Publications by authors named "Kira Armstrong"

6 Publications

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Are we documenting performance validity testing in pediatric neuropsychological assessments? A brief report.

Child Neuropsychol 2019 11 24;25(8):1035-1042. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

f Private Practice , Woburn , MA , USA.

A 2016 survey of pediatric neuropsychologists found that 92% of clinicians reported use of "at least one" performance validity test (PVT) in each assessment. The present investigation sought to verify documented PVT use among clinicians by review of actual reports. A convenience sample of pediatric neuropsychological reports of children ages 6-17 were reviewed over an 24-month period (January 2015-January 2017); reports were those seen as part of our routine practice, including reports on children we were reevaluating, cases that we consulted on, or cases evaluated elsewhere presenting to our centers that required record review for clinical decision making (e.g., presurgical epilepsy evaluations). A total of 131 reports, from 102 unique neuropsychologists were reviewed. PVT usage was documented in only six reports, from six unique clinicians, representing only 4.58% of the reports (or 5.88% of clinicians), far below expectations recent survey results. Though sampling differences and documentation factors may account for some of this disparity, a "social desirability bias" on surveys is likely a major factor in explaining these discordant findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2019.1569606DOI Listing
November 2019

Voices of leadership: wisdom from women leaders in neuropsychology.

Clin Neuropsychol 2018 02;32(2):252-262

d Metropolitan Forensic & Neuropsychological Consultation, PLLC , New York , NY , USA.

Objective: Inspired by panel discussions at various neuropsychology conferences, the aim of this paper is to share wisdom that women in neuropsychology acquired from their leadership experiences.

Method: We identified 46 women leaders in governance and academic research through reviews of organizational websites and journal editorial boards, and requested their response to brief questions via email. Twenty-one leaders provided responses to three questions formulated by the authors.

Results: This paper summarizes the primary themes for the following questions: (1) What advice would you give to a woman neuropsychologist who is seeking to move into a leadership role? Responses included: increase visibility, make connections, know yourself, be confident, and gather information. (2) What leadership style(s) works best? No respondents endorsed a 'best' leadership style; however, they suggested that leaders should know their own personal style, be open and transparent, find a shared mission, and most importantly - use a collaborative approach. (3) What helps a woman earn respect as a leader in neuropsychology? Respondents recommended that leaders should: get involved in the work, demonstrate integrity, do your homework, be dependable, and keep meetings focused.

Conclusions: It is the authors' intent that by gathering and distilling advice from successful women leaders in neuropsychology, more women may be catalyzed to pursue leadership roles in our profession.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2017.1417484DOI Listing
February 2018

Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

Clin Neuropsychol 2011 Aug;25(6):1075-86

Independent Practice, Potomac, MD 20854-2173, USA.

Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2011.594455DOI Listing
August 2011

Long-term attention problems in children with traumatic brain injury.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005 Jun;44(6):574-84

Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University and Columbus Children's Research Institute, Columbus, OH, USA.

Objective: To examine long-term attention problems and their cognitive correlates after childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Method: Data were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study conducted between 1992 and 2002. Participants included 41 children with severe TBI, 41 with moderate TBI, and 50 with orthopedic injury (OI), who were all between 6 and 12 years of age at the time of injury. Parent ratings of attention problems were obtained at a long-term follow-up on average 4 years post-injury and compared with ratings of premorbid attention problems obtained shortly after injury. At the long-term follow-up, children also completed several cognitive tests of attention and executive functions.

Results: Hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses indicated that the severe TBI group displayed significantly more attention problems than the OI group at 4 years post-injury, both behaviorally and cognitively, after controlling for race, socioeconomic status, and premorbid attention problems. At long-term follow-up, 46% of the severe TBI group displayed significant attention problems on the Child Behavior Checklist, as opposed to 26% of the OI group (odds ratio=3.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-9.94). On the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale, 20% of the severe TBI group displayed clinically significant attention problems compared with 4% in the OI group (odds ratio=9.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-73.99). However, group differences in behavioral symptoms were significantly larger for children with more premorbid symptoms than for children with fewer premorbid problems. Measures of executive functions were significantly related to behavioral attention problems, after controlling for group membership, race, and socioeconomic status.

Conclusions: Childhood TBI exacerbates premorbid attention problems. Long-term behavioral symptoms of attention problems are related to the cognitive deficits in attention and executive functions that often occur in association with childhood TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000159947.50523.64DOI Listing
June 2005

Long-term executive function deficits in children with traumatic brain injuries: assessment using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF).

Child Neuropsychol 2002 Dec;8(4):271-84

Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University and Children's Hospital, Columbus 43205, USA.

Long-term deficits in executive functions following childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI) were examined using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Parents completed the BRIEF approximately 5 years postinjury as part of a prospective study of children injured between the ages of 6 and 12. The children were between 10 and 19 years of age at the time of the assessment, and included 33 with severe TBI, 31 with moderate TBI, and 34 with orthopedic injuries. Parents also rated children's adaptive functioning and completed several other measures of parent and family functioning. Children were administered a neuropsychological test battery that included several measures of executive functions. The groups displayed a significant linear trend in BRIEF scores, with the largest deficits in executive functions reported in children with severe TBI. BRIEF scores were related consistently across groups to a test of working memory, but not to other neuropsychological measures. BRIEF scores also predicted children's adaptive functioning and behavioral adjustment, as well as parent psychological distress, perceived family burden, and general family functioning. The findings indicate that TBI results in long-term deficits in executive functions that are related to children's psychosocial outcomes, as well as to parent and family functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/chin.8.4.271.13503DOI Listing
December 2002

The assessment of parent needs following paediatric traumatic brain injury.

Pediatr Rehabil 2002 Jul-Sep;5(3):149-60

Pediatric Psychology/Neuropsychology Service, Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, Room Y2-108, 1675 Dempster St, Park Ridge, IL 60068-1174, USA.

The paediatric version of the Family Needs Questionnaire was administered to parents of children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) a year or more post-injury. Parents of diabetic children (DIAB) and parents of orthopaedically (ORTHO) injured children were included as control groups. Parents rated items on their importance and how well these needs have been met. The ORTHO group rated significantly fewer items as important relative to the TBI and DIAB groups (who endorsed a similar number of items). Of those items rated as important, TBI parents' needs were more likely to remain unmet relative to both the DIAB and the ORTHO groups: out of 28 items rated as important, TBI parents report that 19 needs are still unmet. DIAB and ORTHO parents more consistently reported their needs as met. Needs most often rated as unmet for TBI parents include the needs for health/medical information, professional support, community support networks, and the need to be involved in their child's care. These results present important findings for TBI rehabilitation professionals. Future studies need to investigate whether TBI parents' needs are unmet because of the lack of community resources, or if available resources do not adequately target the needs of the TBI parents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363849021000039353DOI Listing
April 2003