Publications by authors named "Kim Reilly"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Higher Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonols, and Specific Quercetin Glucosides in Two Different Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties Grown under Organic Production: Results from a 6-Year Field Study.

J Agric Food Chem 2017 Jun 14;65(25):5122-5132. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Teagasc Food Research Centre , Ashtown, Dublin D15 KN3K, Ireland .

We carried out a 6-year study to assess the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on bioactive compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity in onion. Total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, individual flavonols, individual anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were measured in two varieties ('Hyskin' and 'Red Baron') grown in a long-term split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. This is the first report of repeated measurements of bioactive content over an extensive time period in a single crop type within the same trial. Antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonol content, and levels of Q 3,4' D and Q 3 G were higher in both varieties under fully organic compared to fully conventional management. Total flavonoids were higher in 'Red Baron' and when onions were grown under organic soil treatment. Differences were primarily due to different soil management practices used in organic agriculture rather than pesticide/ herbicide application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01352DOI Listing
June 2017

Evaluation of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in two onion varieties grown under organic and conventional production systems.

J Sci Food Agric 2017 Jul 12;97(9):2982-2990. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin, 15, Ireland.

Background: Onions contain a number of bioactive compounds, in particular polyphenols. They are rich sources of such compounds in the human diet and offer significant health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is steadily increasing partly based on the expected health benefits of organic food consumption. The current study examines the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on bioactive polyphenolic content of onion.

Results: We examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in two varieties of onion grown over 4 years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year-on-year variation and were significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. The levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in general were significantly higher (P < 0.05) under fully organic compared to fully conventional management.

Conclusion: Organic cultivation practices resulted in significantly higher levels of potential bioactive compounds in onion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8138DOI Listing
July 2017

Levels of potential bioactive compounds including carotenoids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, and expression of their cognate biosynthetic genes vary significantly in different varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown under uniform cultural conditions.

J Sci Food Agric 2016 Feb 27;96(3):1018-26. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Background: In addition to their high carbohydrate content, potatoes are also an important dietary source of vitamin C and bioactive secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which have been suggested to play a role in human health. The expression of genes encoding key enzymes involved in the synthesis of these compounds was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared to the accumulation of the corresponding product in seven potato varieties showing contrasting levels of metabolite accumulation.

Results: Strong positive correlations were found between phenolic content in the flesh of tubers and transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. The expression of PAL and CHS was also related to that of AN1, a transcription factor involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, suggesting that these genes are regulated in a coordinated manner. No clear relationship was found between transcript levels of phytoene synthase (PSY) or L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) genes and total carotenoid or vitamin C accumulation, respectively.

Conclusion: Data indicate that levels of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds in potato are controlled primarily by PAL and CHS gene expression. Transcript levels of PSY and GLDH did not control accumulation of carotenoids or vitamin C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7189DOI Listing
February 2016

Variation in bioactive content in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) grown under conventional and organic production systems.

J Sci Food Agric 2015 Apr 30;95(6):1163-71. Epub 2014 Jul 30.

Teagasc, Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland; Monaghan Mushrooms, Tyholland, Co., Monaghan, Ireland.

Background: Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables contain a number of bioactive compounds, in particular glucosinolates and polyphenols, which are proposed to confer health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is at least partly based on a perception that organic crops may contain higher levels of bioactive compounds; however, insufficient research has been carried out to either support or refute such claims.

Results: In this study we examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total and individual glucosinolates in two varieties of broccoli grown over 2 years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year-on-year variation but were not significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. In contrast, levels of the indolyl glucosinolates glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were significantly higher (P < 0.05) under fully organic compared to fully conventional management.

Conclusion: Organic cultivation practices resulted in significantly higher levels of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin in broccoli florets; however, other investigated compounds were unaffected by production practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6804DOI Listing
April 2015

Effect of genotype and environment on the glycoalkaloid content of rare, heritage, and commercial potato varieties.

J Food Sci 2014 May 2;79(5):T1039-48. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Dublin 15, Ireland; School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Univ. College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Unlabelled: Potatoes accumulate toxic steroidal compounds that could be harmful for humans if consumed in high quantities and must be controlled. In this study, we were interested in assessing the levels and variation of glycoalkaloid content in 60 varieties of potato planted in 2 trial sites over 2 y. Total glycoalkaloid levels ranged from 4 to 957 mg/kg of dry weight in the flesh and from 150 to 8133 mg/kg in the skin, with the latter accumulating generally more α-chaconine than α-solanine. Contents in the flesh were below the safe limit for all varieties, but were generally above in the skin. Maximum values in each site and year of cultivation were found for varieties "Beauty of Hebron," "May Queen," and "Arran Pilot" in the skin and "Beauty of Hebron," "International Kidney," and "Congo" in the flesh. Year of cultivation had a significant effect on total glycoalkaloid content (P < 0.0001), with interactions between variety and site of cultivation and variety and year of cultivation also significant (P < 0.0001), implying that environmental effects seem to act differentially and could induce high levels in genetically predisposed varieties.

Practical Application: This paper reports the levels of toxic glycoalkaloids in 60 varieties of potato. Dietary intake and safety of consumers is discussed and varieties used by the potato processing industry are assessed in terms of safety and potential use of waste peel as raw material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12443DOI Listing
May 2014

Potential of cultivar and crop management to affect phytochemical content in winter-grown sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

J Sci Food Agric 2014 Jan 8;94(2):322-30. Epub 2013 Jul 8.

TFRCA, Ashtown, Dublin, 15, Ireland; Teagasc Kinsealy Research Centre, Dublin, 17, Ireland.

