Publications by authors named "Kiminori Terui"

88 Publications

Dyserythropoietic anaemia with an intronic splicing mutation in patients suspected to have Diamond-Blackfan anaemia.

EJHaem 2022 Feb 10;3(1):163-167. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Department of Pediatrics Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine Hirosaki Japan.

Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA) shares clinical features with two recently reported sporadic cases of dyserythropoietic anaemia with a cryptic splicing mutation (c.871-24 C>T). We hypothesized that some patients clinically diagnosed with DBA but whose causative genes were unknown may carry the intronic mutation. Here, we examined 79 patients in our DBA cohort, who had no detectable causative genes. The intronic mutation was identified in two male patients sharing the same pedigree that included multiple cases with anaemia. Cosegregation of this mutation and disease in multiple family members provide evidence to support the pathogenicity of the intronic mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jha2.374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9175706PMC
February 2022

A phase III clinical trial evaluating efficacy and safety of minimal residual disease-based risk stratification for children with acute myeloid leukemia, incorporating a randomized study of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in combination with post-induction chemotherapy for non-low-risk patients (JPLSG-AML-20).

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2022 Jul 9. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Human Health Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

The purpose of this study is to establish a treatment with appropriate intensity for children (<16 years old at diagnosis) with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia and myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome) according to a risk stratification based on recurrent leukemic cytogenetic abnormalities and flow-cytometric minimal residual disease at end of initial induction chemotherapy and to validate the safety and efficacy of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO)-combined post-induction chemotherapy for the non-low-risk (non-LR) patients. The primary endpoint of this phase III study is three-year disease-free survival rate, which will be compared between the GO and non-GO arms of the non-LR (intermediate-risk and high-risk [HR]) patients. All HR patients will be allocated to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission. This trial has been registered at the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCTs041210015).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyac105DOI Listing
July 2022

Effect of sera from lupus patients on the glomerular endothelial fibrinolysis system.

Pediatr Int 2022 Jan;64(1):e15099

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

Background: Dysregulation of the coagulation fibrinolysis system in resident glomerular cells is associated with the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. However, the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in resident glomerular cells remains undetermined.

Methods: We examined the expression of PAI-1 and tPA mRNA in cultured normal human glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) treated with serum from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions. We determined the relationship between PAI-1/tPA mRNA expression and several clinical/laboratory parameters. Serum from 16 patients (nine patients with new-onset SLE and seven patients with stable SLE) was used in the study.

Results: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tPA mRNA expression was significantly higher in GECs treated with serum of patients with new-onset SLE than other groups. The PAI-1 and tPA mRNA levels were also significantly correlated in GECs treated with serum from patients with SLE. Interestingly, both PAI-1 and tPA mRNA levels in GECs were inversely correlated with serum C4 level and positively correlated with SLE disease activity.

Conclusions: These results suggest that serum from patients with SLE may activate the fibrinolysis system in glomerulus, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.15099DOI Listing
January 2022

Glomerular endothelial expression of type I IFN-stimulated gene, DExD/H-Box helicase 60 via toll-like receptor 3 signaling: possible involvement in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.

Ren Fail 2022 Dec;44(1):137-145

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Hospital, Hirosaki, Japan.

Background: Sustained type I interferon (IFN) activation Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, 7 and 9 signaling has been reported to play a pivotal role in the development of lupus nephritis (LN). Although type I IFN activation has been shown to induce interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression in systemic lupus erythematosus, the implication of ISGs expression in intrinsic glomerular cells remains largely unknown.

Methods: We treated cultured human glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC), R848, and CpG (TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 agonists, respectively) and analyzed the expression of DExD/H-Box Helicase 60 (DDX60), a representative ISG, using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Additionally, RNA interference against IFN-β or DDX60 was performed. Furthermore, cleavage of caspase 9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), markers of cells undergoing apoptosis, was examined using western blotting. We conducted an immunofluorescence study to examine endothelial DDX60 expression in biopsy specimens from patients with LN.

