigation.

Materials And Methods: Air pollution in the area of Vladivostock was estimated both by the index of emission volumes of "air gaseous components" (nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide) in urban atmosphere and by mass spectrometric analysis of precipitates in snow samples. A total of 172 local asthma patients (101 controlled-asthma patients-CAP and 71 non-controlled asthma patients - nCAP) were evaluated with the use of spirometry and body plethysmography. Airway obstruction reversibility was evaluated with the use of an inhaled bronchodilator. Using discriminant analysis the association of environmental parameters with clinical indices of asthma patients is explored and thresholds of impact are established.

Results: CAP presented high sensitivity to large-size suspended air particles and to several of the studied climatic parameters. Discriminant analysis showed high values of Wilks' lambda index (α = 0.69-0.81), which implies limited influence of environmental factors on the respiratory parameters of CAP. nCAP were more sensitive and susceptible to the majority of the environmental factors studied, including air suspended toxic metals particles (Cr, Zn and Ni). Air suspended particles showed higher tendency for pathogenicity in nCAP population than in the CAP, with a wider range of particle sizes being involved. Dust fractions ranging from 0 to 1 μm and from 50 to 100 μm were additionally implicated compared to CAP group. Considerably lowest thresholds levels of impact are calculated for nCAP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.12.122DOI Listing
April 2018

Enhancement of Antioxidant Mechanisms and Reduction of Oxidative Stress in Chickens after the Administration of Drinking Water Enriched with Polyphenolic Powder from Olive Mill Waste Waters.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017 24;2017:8273160. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Viopolis, 41500 Larissa, Greece.

The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a polyphenolic powder from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) administered through drinking water, on chickens' redox status. Thus, 75 chickens were divided into three groups. Group A was given just drinking water, while groups B and C were given drinking water containing 20 and 50 g/ml of polyphenols, respectively, for 45 days. The antioxidant effects of the polyphenolic powder were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood after 25 and 45 days of treatment. These markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in plasma, and glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in erythrocytes. The results showed that CARB and TBARS were decreased significantly in groups B and C, and SOD decreased in group B compared to that in group A. TAC was increased significantly in group C and GSH was increased in group B, while catalase activity was increased in groups B and C compared to that in group A. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that supplementation of chickens with polyphenols from OMWW through drinking water enhanced their antioxidant mechanisms and reduced oxidative stress-induced damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/8273160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613686PMC
July 2018

CYP polymorphisms and pathological conditions related to chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides.

Toxicol Rep 2017 26;4:335-341. Epub 2017 May 26.

Research Group of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.

The association between genetic variations in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family genes and pathological conditions related to long-term exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) deserves further elucidation. OCs are persistent organic pollutants with bioaccumulative and lipophilic characteristics. They can act as endocrine disruptors and perturb cellular mechanisms. Prolonged exposure to OCs has been associated with different pathological manifestations. CYP genes are responsible for transcribing enzymes essential in xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, polymorphisms in these genetic sequences a. alter the metabolic pathways, b. induce false cellular responses, and c. may provoke pathological conditions. The main aim of this review is to define the interaction between parameters a, b and c at a mechanistic/molecular level, with references in clinical cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2017.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5615117PMC
May 2017

Soyasaponin Ag inhibits α‑MSH‑induced melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells via the downregulation of TRP‑2.

Int J Mol Med 2017 Sep 10;40(3):631-636. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Chonnam 59626, Republic of Korea.

Saponins, which are glycosylated, represent a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of soyasaponin Ag, a secondary metabolite extracted from soybean, on α‑melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α‑MSH)‑induced melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. To elucidate the mechanisms through which soyasaponin Ag inhibits melanin synthesis, we performed cellular tyrosinase activity assays and analyzed the expression of the melanogenesis‑related genes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase‑related protein (TRP)‑1 and TRP‑2. We demonstrated that soyasaponin Ag inhibited α‑MSH‑induced melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Of note, soyasaponin Ag had no inhibitory effect on intracellular tyrosinase activity. However, soyasaponin Ag inhibited TRP‑2 expression in a dose‑dependent manner. Therefore, the depigmenting effect of soyasaponin Ag may be due to the inhibition of tyrosinase expression or the enhancement of tyrosinase degradation. Moreover, soyasaponin Ag did not exert any toxic on B16F10 mouse melanoma cells, suggesting that soyasaponin is a safe component for use in skin care cosmetic formulations that are used for skin whitening.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5548002PMC
September 2017

Impact on environment, ecosystem, diversity and health from culturing and using GMOs as feed and food.