Background: Variety and crop management strategies affect the content of bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates) in green broccoli (calabrese) types, which are cultivated during summer and autumn in temperate European climates. Sprouting broccoli types are morphologically distinct and are grown over the winter season and harvested until early spring. Thus they show considerable potential for development as an import substitution crop for growers and consumers during the 'hungry gap' of early spring. The present study investigated the effect of variety and management practices on phytochemical content in a range of sprouting broccoli varieties.

Results: Yields were significantly higher in white sprouting broccoli varieties. Levels of phenolics and flavonoids were in the range 81.64-297.65 and 16.95-104.80 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively, depending on year and cultivar, and were highest in variety 'TZ 5052' in both years. In-row spacing did not affect flavonoid content. Phenolic and flavonoid content generally increased with increasing floret maturity and levels were high in edible portions of the crop. Crop wastes (leaf and flower) contained 145.9-239.3 and 21.5-116.6 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight total phenolics and flavonoids, respectively, depending on cultivar, tissue and year. Climatic factors had a significant effect on phenolic and flavonoid content. Levels of total and some individual glucosinolates were higher in sprouting broccoli than in the green broccoli variety 'Ironman'.

Conclusion: Levels of total phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates are higher in sprouting than green broccoli types. Sprouting broccoli represents an excellent source of dietary bioactive compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6263DOI Listing
January 2014

Effect of organic, conventional and mixed cultivation practices on soil microbial community structure and nematode abundance in a cultivated onion crop.

J Sci Food Agric 2013 Dec 7;93(15):3700-9. Epub 2013 Jun 7.

Teagasc Kinsealy Research Centre, Dublin, 17, Ireland; Horticulture Development Department, TFRCA, Ashtown, Dublin, 15, Ireland.

Background: Responses of the soil microbial and nematode community to organic and conventional agricultural practices were studied using the Teagasc Kinsealy Systems Comparison trial as the experimental system. The trial is a long-term field experiment which divides conventional and organic agriculture into component pest-control and soil treatment practices. We hypothesised that management practices would affect soil ecology and used community level physiological profiles, microbial and nematode counts, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to characterise soil microbial communities in plots used for onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivation.

Results: Microbial activity and culturable bacterial counts were significantly higher under fully organic management. Culturable fungi, actinomycete and nematode counts showed a consistent trend towards higher numbers under fully organic management but these data were not statistically significant. No differences were found in the fungal/bacterial ratio. DGGE banding patterns and sequencing of excised bands showed clear differences between treatments. Putative onion fungal pathogens were predominantly sequenced under conventional soil treatment practices whilst putative soil suppressive bacterial species were predominantly sequenced from the organic pest-control treatment plots.

Conclusion: Organic management increased microbial activity and diversity. Sequence data was indicative of differences in functional groups and warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6206DOI Listing
December 2013

Feasibility study on the use of visible-near-infrared spectroscopy for the screening of individual and total glucosinolate contents in broccoli.

J Agric Food Chem 2012 Aug 20;60(30):7352-8. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

Food Colour and Quality Laboratory, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla , 41012 Sevilla, Spain.

The potential of visible-near-infrared spectroscopy to determine selected individual and total glucosinolates in broccoli has been evaluated. Modified partial least-squares regression was used to develop quantitative models to predict glucosinolate contents. Both the whole spectrum and different spectral regions were separately evaluated to develop the quantitative models; in all cases the best results were obtained using the near-infrared zone between 2000 and 2498 nm. These models have been externally validated for the screening of glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and total glucosinolates contents. In addition, discriminant partial least-squares was used to distinguish between two possible broccoli cultivars and showed a high degree of accuracy. In the case of the qualitative analysis, best results were obtained using the whole spectrum (i.e., 400-2498 nm) with a correct classification rate of 100% in external validation being obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf3018113DOI Listing
August 2012

Towards identifying the full set of genes expressed during cassava post-harvest physiological deterioration.

Plant Mol Biol 2007 May 22;64(1-2):187-203. Epub 2007 Feb 22.

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.

Storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) exhibit a rapid post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) response that can occur within 24-72 h of harvest. PPD is an enzymatically mediated oxidative process with parallels to plant wound, senescence and defence responses. To characterise those genes that show significant change in expression during the PPD response we have used cDNA microarray technology to carry out a large-scale analysis of the cassava root transcriptome during the post-harvest period. We identified 72 non-redundant expressed sequence tags which showed altered regulation during the post-harvest period. Of these 63 were induced, whilst 9 were down-regulated. RNA blot analysis of selected genes was used to verify and extend the microarray data. Additional microarray hybridisation experiments allowed the identification of 21 root-specific and 24 root-wounding-specific sequences. Many of the up-regulated and PPD-specific expressed sequence tags were predicted to play a role in cellular processes including reactive oxygen species turnover, cell wall repair, programmed cell death, ion, water or metabolite transport, signal transduction or perception, stress response, metabolism and biosynthesis, and activation of protein synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-007-9144-0DOI Listing
May 2007

Oxidative stress responses during cassava post-harvest physiological deterioration.

Plant Mol Biol 2004 Nov;56(4):625-41

Department of Biology & Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK.

A major constraint to the development of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a crop to both farmers and processors is its starchy storage roots' rapid post-harvest deterioration, which can render it unpalatable and un-marketable within 24-72 h. An oxidative burst occurs within 15 min of the root being injured, that is followed by the altered regulation of genes, notably for catalase and peroxidase, related to the modulation of reactive oxygen species, and the accumulation of secondary metabolites, some of which show antioxidant properties. The interactions between these enzymes and compounds, in particular peroxidase and the coumarin, scopoletin, are largely confined to the vascular tissues where the visible symptoms of deterioration are observed. These, together with other data, are used to develop a tentative model of some of the principal events involved in the deterioration process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-005-2271-6DOI Listing
November 2004
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