Results: We observed that endothelial expression of DDX60 was induced by poly IC but not by R848 or CpG, and RNA interference against IFN-β inhibited poly IC-induced DDX60 expression. DDX60 knockdown induced cleavage of caspase 9 and PARP. Intense endothelial DDX60 expression was observed in biopsy specimens from patients with diffuse proliferative LN.

Conclusion: Glomerular endothelial DDX60 expression may prevent apoptosis, which is involved in the pathogenesis of LN. Modulating the upregulation of the regional innate immune system TLR3 signaling may be a promising treatment target for LN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2022.2027249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9004514PMC
December 2022

[New insights into inherited bone marrow failure syndrome].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2021 ;62(10):1455-1464

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine.

Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and increased risk of malignant disease. Next generation sequencing methods have greatly facilitated the discovery of genetic etiology in IBMFS. Recently, de novo mutations activating TP53 were detected in patients with BMFS, mimicking Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), using whole exome sequencing, and these patients were recognized as having a novel disorder. This discovery provides important insights into the previously postulated connection between p53 activation and IBMFS. Furthermore, a novel IBMFS, aldehyde degradation deficiency syndrome, was found in patients with aplastic anemia resembling Fanconi anemia (FA). This disorder is caused by combined inactivating mutations in ADH5 and ALDH2 coding formaldehyde-detoxifying enzymes. In this review, we highlight recent studies on DBA, FA, and their related diseases in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.62.1455DOI Listing
November 2021

Isolated Bone Recurrence of Medulloblastoma With MYCN Amplification and TP53 Loss: A Case Report.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2022 03;44(2):e593-e596

Departments of Pediatrics.

Extraneural recurrence of a medulloblastoma is rare with dismal prognosis. A 9-year-old girl with medulloblastoma was treated with gross total resection followed by a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Fourteen months after treatment completion, she developed multifocal bone metastases. Despite chemotherapy combined with irradiation, she died 18 months after recurrence due to progressive disease. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections revealed MYCN amplification and TP53 loss, consistent with the genetic alterations of a rapidly progressive subgroup of recurrent medulloblastomas. In clinical practice, dismal biologic features can be determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization in defective materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000002234DOI Listing
March 2022

Epstein-Barr Virus-Negative Granulomatous Disease Due to SAP Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2021 08 7;41(6):1372-1375. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8562, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-021-01032-4DOI Listing
August 2021

A Case of Congenital Leukemia With MYB-GATA1 Fusion Gene in a Female Patient.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2022 01;44(1):e250-e252

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Aomori, Japan.

We report a female newborn with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) associated with a MYB-GATA1 fusion gene. Morphologic findings of myeloid lineage were obtained using light microscopy. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood showed a complex karyotype: 46,X,-X,add(3)(q21),der(6)add(6)(q21)del(6)(q?), +mar1[5]/46,XX[15]. Targeted RNA sequencing revealed a MYB-GATA1 fusion gene. Reduced-dose AML-type chemotherapy resulted in remission and survival for >3 years without relapse. The present case demonstrated the feasibility of carrying out targeted RNA sequencing for identifying MYB-GATA1 and supports the notion that neonatal AML with MYB-GATA1 with reduced chemotherapy may show better prognosis than other highly toxic therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000002119DOI Listing
January 2022

Association of Multiple Gene Polymorphisms Including Homozygous NUDT15 R139C With Thiopurine Intolerance During the Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 11;43(8):e1173-e1176

Community Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki.

Although thiopurine is a crucial drug for treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia, individual variations in intolerance are observed due to gene polymorphisms. A 3-year-old boy with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia who was administered thiopurine developed mucositis, sepsis, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis due to prolonged hematologic toxicity, chronic disseminated candidiasis, and infective endocarditis that triggered multiple brain infarctions. The patient was found to harbor 3 gene polymorphisms associated with thiopurine intolerance including homozygous NUDT15 R139C, heterozygous ITPA C94A, and homozygous MTHFR C677T and heterozygous RFC1 G80A. Thus, the combined effect of intolerance via multiple gene polymorphisms should be considered in case of unexpected adverse reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000002085DOI Listing
November 2021

Usefulness of functional splicing analysis to confirm precise disease pathogenesis in Diamond-Blackfan anemia caused by intronic variants in .

