Publications by authors named "Kimberly S Topp"

20 Publications

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Predictive factors of academic success in neuromusculoskeletal anatomy among doctor of physical therapy students.

Anat Sci Educ 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Predictors of academic success in anatomy have been studied, but not in Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore predictors of academic success in a DPT anatomy course, (2) evaluate sex-based differences in the predictors of academic success and their influence on anatomy course grade, and (3) investigate the influence of the DPT anatomy course on visual-spatial ability. Forty-nine DPT students completed a demographic questionnaire, Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), and Mental Rotations Test (MRT) before the ten-week anatomy course (MRT-1) and repeated the MRT at the end of the course (MRT-2). Anatomy course grade was determined based on quizzes and written and practical examinations. Multiple regression analysis showed significant associations between the predictor variables age (p = 0.010) and the LASSI anxiety subscale (p = 0.017), which measures anxiety coping, with the anatomy course grade. On the MRT-1, male DPT students attempted and correctly answered more questions than females (both, p < 0.0001). Female students had higher LASSI self-regulation and use of academic resources subscale scores (both, p < 0.05). In the 44 DPT students that completed the MRT-2, the number of correct and attempted responses increased following the anatomy course (p < 0.0001). Age and anxiety coping, but not sex, are predictors of anatomy course grades in DPT students. Mental rotations test scores improved following the anatomy course. The LASSI should be used in other cohorts to identify students with low anxiety subscale scores in order to provide targeted support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ase.2202DOI Listing
June 2022

The imperative for scientific societies to change the face of academia: Recommendations for immediate action.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2022 04 21;305(4):1019-1031. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

As organizations that facilitate collaboration and communication, scientific societies have an opportunity, and a responsibility, to drive inclusion, diversity, equity, and accessibility in science in academia. The American Association for Anatomy (AAA), with its expressed and practiced culture of engagement, can serve as a model of best practice for other professional associations working to become more inclusive of individuals from historically underrepresented groups. In this publication, we acknowledge anatomy's exclusionary past, describe the present face of science in academia, and provide recommendations for societies, including the AAA, to accelerate change in academia. We are advocating for scientific societies to investigate inequities and revise practices for inclusivity; develop and empower underrepresented minority leadership; and commit resources in a sustained manner as an investment in underrepresented scientists who bring diverse perspectives and lived experiences to science in academia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24735DOI Listing
April 2022

Taking the Next Steps in Regenerative Rehabilitation: Establishment of a New Interdisciplinary Field.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2020 05 5;101(5):917-923. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

The growing field of regenerative rehabilitation has great potential to improve clinical outcomes for individuals with disabilities. However, the science to elucidate the specific biological underpinnings of regenerative rehabilitation-based approaches is still in its infancy and critical questions regarding clinical translation and implementation still exist. In a recent roundtable discussion from International Consortium for Regenerative Rehabilitation stakeholders, key challenges to progress in the field were identified. The goal of this article is to summarize those discussions and to initiate a broader discussion among clinicians and scientists across the fields of regenerative medicine and rehabilitation science to ultimately progress regenerative rehabilitation from an emerging field to an established interdisciplinary one. Strategies and case studies from consortium institutions-including interdisciplinary research centers, formalized courses, degree programs, international symposia, and collaborative grants-are presented. We propose that these strategic directions have the potential to engage and train clinical practitioners and basic scientists, transform clinical practice, and, ultimately, optimize patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2020.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576442PMC
May 2020

Program Director's Response.

Authors:
Kimberly S Topp

Phys Ther 2016 Apr;96(4):558-9

K.S. Topp, PT, PhD, FAAA, Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science and Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (USA).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20150057.ic1DOI Listing
April 2016

Teaching point of care ultrasound skills in medical school: keeping radiology in the driver's seat.

Acad Radiol 2014 Jul;21(7):893-901

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 505 Parnassus Ave., M-391, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628.

Rationale And Objectives: Ultrasound is used increasingly in medical practice as a tool for focused bedside diagnosis and technical assistance during procedures. Widespread availability of small portable units has put this technology into the hands of many physicians and medical students who lack dedicated training, leaving the education and introduction of this key modality increasingly to physicians from other specialties. We developed a radiology-led program to teach ultrasound skills to preclinical medical students.

Materials And Methods: To develop this new ultrasound program we 1) established a program leader, 2) developed teaching materials, 3) created a hands-on interactive program, and 4) recruited the necessary instructors. The program was piloted with the first-year medical student class of 154 students. The introductory session was assessed by pre- and post-activity Likert scale-based surveys.