Food Chem Toxicol 2017 Sep 20;107(Pt A):108-121. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Chonnam, 59626, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Modern agriculture provides the potential for sustainable feeding of the world's increasing population. Up to the present moment, genetically modified (GM) products have enabled increased yields and reduced pesticide usage. Nevertheless, GM products are controversial amongst policy makers, scientists and the consumers, regarding their possible environmental, ecological, and health risks. Scientific-and-political debates can even influence legislation and prospective risk assessment procedure. Currently, the scientifically-assessed direct hazardous impacts of GM food and feed on fauna and flora are conflicting; indeed, a review of literature available data provides some evidence of GM environmental and health risks. Although the consequences of gene flow and risks to biodiversity are debatable. Risks to the environment and ecosystems can exist, such as the evolution of weed herbicide resistance during GM cultivation. A matter of high importance is to provide precise knowledge and adequate current information to regulatory agencies, governments, policy makers, researchers, and commercial GMO-releasing companies to enable them to thoroughly investigate the possible risks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2017.06.033DOI Listing
September 2017

Impact on environment, ecosystem, diversity and health from culturing and using GMOs as feed and food.

Food Chem Toxicol 2017 Sep 20;107(Pt A):108-121. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Chonnam, 59626, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Modern agriculture provides the potential for sustainable feeding of the world's increasing population. Up to the present moment, genetically modified (GM) products have enabled increased yields and reduced pesticide usage. Nevertheless, GM products are controversial amongst policy makers, scientists and the consumers, regarding their possible environmental, ecological, and health risks. Scientific-and-political debates can even influence legislation and prospective risk assessment procedure. Currently, the scientifically-assessed direct hazardous impacts of GM food and feed on fauna and flora are conflicting; indeed, a review of literature available data provides some evidence of GM environmental and health risks. Although the consequences of gene flow and risks to biodiversity are debatable. Risks to the environment and ecosystems can exist, such as the evolution of weed herbicide resistance during GM cultivation. A matter of high importance is to provide precise knowledge and adequate current information to regulatory agencies, governments, policy makers, researchers, and commercial GMO-releasing companies to enable them to thoroughly investigate the possible risks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2017.06.033DOI Listing
September 2017

Environmental impacts of genetically modified plants: A review.

Environ Res 2017 07 27;156:818-833. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Chonnam 59626, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Powerful scientific techniques have caused dramatic expansion of genetically modified crops leading to altered agricultural practices posing direct and indirect environmental implications. Despite the enhanced yield potential, risks and biosafety concerns associated with such GM crops are the fundamental issues to be addressed. An increasing interest can be noted among the researchers and policy makers in exploring unintended effects of transgenes associated with gene flow, flow of naked DNA, weediness and chemical toxicity. The current state of knowledge reveals that GM crops impart damaging impacts on the environment such as modification in crop pervasiveness or invasiveness, the emergence of herbicide and insecticide tolerance, transgene stacking and disturbed biodiversity, but these impacts require a more in-depth view and critical research so as to unveil further facts. Most of the reviewed scientific resources provide similar conclusions and currently there is an insufficient amount of data available and up until today, the consumption of GM plant products are safe for consumption to a greater extent with few exceptions. This paper updates the undesirable impacts of GM crops and their products on target and non-target species and attempts to shed light on the emerging challenges and threats associated with it. Underpinning research also realizes the influence of GM crops on a disturbance in biodiversity, development of resistance and evolution slightly resembles with the effects of non-GM cultivation. Future prospects are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.03.011DOI Listing
July 2017

Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure.

Environ Res 2017 Jan 8;152:308-314. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok, Russia. Electronic address:

Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.10.031DOI Listing
January 2017

Influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the cognitive abilities of Wistar rats.

Exp Ther Med 2016 Sep 1;12(3):1311-1318. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok, Russia.

Studies of the neurobehavioral effects of carbon nanomaterials, particularly those of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), have concentrated on cognitive effects, but data are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of MWCNTs on a number of higher nervous system functions of Wistar rats. For a period of 10 days, two experimental groups were fed with MWCNTs of different diameters (MWCNT-1 group, 8-10 nm; MWCNT-2 group, 18-20 nm) once a day at a dosage of 500 mg/kg. In the open-field test, reductions of integral indications of researching activity were observed for the two MWCNT-treated groups, with a parallel significant (P<0.01) increase in stress levels for these groups compared with the untreated control group. In the elevated plus-maze test, integral indices of researching activity in the MWCNT-1 and MWCNT-2 groups reduced by day 10 by 51 and 62%, respectively, while rat stress levels remained relatively unchanged. In the universal problem solving box test, reductions in motivation and energy indices of researching activity were observed in the two experimental groups. Searching activity in the MWCNT-1 group by day 3 was reduced by 50% (P<0.01) and in the MWCNT-2 group the relevant reduction reached 11.2%. By day 10, the reduction compared with controls, was 64% (P<0.01) and 58% (P<0.01) for the MWCNT-1 and MWCNT-2 groups, respectively. In conclusion, a series of specific tests demonstrated that MWCNT-treated rats experienced a significant reduction of some of their cognitive abilities, a disturbing and worrying finding, taking into consideration the continuing and accelerating use of carbon nanotubes in medicine and science.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2016.3495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4997982PMC
September 2016

Reconstructing the Phylogeny of Capsosiphon fulvescens (Ulotrichales, Chlorophyta) from Korea Based on rbcL and 18S rDNA Sequences.