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Sep 24;38(6):515-527. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is mainly caused by pathogenic variants in ribosomal proteins and 22 responsible genes have been identified to date. The most common causative gene of DBA is [NM_001022.4]. Nearly 180 variants have been reported, including three deep intronic variants outside the splicing consensus sequence (c.72-92A > G, c.356 + 18G > C, and c.411 + 6G > C). We also identified one case with a c.412-3C > G intronic variant. Without conducting transcript analysis, the pathogenicity of these variants is unknown. However, it is difficult to assess transcripts because of their fragility. In such cases, in functional splicing assays can be used to assess pathogenicity. Here, we report functional splicing analysis results of four deep intronic variants identified in our case and in previously reported cases. One splicing consensus variant (c.411 + 1G > A) was also examined as a positive control. Aberrant splicing with a 2-bp insertion between exons 5 and 6 was identified in the patient samples and minigene assay results also identified exon 6 skipping in our case. The exon 6 skipping transcript was confirmed by further evaluation using quantitative RT-PCR. Additionally, minigene assay analysis of three reported deep intronic variants revealed that none of them showed aberrant splicing and that these variants were not considered to be pathogenic. In conclusion, the minigene assay is a useful method for functional splicing analysis of inherited disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2021.1887984DOI Listing
September 2021

Post-induction MRD by FCM and GATA1-PCR are significant prognostic factors for myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome.

Leukemia 2021 09 15;35(9):2508-2516. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Division of Leukemia and Lymphoma, Children's Cancer Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) is associated with good response to chemotherapy, resulting in favorable outcomes. However, no universal prognostic factors have been identified to date. To clarify a subgroup with high risk of relapse, the role of minimal residual disease (MRD) was explored in the AML-D11 trial by the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group. MRD was prospectively evaluated at after induction therapy and at the end of all chemotherapy, using flow cytometry (FCM-MRD) and GATA1-targeted deep sequencing (GATA1-MRD). A total of 78 patients were eligible and 76 patients were stratified to the standard risk (SR) group by morphology. In SR patients, FCM-MRD and GATA1-MRD after induction were positive in 5/65 and 7/59 patients, respectively. Three-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 95.0% and 96.7% in the FCM-MRD-negative population, and 60.0% and 80.0% in the positive population. Three-year EFS and OS rates were both 98.1% in the GATA1-MRD-negative population, and 57.1% and 71.4% in the positive population. Adjusted hazard ratios for associations of FCM-MRD with EFS were 14.67 (p = 0.01). Detection of MRD by either FCM or GATA1 after initial induction therapy represents a significant prognostic factor for predicting ML-DS relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01157-wDOI Listing
September 2021

The outcomes of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia in children: Results from the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05R study.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 01 29;68(1):e28736. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Division of Leukemia and Lymphoma, Children's Cancer Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The prognosis of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has improved with the efficacy of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as a second-line therapy and improvements in supportive care following anthracycline- and cytarabine-based chemotherapy; however, the outcomes of children with relapsed AML still remain unsatisfactory.

Procedure: In order to identify prognostic factors and improve their prognosis, we analyzed 111 patients who relapsed after treatment with the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) AML-05 protocol and who were registered in the retrospective JPLSG AML-05R study.

