Publications by authors named "Kin Wai Cheah"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Recent advances in green solvents for lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment: Potential of choline chloride (ChCl) based solvents.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 23;333:125195. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd. (PRSB), Lot 3288 & 3289, Off Jalan Ayer Itam, Kawasan Institusi Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Biomass wastes exhibit a great potential to be used as a source of non-depleting renewable energy and synthesis of value-added products. The key to the valorization of excess lignocellulosic biomass wastes in the world lies on the pretreatment process to recalcitrant barrier of the lignocellulosic material for the access to useful substrates. A wide range of pretreatment techniques are available and advances in this field is continuously happening, in search for cheap, effective, and environmentally friendly methods. This review starts with an introduction to conventional approaches and green solvents for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Subsequently, the mechanism of actions along with the advantages and disadvantages of pretreatment techniques were reviewed. The roles of choline chloride (ChCl) in green solvents and their potential applications were also comprehensively reviewed. The collection of ideas in this review serve as an insight for future works or interest on biomass-to-energy conversion using green solvents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125195DOI Listing
August 2021

Particle swarm optimization and global sensitivity analysis for catalytic co-pyrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris and plastic waste mixtures.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 23;329:124874. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Energy and Environment Institute, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Kingston upon Hull HU6 7RX, United Kingdom; B3 Challenge Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

This study investigated on the co-pyrolysis of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) waste mixtures which was performed with three types of catalysts, namely limestone (LS), HZSM-5 zeolite, and novel bi-functional LS/HZSM-5/LS. Kissinger-Kai (K-K) model-free method was coupled with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) model-fitting method using the thermogravimetric experimental data. A global sensitivity analysis was carried out using Latin Hypercube Sampling and rank transformation to assess the extent of impact of the input kinetic parameters on the output results. Furthermore, a thermodynamic analysis was performed to obtain parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔH), Gibb's free energy (ΔG), and entropy change (ΔS). The activation energy (E) of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and HDPE binary mixture were found to be lower upon the addition of catalysts. Among the catalyst used, bi-functional LS/HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited the lowest E (83.59 kJ/mol) and ΔH (78 kJ/mol) as compared to LS and HZSM-5 catalysts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124874DOI Listing
June 2021

Biogasoline production from linoleic acid via catalytic cracking over nickel and copper-doped ZSM-5 catalysts.

Environ Res 2020 07 30;186:109616. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Biomass Processing Lab, Center of Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia.

Catalytic cracking of vegetable oil mainly processed over zeolites, and among all the zeolites particularly HZMS-5 has been investigated on wide range for renewable and clean gasoline production from various plant oils. Despite the fact that HZSM-5 offers a higher conversion degree and boost aromatics yield, the isomerate yield reduces due to high cracking activity and shape selectivity of HZSM-5. Hence, to overcome these problems, in this study the transition metals, such as nickel and copper doped over HZSM-5 were tested for its efficiencies to improve the isoparaffin compounds. The catalysts were screened with linoleic acid in a catalytic cracking reaction conducted at 450 C for 90 min in an atmospheric condition in batch reactor. Then, the gasoline composition of the organic liquid product (OLP) was analysed in terms of paraffin, isoparaffin, olefin, naphthenes and aromatics (PIONA). The results showed that Cu/ZSM-5 produced the highest liquid yield of 79.1%, at the same time reduced the production of gas and coke to 18.8% and 0.7%. Furthermore, the desired isoparaffin composition in biogasoline increased from 1.6% to 6.8% and at the same time reduced the oxygenated and aromatic compounds to 15.4% and 59.7%, respectively. The linoleic acid as model compound of rubber seed oil, in the catalytic cracking reaction provides a clearer understanding of the process. Besides, the water gas shift (WGS) reaction in catalytic cracking reaction provides insitu hydrogen production to saturate the branched olefin into the desired isoparaffin and the aromatics into naphthenes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109616DOI Listing
July 2020

An overview of biomass thermochemical conversion technologies in Malaysia.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Aug 18;680:105-123. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia.