Biomed Res Int 2016 17;2016:1462916. Epub 2016 Apr 17.

Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Chonnam 59626, Republic of Korea.

Capsosiphon fulvescens is a filamentous green algae in the class Ulvophyceae. It has been consumed as food with unique flavor and soft texture to treat stomach disorders and hangovers, and its economic value justifies studying its nutritional and potential therapeutic effects. In contrast to these applications, only a few taxonomic studies have been conducted on C. fulvescens. In particular, classification and phylogenetic relationships of the C. fulvescens below the order level are controversial. To determine its phylogenetic position in the class, we used rbcL and 18S rDNA sequences as molecular markers to construct phylogenetic trees. The amplified rbcL and 18S rDNA sequences from 4 C. fulvescens isolates (Jindo, Jangheung, Wando, and Koheung, Korea) were used for phylogenetic analysis by employing three different phylogenetic methods: neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood (ML). The rbcL phylogenetic tree showed that all taxa in the order Ulvales were clustered as a monophyletic group and resolved the phylogenetic position of C. fulvescens in the order Ulotrichales. The significance of our study is that the 18S rDNA phylogenetic tree shows the detailed taxonomic position of C. fulvescens. In our result, C. fulvescens is inferred as a member of Ulotrichaceae, along with Urospora and Acrosiphonia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1462916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4852126PMC
February 2017

Emerging aspects of nanotoxicology in health and disease: From agriculture and food sector to cancer therapeutics.

Food Chem Toxicol 2016 May 8;91:42-57. Epub 2016 Mar 8.

Center of Toxicology Science & Research, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Vladivostok, Russia. Electronic address:

Nanotechnology is an evolving scientific field that has allowed the manufacturing of materials with novel physicochemical and biological properties, offering a wide spectrum of potential applications. Properties of nanoparticles that contribute to their usefulness include their markedly increased surface area in relation to mass, surface reactivity and insolubility, ability to agglomerate or change size in different media and enhanced endurance over conventional-scale substance. Here, we review nanoparticle classification and their emerging applications in several fields; from active food packaging to drug delivery and cancer research. Nanotechnology has exciting therapeutic applications, including novel drug delivery for the treatment of cancer. Additionally, we discuss that exposure to nanostructures incorporated to polymer composites, may result in potential human health risks. Therefore, the knowledge of processes, including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, as well as careful toxicological assessment is critical in order to determine the effects of nanomaterials in humans and other biological systems. Expanding the knowledge of nanoparticle toxicity will facilitate designing of safer nanocomposites and their application in a beneficial manner.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2016.03.003DOI Listing
May 2016

Size-segregated emissions and metal content of vehicle-emitted particles as a function of mileage: Implications to population exposure.

Environ Res 2015 Oct 8;142:479-85. Epub 2015 Aug 8.

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

The study aims at investigating the characteristics (size distribution, active surface and metal content) of particles emitted by cars as a function of mileage using a novel methodology for characterizing particulate emissions captured by Exhaust Gas Suspension (EGS). EGS was obtained by passing the exhaust gases through a container of deionized water. EGS analysis was performed using laser granulometry, electron scanning microscopy, and high resolution mass spectrometry. Implications of the differences in key features of the emitted particles on population exposure were investigated using numerical simulation for estimating size-segregated PM deposition across human respiratory tract (HRT). It was found that vehicle mileage, age and the respective emissions class have almost no effect on the size distribution of the exhaust gas particulate released into the environment; about half of the examined vehicles with low mileage were found to release particles of aerodynamic diameter above 10 μm. The exhaust gas particulate detected in the EGS of all cars can be classified into three major size classes: (1) 0.1-5 µm - soot and ash particles, metals (Au, Pt, Pd, Ir); (2) 10-30 µm - metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zr, Ni) and ash particles; (3) 400-1,000 µm - metal (Fe, Cr, Pb) and ash particles. Newer vehicles with low mileage are substantial sources of soot and metal particles with median diameter of 200 nm with a higher surface area (up to 89,871.16 cm(2)/cm(3)). These tend to deposit in the lower part of the human respiratory tract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.07.018DOI Listing
October 2015

Galvanic manufacturing in the cities of Russia: potential source of ambient nanoparticles.

PLoS One 2014 20;9(10):e110573. Epub 2014 Oct 20.

Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America; Department Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America.