Results: Of 154 (68.8%) students, 106 completed a voluntary online survey before starting the program and 145 students (94.2%) completed a voluntary survey after the session. Students found the program educationally valuable (4.64 of 5) and reported that it improved their understanding of ultrasound imaging (4.7 of 5). Students' reported confidence in identifying abdominal organs, intra-abdominal fluid, and Morison pouch that was significantly higher on the postactivity survey compared to the presurvey (P < .001 for all).

Conclusions: We piloted a radiology-led program to teach ultrasound skills to preclinical medical students. Students found the experience enjoyable and educationally valuable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2014.03.001DOI Listing
July 2014

Impact of movement sequencing on sciatic and tibial nerve strain and excursion during the straight leg raise test in embalmed cadavers.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2013 Jun 30;43(6):398-403. Epub 2013 Apr 30.

Department of Physical Therapy, Samuel Merritt University, 450 30th Street, Suite 3724, Oakland, CA 94609, USA.

Study Design: Laboratory study, repeated-measures design.

Objectives: To quantify differences in sciatic and tibial nerve biomechanics (strain and excursion) during common variations of the straight leg raise (SLR) test.

Background: Hip flexion and ankle dorsiflexion are the primary movement components of the SLR. It has been suggested that the nervous system is loaded differently when ankle dorsiflexion is added before or after hip flexion. There are, however, no data to either support or refute this suggestion.

Methods: Strain and excursion in the sciatic and tibial nerve were measured in the hip, knee, and ankle regions during 2 movement sequences for the SLR test in 10 embalmed cadavers. The proximal-to-distal sequence consisted of hip flexion followed by ankle dorsiflexion; the distal-to-proximal sequence consisted of ankle dorsiflexion followed by hip flexion.

Results: In the SLR end position, strain and excursion were comparable for both sequences for the sciatic and tibial nerve at the knee (P>.24). Strain in the tibial nerve at the ankle was greater with the proximal-to-distal sequence (P = .008), but the actual difference was small (0.8%). The pattern of strain increase and nerve excursion varied between sequences (P≤.009), with nerve strain increasing earlier and being maintained longer in regions closest to the joint that was moved first in the movement sequence.

Conclusion: Varying the movement sequence does not substantially impact excursion and strain in the end position of the SLR. Therefore, if neurodynamic test sequencing is useful in the differential diagnosis of neuropathies, it is not likely due to differences in strain in the end position of testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2013.4413DOI Listing
June 2013

The pattern of tibial nerve excursion with active ankle dorsiflexion is different in older people with diabetes mellitus.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2012 Nov 17;27(9):967-71. Epub 2012 Jul 17.

Department of Physical Therapy, Samuel Merritt University, 450 30th Street, Oakland, CA 94609,

Background: The peripheral nervous system has an inherent capability to tolerate the gliding (excursion), stretching (increased strain), and compression associated with limb motions necessary for functional activities. The biomechanical properties during joint movements are well studied but the influence of other factors such as limb pre-positioning, age and the effects of diabetes mellitus are not well established for the lower extremity. The purposes of this pilot study were to compare the impact of two different hip positions on lower extremity nerve biomechanics during an active ankle dorsiflexion motion in healthy individuals and to determine whether nerve biomechanics are altered in older individuals with diabetes mellitus.

Methods: Ultrasound imaging was used to quantify longitudinal motion of the tibial nerve and transverse plane motion of the tibial and common fibular nerves in the popliteal fossa during active ankle movements.

Findings: In healthy individuals, ankle dorsiflexion created mean tibial nerve movement of 2.18 mm distally, 1.36 mm medially and 3.98 mm superficially. When the hip was in a flexed position there was a mean three-fold reduction in distal movement. In people with diabetes mellitus there was significantly less distal movement of the tibial nerve in the neutral hip position and less superficial movement of the nerve in both hip positions compared to healthy individuals.

Interpretation: We have documented reductions in tibial nerve excursion due to limb pre-positioning thought to pre-load the nervous system using a non-invasive methodology. Thus, lower limb pre-positioning impacts nerve biomechanics during ankle motions common in functional activities. Additionally, our findings indicate that nerve biomechanics have the potential to be altered in older individuals with diabetes mellitus compared to younger healthy individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2012.06.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3772678PMC
November 2012

Twelve tips for facilitating successful teleconferences.

Med Teach 2012 27;34(6):445-9. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Background: The work of medical education is increasingly collaborative across geographical sites, sometimes spanning international borders. The success of projects depends more strongly on how meetings are led and run than variables about the task itself; therefore, excellent communication using teleconferencing technology is required. However, we found no medical literature to assist with developing best practices in telecommunication.