The rising pressure on both cleaner production and sustainable development have been the main driving force that pushes mankind to seek for alternative greener and sustainable feedstocks for chemical and energy production. The biomass 'waste-to-wealth' concept which convert low value biomass into value-added products which contain high economic potential, have attracted the attentions from both academicians and industry players. With a tropical climate, Malaysia has a rich agricultural sector and dense tropical rainforest, giving rise to abundance of biomass which most of them are underutilized. Hence, the biomass 'waste-to-wealth' conversion through various thermochemical conversion technologies and the prospective challenges towards commercialization in Malaysia are reviewed in this paper. In this paper, a critical review about the maturity status of the four most promising thermochemical conversion routes in Malaysia (i.e. gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction and hydroprocessing) is given. The current development of thermochemical conversion technologies for biomass conversion in Malaysia is also reviewed and benchmarked against global progress. Besides, the core technical challenges in commercializing these green technologies are highlighted as well. Lastly, the future outlook for successful commercialization of these technologies in Malaysia is included.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.211DOI Listing
August 2019

Production of gasoline range hydrocarbons from catalytic cracking of linoleic acid over various acidic zeolite catalysts.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Nov 19;26(33):34039-34046. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Biomass Processing Laboratory, Center for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute for Self-Sustainable Building, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak, 32610, Malaysia.

Employment of edible oils as alternative green fuel for vehicles had raised debates on the sustainability of food supply especially in the third-world countries. The non-edible oil obtained from the abundantly available rubber seeds could mitigate this issue and at the same time reduce the environmental impact. Therefore, this paper investigates the catalytic cracking reaction of a model compound named linoleic acid that is enormously present in the rubber seed oil. Batch-scale experiments were conducted using 8.8 mL Inconel batch reactor having a cyclic horizontal swing span of 2 cm with a frequency of 60 cycles per minute at 450 °C under atmospheric condition for 90 min. The performance of HZSM-5, HBeta, HFerrierite, HMordenite and HY catalysts was tested for their efficiency in favouring gasoline range hydrocarbons. The compounds present in the organic liquid product were then analysed using GC-MS and classified based on PIONA which stands for paraffin, isoparaffin, olefin, naphthenes and aromatics respectively. The results obtained show that HZSM-5 catalyst favoured gasoline range hydrocarbons that were rich in aromatics compounds and promoted the production of desired isoparaffin. It also gave a higher cracking activity; however, large gaseous as by-products were produced at the same time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3223-4DOI Listing
November 2019

Process simulation and techno economic analysis of renewable diesel production via catalytic decarboxylation of rubber seed oil - A case study in Malaysia.

J Environ Manage 2017 Dec 27;203(Pt 3):950-961. Epub 2017 May 27.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

This work describes the economic feasibility of hydroprocessed diesel fuel production via catalytic decarboxylation of rubber seed oil in Malaysia. A comprehensive techno-economic assessment is developed using Aspen HYSYS V8.0 software for process modelling and economic cost estimates. The profitability profile and minimum fuels selling price of this synthetic fuels production using rubber seed oil as biomass feedstock are assessed under a set of assumptions for what can be plausibly be achieved in 10-years framework. In this study, renewable diesel processing facility is modelled to be capable of processing 65,000 L of inedible oil per day and producing a total of 20 million litre of renewable diesel product per annual with assumed annual operational days of 347. With the forecasted renewable diesel retail price of 3.64 RM per kg, the pioneering renewable diesel project investment offers an assuring return of investment of 12.1% and net return as high as 1.35 million RM. Sensitivity analysis conducted showed that renewable diesel production cost is most sensitive to rubber seed oil price and hydrogen gas price, reflecting on the relative importance of feedstock prices in the overall profitability profile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.053DOI Listing
December 2017

Refining of crude rubber seed oil as a feedstock for biofuel production.

J Environ Manage 2017 Dec 28;203(Pt 3):1011-1016. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Crude rubber seed oil is a potential source for biofuel production. However it contains undesirable impurities such as peroxides and high oxidative components that not only affect the oil stability, colour and shelf-life but promote insoluble gums formation with time that could cause deposition in the combustion engines. Therefore to overcome these problems the crude rubber seed oil is refined by undergoing degumming and bleaching process. The effect of bleaching earth dosage (15-40 wt %), phosphoric acid dosage (0.5-1.0 wt %) and reaction time (20-40 min) were studied over the reduction of the peroxide value in a refined crude rubber seed oil. The analysis of variance shows that bleaching earth dosage was the most influencing factor followed by reaction time and phosphoric acid dosage. A minimum peroxide value of 0.1 milliequivalents/gram was achieved under optimized conditions of 40 wt % of bleaching earth dosage, 1.0 wt % of phosphoric acid dosage and 20 min of reaction time using Response Surface Methodology design.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.04.021DOI Listing
December 2017