Galvanic manufacturing is widely employed and can be found in nearly every average city in Russia. The release and accumulation of different metals (Me), depending on the technology used can be found in the vicinities of galvanic plants. Under the environmental protection act in Russia, the regulations for galvanic manufacturing do not include the regulations and safety standards for ambient ultrafine and nanosized particulate matter (PM). To assess whether Me nanoparticles (NP) are among environmental pollutants caused by galvanic manufacturing, the level of Me NP were tested in urban snow samples collected around galvanic enterprises in two cities. Employing transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, we found that the size distribution of tested Me NP was within 10-120 nm range. This is the first study to report that Me NP of Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Ni, Cu, and Zn were detected around galvanic shop settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0110573PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4203814PMC
June 2015

Phytoliths in taxonomy of phylogenetic domains of plants.

Biomed Res Int 2014 27;2014:648326. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical University, 104 Lenina Street, Blagoveshchensk 675000, Russia.

We discuss, from the aspect of phylogeny, the interrelationships of the phytolith types in plants from the main taxonomical groups (algae, lichens, horsetails, gymnosperms, and floral plants) with homologues of known proteins of biomineralization. Phytolith morphotypes in various phylogenetic plant domains have different shapes. We found that, in ancient types of plants (algae, horsetails, and gymnosperms), there are fewer different phytolith morphotypes compared to more modern plants (floral plants). The phytolith morphotypes in primitive plants are generally larger than the morphotypes in more highly organized plants. We found that the irregular ruminate and irregular smooth morphotypes are the two most frequently encountered phytolith morphotypes in the tested plants (from algae to floral plants). These two morphotypes probably have a universal role. Silacidins, silicon transporters, silicateins, silaffins, and silicase homologues are often found in the major taxonomic groups of plants. Red algae had the smallest number of homologues of the biomineralization proteins (70-80), Monocotyledonous: 142, Coniferous: 166, Mosses: 227, and Dicotyledones: 336.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/648326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4163427PMC
June 2015

Airborne biogenic particles in the snow of the cities of the Russian Far East as potential allergic compounds.

J Immunol Res 2014 22;2014:141378. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, 10 Pushkinskaya Street, Vladivostok 690950, Russia ; Scientific Research Institute of Medical Climatology and Rehabilitation, Vladivostok Branch of Far Eastern Scientific Center Physiology and Pathology of Breathe, 73 Russkaya Street, Vladivostok 690105, Russia.

This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm-1 mm) found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010-2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves) followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods). In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk), the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/141378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4129992PMC
May 2015

Silaffins of diatoms: from applied biotechnology to biomedicine.

Mar Drugs 2013 Aug 26;11(9):3155-67. Epub 2013 Aug 26.

Analytical Center of Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies, Institute of Geology and Nature Management Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Relochny Lane, Blagoveshchensk 675000, Russian Federation.

Silaffins are involved in the formation of the cell walls of diatoms. It is known that silaffins can precipitate silica in vitro, forming nano- and micro-particles in the shape of spheres and plates containing many pores. It is important to note that the deposition of silica and the particle morphology in the presence of silaffins affects chemical and physical agents (e.g., peptides, polyamines, phosphate, nitrogen, and the mechanical changes of the reaction mixture). It is believed that silaffins act as an organic matrix for silica-genesis and that silica pore size should reflect the pattern of a matrix. Here, biotechnology related to silaffins is discussed in the context of "a hypothesis of silaffin matrix" and "the LCPA-phosphate model". We discuss the most promising area of silaffin biotechnology--the development of production methods for silicon structures with desired shapes and nanostructural properties that can be used to create biocompatible materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md11093155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3806462PMC
August 2013

Origin and status of homologous proteins of biomineralization (biosilicification) in the taxonomy of phylogenetic domains.

Biomed Res Int 2013 13;2013:397278. Epub 2013 Jun 13.

Analytical Centre of the Mineralogical and Geochemical Researches, Institute of Geology and Nature Management FEB RAS, 1 Relochny Lane, Blagoveshchensk, Russia.

The taxonomic affiliation (in the systematisation of viruses, and biological domains) of known peptides and proteins of biomineralization (silicateins, silaffins, silacidins and silicase) and their primary structure homologues were analyzed (methods in silico; using Uniprot database). The total number of known peptides and proteins of biosilicification was counted. The data of the quantitative distribution of the detected homologues found in nature are presented. The similarity of the primary structures of silaffins, silacidins, silicateins, silicase, and their homologues was 21-94%, 45-98%, 39-50%, and 28-40%, respectively. These homologues are found in many organisms, from the Protista to the higher plants and animals, including humans, as well as in bacteria and extracellular agents, and they perform a variety of biological functions, such as biologically controlled mineralisation. The provisional classification of these biomineralization proteins is presented. The interrelation of the origin of the first organic polymers and biomineralization is discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/397278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697285PMC
December 2013