Aim: Using the organization and management literature, which has examined the use of telecommunication in optimizing work outcomes, we provide a guide for initiating and facilitating teleconferences.

Methods: We used Tuckman's framework for group development as a means of organizing guidelines that address practical issues in approaching communication on teleconferences and discuss important aspects of forming work groups using telecommunication, setting ground rules and norms, addressing conflict, and enhancing accountability and outcomes.

Results: We identified 12 tips for optimal teleconferencing and divided them into phases of formation, setting ground rules, managing conflict, and enhancing group performance.

Conclusion: Successful work on teleconferences requires excellent attention to the group process, especially since full engagement by participants is not always assured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2012.668241DOI Listing
September 2012

Peripheral nerve: from the microscopic functional unit of the axon to the biomechanically loaded macroscopic structure.

J Hand Ther 2012 Apr-Jun;25(2):142-51; quiz 152. Epub 2011 Dec 1.

Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0736, USA.

Peripheral nerves are composed of motor and sensory axons, associated ensheathing Schwann cells, and organized layers of connective tissues that are in continuity with the tissues of the central nervous system. Nerve fiber anatomy facilitates conduction of electrical impulses to convey information over a distance, and the length of these polarized cells necessitates regulated axonal transport of organelles and structural proteins for normal cell function. Nerve connective tissues serve a protective function as the limb is subjected to the stresses of myriad limb positions and postures. Thus, the tissues are uniquely arranged to control the local nerve fiber environment and modulate physical stresses. In this brief review, we describe the microscopic anatomy and physiology of peripheral nerve and the biomechanical properties that enable nerve to withstand the physical stresses of everyday life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2011.09.002DOI Listing
September 2012

Integrating surface anatomy learning with clinical skills training.

Med Educ 2010 Nov;44(11):1127-8

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03839.xDOI Listing
November 2010

Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy: a cross sectional study.

BMC Neurol 2010 Aug 28;10:75. Epub 2010 Aug 28.

Physical Therapy, University of California, San Francisco, Graduate Program in Physical Therapy, 1318 7th Avenue, Box 0736, San Francisco, CA 94143-0736, USA.

Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP) impact multiple modalities of sensation including light touch, temperature, position sense and vibration perception. No study to date has examined the mechanosensitivity of peripheral nerves during limb movement in this population. The objective was to determine the unique effects T2DM and DSP have on nerve mechanosensitivity in the lower extremity.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 43 people with T2DM. Straight leg raise neurodynamic tests were performed with ankle plantar flexion (PF/SLR) and dorsiflexion (DF/SLR). Hip flexion range of motion (ROM), lower extremity muscle activity and symptom profile, intensity and location were measured at rest, first onset of symptoms (P1) and maximally tolerated symptoms (P2).

Results: The addition of ankle dorsiflexion during SLR testing reduced the hip flexion ROM by 4.3° ± 6.5° at P1 and by 5.4° ± 4.9° at P2. Individuals in the T2DM group with signs of severe DSP (n = 9) had no difference in hip flexion ROM between PF/SLR and DF/SLR at P1 (1.4° ± 4.2°; paired t-test p = 0.34) or P2 (0.9° ± 2.5°; paired t-test p = 0.31). Movement induced muscle activity was absent during SLR with the exception of the tibialis anterior during DF/SLR testing. Increases in symptom intensity during SLR testing were similar for both PF/SLR and DF/SLR. The addition of ankle dorsiflexion induced more frequent posterior leg symptoms when taken to P2.

Conclusions: Consistent with previous recommendations in the literature, P1 is an appropriate test end point for SLR neurodynamic testing in people with T2DM. However, our findings suggest that people with T2DM and severe DSP have limited responses to SLR neurodynamic testing, and thus may be at risk for harm from nerve overstretch and the information gathered will be of limited clinical value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2377-10-75DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2940775PMC
August 2010

Mechanosensitivity of the lower extremity nervous system during straight-leg raise neurodynamic testing in healthy individuals.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2009 Nov;39(11):780-90

Samuel Merritt University, Department of Physical Therapy, Oakland, CA 94609, USA.

Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study.

Objectives: To explore how ankle position affects lower extremity neurodynamic testing.

Background: Upper extremity limb movements that increase neural loading create a protective muscle action of the upper trapezius, resulting in shoulder girdle elevation during neurodynamic testing. A similar mechanism has been suggested in the lower extremities.