Results: The 5-year overall survival rate was 36.1%. The major determinant of survival was duration from the diagnosis to relapse. The mean duration in the nonsurviving group (10.1 ± 4.1 months) was shorter than that in the surviving group (16.3 ± 8.3 months) (P < .01). Moreover, achieving a second complete remission (CR2) prior to HCT was associated with a good prognosis (P < .01). Etoposide, cytarabine, and mitoxantrone (ECM)- or fludarabine, cytarabine, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (FLAG)-based regimens were therefore recommended for reinduction therapy (P < .01). A genetic analysis also revealed the prognostic significance of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-internal tandem duplication as a poor prognostic marker (P = .04) and core binding factor-AML, t(8;21), and inv(16) as good prognostic markers (P < .01).

Conclusions: Achieving a CR2 prior to HCT is important in order to improve the prognosis of relapsed pediatric AML. Recent molecular targeted therapies, such as FLT3 inhibitors, may contribute to overcome their prognoses. Larger prospective investigations are necessary to establish individualized treatment strategies for patients with relapsed childhood AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28736DOI Listing
January 2021

Reduced-intensity conditioning is effective for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in young pediatric patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 05 18;56(5):1013-1020. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for the hematologic manifestations of Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). However, data regarding the optimal conditioning regimen for DBA patients are limited. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of DBA patients who underwent HSCT using either myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens. The patients belonged to a cohort treated at our hospitals between 2000 and 2018. HSCT was performed in 27 of 165 patients (16.4%). The median age at the time of HSCT was 3.6 years. Stem cell sources included bone marrow for 25 patients (HLA-matched sibling donors, n = 5; HLA-mismatched related donors, n = 2; HLA-matched/mismatched unrelated donors, n = 18) or cord blood for 2 patients. MAC or RIC regimens were used in 12 and 15 patients, respectively. Engraftment was successful in all 27 patients who underwent HSCT. Three patients who underwent HSCT using MAC regimens developed sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. The 3-year overall survival (OS) and failure-free survival rates (FFS) post-transplantations were 95.2% and 88.4%, respectively, with no significant differences between MAC and RIC regimens. Our data suggest that HSCTs using RIC regimens are effective and obtain engraftment with excellent OS and FFS for young DBA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01056-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Attempts to optimize postinduction treatment in childhood acute myeloid leukemia without core-binding factors: A report from the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG).

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 12 4;67(12):e28692. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Human Health Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

We previously reported that risk-stratified therapy and intensive postremission chemotherapy (PRC) contributed to the improved survival of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the AML99 study, which led us to consider a reduction in the number of PRC courses with more restrictive indications for stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the successor AML-05 study. We here report the outcome of AML patients without core-binding factor mutation (non-CBF AML) in the AML-05 study. Two-hundred eighty-nine children (age < 18 years old) with non-CBF AML were eligible. Patients with unfavorable cytogenetics and/or poor bone marrow response to the first induction course were candidates for SCT in the AML-05 study. After two courses of induction, a further three courses of PRC were given in AML-05, while four courses were given in the AML99 study. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate in the AML-05 study (46.7%, 95% CI: 40.6-52.6%) was comparable to that of non-CBF AML in the AML99 study (51.5%, 95% CI: 42.7-59.6%) (P = .16). However, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate in the AML-05 study (62.9%, 95% CI: 56.3-68.8%) was slightly lower than that in the AML99 study (71.6%, 95% CI: 63.2-78.5%) (P = .060), mainly due to decreased remission induction rate and increased nonrelapsed mortality. In conclusion, reductions in the number of PRC courses from four to three, together with repetitive cycles of high-dose cytarabine, were acceptable for non-CBF childhood AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28692DOI Listing
December 2020

Predisposition to prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy for paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia is associated with better prognosis in the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 study.