Methods: Twenty healthy subjects without low back pain participated in this study. Hip flexion angle and surface electromyographic measures were taken and compared at the onset of symptoms (P1) and at the point of maximally tolerated symptoms (P2) during straight-leg raise tests performed with ankle dorsiflexion (DF-SLR) and plantar flexion (PF-SLR).

Results: Hip flexion was reduced during DF-SLR by a mean +/- SD of 5.5 degrees +/- 6.6 degrees at P1 (P = .001) and 10.1 degrees +/- 9.7 degrees at P2 (P<.001), compared to PF-SLR. DF-SLR induced distal muscle activation and broader proximal muscle contractions at P1 compared to PF-SLR.

Conclusion: These findings support the hypothesis that addition of ankle dorsiflexion during straight-leg raise testing induces earlier distal muscle activation and reduces hip flexion motion. The straight-leg test, performed to the onset of symptoms (P1) and with sensitizing maneuvers, allows for identification of meaningful differences in test outcomes and is an appropriate end point for lower extremity neurodynamic testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2009.3002DOI Listing
November 2009

Integrating surgical skills education into the anatomy laboratory.

J Surg Res 2010 Jan;158(1):36-42

School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0790, USA.

Background: Preclinical education plays a pivotal role in improving the quality of patient care and safety. Early exposure to surgical skills training and surgical mentors enhance students' retention and confidence in those skills, and may promote their interest in surgery.

Methods: Based upon a needs assessment survey of surgical education at UCSF, we introduced a curriculum to teach basic surgical techniques in the preclinical years with the intent of emphasizing several important skills and providing students with exposure to surgical mentors in a small group environment. We then surveyed the students to assess satisfaction with the new curriculum and the effect on perceptions regarding a career in surgery.

Results: Rising fourth y students at UCSF identified the need for increased exposure to basic surgical skills in preparation for third y clerkships. Collaboration between the Departments of Anatomy and Surgery subsequently produced an integrated suturing curriculum in the anatomy lab as part of the first y medical school coursework. The curriculum offered a focused exposure to skills identified by senior students as important for their clinical rotations. The vast majority of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the exercise was enjoyable and worth continuing, and that their interactions with the surgeon volunteers were positive. Furthermore, 33% stated that their interest in surgery increased after the exercise. Qualitative comments praised both the experience and surgical faculty participation.

Conclusion: A needs-based surgical skills curriculum can be integrated into the traditional first-y anatomy course without detracting from didactic instruction in anatomy. Furthermore, students received early exposure to surgical mentors and skills training, which may translate into greater confidence on the wards and increased interest in surgical careers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2008.08.012DOI Listing
January 2010

Quantitative and clinical description of postural instability in women with breast cancer treated with taxane chemotherapy.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007 Aug;88(8):1002-8

Department of Rehabilitation, Harrison Medical Center, Bremerton, WA 98310, USA.

Objective: To describe the postural control of women who received taxane chemotherapy for treatment of breast cancer using quantitative and clinically feasible measures.

Design: Prospective descriptive study.

Setting: University-based comprehensive cancer center.

Participants: Twenty women who completed taxane treatment for breast cancer and 20 healthy controls participated in this study.

Interventions: Not applicable.

Main Outcome Measures: Two quantitative measures of postural control were used, Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and center of pressure (COP) velocities. Two clinically feasible measures of postural control were used, the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FABS) and Timed Up & Go (TUG) test.

Results: Compared with healthy controls, women with breast cancer had poorer postural control on all of the outcome measures. FABS and TUG scores correlated moderately with SOT and COP scores.

Conclusions: After taxane chemotherapy, women with breast cancer show significantly increased postural instability compared with matched controls. Clinically feasible measures of postural control correlated with quantitative tests. These results suggest that these clinical measures may be useful to screen patients to determine who may benefit from rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2007.05.007DOI Listing
August 2007

Deviations in gait pattern in experimental models of hindlimb paresis shown by a novel pressure mapping system.

J Neurosci Res 2007 Aug;85(10):2272-83

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0736, USA.

Injuries to the central and peripheral nervous system result in varying degrees of paresis and as such alter gait. We developed novel quantitative measures to assess compensatory patterns of gait in experimental models of unilateral and bilateral hindlimb paresis. We hypothesized that hindlimb paresis results in unique alterations in the gait cycle that reflect the symmetry of the initial lesion. To test this hypothesis, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury or a moderately severe spinal cord contusion injury at T8. Kinematic and timing parameters were captured simultaneously in all four limbs and alterations in gait were then compared to relevant sham controls. Gait analysis consisted of walking trials through a gait tunnel positioned over a Tekscan pressure sensor grid. After sciatic nerve injury, animals unweighted the injured limb by shifting their center of mass toward the contralateral forelimb and hindlimb. These changes in weight-bearing occurred simultaneously with an increase in stance time on the contralateral limbs. As might be expected spinal cord injured animals unweighted their hindlimbs, as shown by reduced hindlimb contact force and contact pressure. These adjustments coincided with a shortening of forelimb stance time and stride length. These findings show both alterations and compensatory changes in gait that reflect the symmetry of the initial injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.21366DOI Listing
August 2007

Multidisciplinary teaching of the musculoskeletal physical examination.

Med Educ 2006 May;40(5):481-2

Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, CA 94121, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02463.xDOI Listing
May 2006

Structure and biomechanics of peripheral nerves: nerve responses to physical stresses and implications for physical therapist practice.

Phys Ther 2006 Jan;86(1):92-109

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California, San Francisco, 1318 7th Ave, Box 0736, San Francisco, CA 94143-0736, USA.

The structural organization of peripheral nerves enables them to function while tolerating and adapting to stresses placed upon them by postures and movements of the trunk, head, and limbs. They are exposed to combinations of tensile, shear, and compressive stresses that result in nerve excursion, strain, and transverse contraction. The purpose of this appraisal is to review the structural and biomechanical modifications seen in peripheral nerves exposed to various levels of physical stress. We have followed the primary tenet of the Physical Stress Theory presented by Mueller and Maluf (2002), specifically, that the level of physical stress placed upon biological tissue determines the adaptive response of the tissue. A thorough understanding of the biomechanical properties of normal and injured nerves and the stresses placed upon them in daily activities will help guide physical therapists in making diagnoses and decisions regarding interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptj/86.1.92DOI Listing
January 2006

Strain and excursion in the rat sciatic nerve during a modified straight leg raise are altered after traumatic nerve injury.

J Orthop Res 2005 Jul 25;23(4):764-70. Epub 2005 Jan 25.

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California, Box 0736, San Francisco, CA 94143-0736, USA.

Purpose: This study investigated the biomechanics of the sciatic nerve with hind limb positioning in live and euthanized Sprague-Dawley rats after traumatic nerve injury.

Methods: With radiographic analysis, sciatic nerve excursion and strain were measured in situ during a modified straight leg raise, which included sequential hip flexion and ankle dorsiflexion. Comparisons were made between nerves in uninjured, sham-injured and mild crush-injured rats at the 7-day and 21-day recovery times.

Results: Significant strain and proximal excursion of the sciatic nerve were observed in all groups during hip flexion, and additional increased strain was noted during dorsiflexion. Seven days after nerve injury, strain increased significantly during hip flexion (17.64+/-14.12%; p=0.0091) and dorsiflexion (22.56+/-15.47%; p=0.0082) compared to the sham-injured controls. At 21 days after injury, the strains were similar between the injured and sham-injured groups.

Conclusions: Nerve bed elongation during straight leg raise causes sciatic nerve strain and excursion towards the moving joint with the greatest movement nearest the moving joint. In the first week after injury, the maximal strain exceeded the level previously shown to impair nerve conduction and circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orthres.2004.11.008DOI Listing
July 2005

Case report: painful peripheral neuropathy following treatment with docetaxel for breast cancer.

Clin J Oncol Nurs 2005 Apr;9(2):189-93

Peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of many chemotherapy agents. As many as 60% of patients receiving taxane therapy report symptoms such as numbness, tingling, burning, pain, and, in severe cases, weakness in a stocking and glove pattern. These symptoms are associated with problems in physical mobility and decreased quality of life, yet few articles in the literature discuss collaborative interdisciplinary assessment and treatment of this population. This article describes the care of a patient with diabetes and docetaxel-induced, painful peripheral neuropathy by a multidisciplinary team of nurses, physicians, and physical therapists. Because nurses are often the first clinicians to recognize symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, they provide the essential coordination of care by appropriate medical and rehabilitative services. This case also raises important questions about the relationship between diabetes mellitus and persistent, painful peripheral neuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1188/05.CJON.189-193DOI Listing
April 2005

Prosection vs. dissection, the debate continues: rebuttal to Granger.

Authors:
Kimberly S Topp

Anat Rec B New Anat 2004 Nov;281(1):12-4

Department of Physical Tharapy and Antomy, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.b.20037DOI Listing
November 2004
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