Br J Haematol 2021 04 26;193(1):176-180. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Division of Leukemia and Lymphoma, Children's Cancer Center, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

The variability in myelosuppression after chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) can affect its prognosis; however, the underlying mechanism remains controversial. In the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 study, we showed that prolonged neutropenia was associated with high overall survival (P = 0·011) and low frequency of relapse (P = 0·042) in patients without granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) who completed the indicated treatment protocol. Our data indicate that predisposition to prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy is correlated with a better outcome of AML treatment. Our results promote the usage of individualised drug dosing strategies to improve the therapeutic outcome in AML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16656DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analyses of 17 neonates with transient abnormal myelopoiesis and nonconstitutional trisomy 21.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 04 5;67(4):e28188. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

Background: Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a unique myeloproliferative disorder that occurs in neonates with constitutional trisomy 21/Down syndrome (DS). Although TAM also develops in neonates without constitutional trisomy 21, the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics of those patients are not fully understood.

Procedure: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and cytogenetic findings and GATA1 mutation status of 17 neonates with TAM and nonconstitutional trisomy 21 tested for GATA1 mutations at our institute, and compared the findings with those of 64 neonates with TAM and constitutional trisomy 21/DS.

Results: DS clinical features were observed in five of the 17 (29%) patients. In all patients, both trisomy 21 and GATA1 mutations were detected in diagnostic samples. Over a median follow-up of 33 (range, 0-139) months, early death (< 6 months of age) occurred in four patients (24%). Overall and event-free survivals were not significantly different between the patients with TAM and nonconstitutional trisomy 21 and those with TAM and constitutional trisomy 21/DS (five-year overall survival: 76% ± 10% vs 53% ± 13%, P = 0.40; five-year event-free survival: 55% ± 13% vs 48% ± 12%, P = 0.90). The five-year cumulative incidence of progression to myeloid leukemia of DS was also similar between the groups (21% vs 24%, P = 0.80).

Conclusions: Patients with TAM and nonconstitutional trisomy 21 exhibited similar biology and outcomes to those with TAM and constitutional trisomy 21/DS. The possibility of TAM should be considered even in phenotypically normal neonates with TAM symptoms, for appropriate management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28188DOI Listing
April 2020

Clinical Outcomes after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children with Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia: A Report from the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 05 29;26(5):902-910. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Shizuoka Children's Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment for juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), but few large studies of HSCT for JMML exist. Using data from the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation registry, we analyzed the outcomes of 129 children with JMML who underwent HSCT between 2000 and 2011. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and cumulative incidence of relapse were 64% and 34%, respectively. A regimen of busulfan/fludarabine/melphalan was the most commonly used (59 patients) and provided the best outcomes; the 5-year OS rate reached 73%, and the cumulative incidences of relapse and transplantation-related mortality were 26% and 9%, respectively. In contrast, the use of the irradiation-based myeloablative regimen was the most significant risk factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.92; P = .004) in the multivariate model. In addition, chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was strongly associated with lower relapse (HR, 0.37; P = .029) and favorable survival (HR, 0.22; P = .006). The current study has shown that a significant proportion of children with JMML can be cured with HSCT, especially those receiving the busulfan/fludarabine/melphalan regimen. Based on the lower relapse and better survival observed in patients with chronic GVHD, additional treatment strategies that focus on enhancing graft-versus-leukemia effects may further improve survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.11.029DOI Listing
May 2020

A Rapid Cytologic Double Staining of Epstein-Barr Virus-encoded Small RNA and Cell Surface Markers for Diagnosis of Epstein-Barr Virus-associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020 11;42(8):e756-e758

Departments of Pediatrics.

A 3-year-old boy was clinically diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We identified EBV-infected CD8-positive T-lymphocytes by cytologic double staining of the peripheral blood for EBV-encoded small RNA and cell surface markers. The patient was subsequently administered immunosuppressive therapy with a reduced dose of etoposide because of previous organ damage. EBV clearance was confirmed by serial quantification of cell-fractionated EBV-DNA, whereas EBV-DNA persisted in the plasma for 18 weeks. Immunochemotherapy with low-dose etoposide combined with serial viral load monitoring is a potential therapeutic option for severe EBV-hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis cases with organ damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001647DOI Listing
November 2020

Highly sensitive detection of GATA1 mutations in patients with myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome by combining Sanger and targeted next generation sequencing.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2020 03 21;59(3):160-167. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

Myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome (ML-DS) is characterized by a predominance of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, the presence of GATA1 mutations and a favorable outcome. Because DS children can also develop conventional acute myeloid leukemia with unfavorable outcome, detection of GATA1 mutations is important for diagnosis of ML-DS. However, myelofibrosis and the significant frequency of dry taps have hampered practical screening of GATA1 mutations using bone marrow (BM) samples. In response to those problems, 82 patients were enrolled in the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-D11 study. GATA1 mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (SS) using genomic DNA (gDNA) from BM and cDNA from peripheral blood (PB) followed by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) using pooled diagnostic samples. BM and PB samples were obtained from 71 (87%) and 82 (100%) patients, respectively. GATA1 mutations were detected in 46 (56%) and 58 (71%) patients by SS using BM gDNA and PB cDNA, respectively. Collectively, GATA1 mutations were identified in 73/82 (89%) patients by SS. Targeted NGS detected GATA1 mutations in 74/82 (90%) patients. Finally, combining the results of SS with those of targeted NGS, GATA1 mutations were identified in 80/82 (98%) patients. These results indicate that SS using BM gDNA and PB cDNA is a rapid and useful method for screening for GATA1 mutations in ML-DS patients. Thus, a combination of SS and targeted NGS is a sensitive and useful method to evaluate the actual incidence and clinical significance of GATA1 mutations in ML-DS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22816DOI Listing
March 2020

A pediatric case of secondary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with KMT2A-MAML2 developing after hepatoblastoma treatment.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 01 10;67(1):e28033. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28033DOI Listing
January 2020

Characteristics and outcomes of children with acute myeloid leukemia and Down syndrome who are ineligible for clinical trials due to severe comorbidities.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 11 18;66(11):e27942. Epub 2019 Aug 18.

AML Committee, Japan Children's Cancer Group, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: High survival rates of 80-90% have been reported in recent clinical trials of reduced-intensity chemotherapies for children with acute myeloid leukemia and Down syndrome (AML-DS). However, a certain number of children with AML-DS have complicating comorbidities, including congenital heart disease (CHD), and are therefore ineligible for enrolment in clinical trials.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of children with AML-DS who were excluded from Japanese clinical trials conducted between 2000 and 2015.

Results: Twelve children (six males and six females) were identified and were ineligible for CHD (n = 8) and other comorbidities, including hyperleukocytosis complicated with coagulopathy, severe hemophagocytosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (n = 1 each). The median age at the diagnosis was 14 months (range, 5 months to 11.5 years). Among all cases, 11 patients were treated with curative intent. Four patients were considered intolerant to intensive chemotherapy and received only low-dose cytarabine-based chemotherapy: three failed to achieve remission and died of disease, while one successfully achieved remission but eventually died of infection. Seven cases underwent regular-intensive chemotherapy for AML-DS: six were alive and in remission; one had relapsed disease. One patient who received the best supportive care died of disease. Finally, six patients remained in continuous complete remission, while six died. The 5-year overall survival rate was 51%.

Conclusions: The prognosis of AML-DS patients who received insufficient treatment due to severe complication was poor. The optimal dose intensity of curative chemotherapy for such cases should be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27942DOI Listing
November 2019

Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis revealed heterogeneity of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Down syndrome.

Cancer Sci 2019 Oct 10;110(10):3358-3367. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at a 20-fold increased risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Compared to children with ALL and no DS (non-DS-ALL), those with DS and ALL (DS-ALL) harbor uncommon genetic alterations, suggesting DS-ALL could have distinct biological features. Recent studies have implicated several genes on chromosome 21 in DS-ALL, but the precise mechanisms predisposing children with DS to ALL remain unknown. Our integrated genetic/epigenetic analysis revealed that DS-ALL was highly heterogeneous with many subtypes. Although each subtype had genetic/epigenetic profiles similar to those found in non-DS-ALL, the subtype distribution differed significantly between groups. The Philadelphia chromosome-like subtype, a high-risk B-cell lineage variant relatively rare among the entire pediatric ALL population, was the most common form in DS-ALL. Hypermethylation of RUNX1 on chromosome 21 was also found in DS-ALL, but not non-DS-ALL. RUNX1 is essential for differentiation of blood cells, especially B cells; thus, hypermethylation of the RUNX1 promoter in B-cell precursors might be associated with increased incidence of B-cell precursor ALL in DS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6778645PMC
October 2019

Resistance of t(17;19)-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines to multiagents in induction therapy.

Cancer Med 2019 Sep 15;8(11):5274-5288. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Japan.

t(17;19)(q21-q22;p13), responsible for TCF3-HLF fusion, is a rare translocation in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia(BCP-ALL). t(1;19)(q23;p13), producing TCF3-PBX1 fusion, is a common translocation in childhood BCP-ALL. Prognosis of t(17;19)-ALL is extremely poor, while that of t(1;19)-ALL has recently improved dramatically in intensified chemotherapy. In this study, TCF3-HLF mRNA was detectable at a high level during induction therapy in a newly diagnosed t(17;19)-ALL case, while TCF3-PBX1 mRNA was undetectable at the end of induction therapy in most newly diagnosed t(1;19)-ALL cases. Using 4 t(17;19)-ALL and 16 t(1;19)-ALL cell lines, drug response profiling was analyzed. t(17;19)-ALL cell lines were found to be significantly more resistant to vincristine (VCR), daunorubicin (DNR), and prednisolone (Pred) than t(1;19)-ALL cell lines. Sensitivities to three (Pred, VCR, and l-asparaginase [l-Asp]), four (Pred, VCR, l-Asp, and DNR) and five (Pred, VCR, l-Asp, DNR, and cyclophosphamide) agents, widely used in induction therapy, were significantly poorer for t(17;19)-ALL cell lines than for t(1;19)-ALL cell lines. Consistent with poor responses to VCR and DNR, gene and protein expression levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were higher in t(17;19)-ALL cell lines than in t(1;19)-ALL cell lines. Inhibitors for P-gp sensitized P-gp-positive t(17;19)-ALL cell lines to VCR and DNR. Knockout of P-gp by CRISPRCas9 overcame resistance to VCR and DNR in the P-gp-positive t(17;19)-ALL cell line. A combination of cyclosporine A with DNR prolonged survival of NSG mice inoculated with P-gp-positive t(17;19)-ALL cell line. These findings indicate involvement of P-gp in resistance to VCR and DNR in Pgp positive t(17;19)-ALL cell lines. In all four t(17;19)-ALL cell lines, RAS pathway mutation was detected. Furthermore, among 16 t(1;19)-ALL cell lines, multiagent resistance was usually observed in the cell lines with RAS pathway mutation in comparison to those without it, suggesting at least a partial involvement of RAS pathway mutation in multiagent resistance of t(17;19)-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6718581PMC
September 2019

Zoledronic acid for relapsed Langerhans cell histiocytosis with isolated skull bone lesion.

Pediatr Int 2019 Mar 21;61(3):315-317. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13774DOI Listing
March 2019

Two siblings with familial neuroblastoma with distinct clinical phenotypes harboring an ALK germline mutation.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 12 22;57(12):665-669. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

The authors report two siblings with familial neuroblastoma with a germline R1275Q mutation of the tyrosine kinase domain of ALK. Whole exome sequencing and copy number variation assay were performed to investigate genetic alterations in the two cases. No common somatic mutations or gene polymorphisms related to the tumorigenesis of neuroblastoma were detected. A distinct pattern involving both segmental chromosomal alteration and MYCN amplification was detected. The diversity of biological behavior of familial neuroblastoma harboring a germline ALK mutation may depend on conventional prognostic factors, such as segmental chromosomal alterations and MYCN amplification, rather than additional acquired mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22676DOI Listing
December 2018
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