Publications by authors named "Kim O"

1,419 Publications

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Prognostic Impact of APOBEC3B Expression in Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma and Its Association with Tumor-Infiltrating Cytotoxic T Cells.

Curr Oncol 2021 Apr 28;28(3):1652-1662. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

APOBEC3B enzymes are endogenous carcinogenic mutagens. Metastatic urothelial carcinomas often harbor APOBEC3B-mediated mutations in which tCw to T or G substitution occurs. Here, we evaluated patient survival and CD8+ T-cell density according to APOBEC3B expression in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma who underwent cytotoxic chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective study on 94 patients with urothelial carcinoma who were treated with first line palliative chemotherapy. APOBEC3B expression and CD8+/CD3+ ratio of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and the log-rank test was employed. The association between APOBEC3B expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was analyzed using Pearson's chi-squared test. High APOBEC3B expression was detected in 71 of the 94 patients (75.5%). The median overall survival was longer in patients with high APOBEC3B expression (15 months) than in those with low expression ( = 0.045). The hazard ratio obtained based on the Cox regression analysis was 0.292 (95% confidence interval 0.118-0.723, = 0.008). APOBEC3B expression was associated with the CD8+/CD3+ ratio (2.914, 95% confidence interval 1.030-8.249, = 0.039). Collectively, APOBEC3B expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells were associated with APOBEC3B expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030154DOI Listing
April 2021

A Predictive Model to Analyze the Factors Affecting the Presence of Traumatic Brain Injury in the Elderly Occupants of Motor Vehicle Crashes Based on Korean In-Depth Accident Study (KIDAS) Database.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 9;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Automotive Medical Science Research Institute, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju 26426, Korea.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain. This study aimed to analyze the factors affecting the presence of TBI in the elderly occupants of motor vehicle crashes. We defined elderly occupants as those more than 55 years old. Damage to the vehicle was presented using the Collision Deformation Classification (CDC) code by evaluation of photos of the damaged vehicle, and a trauma score was used for evaluation of the severity of the patient's injury. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors affecting TBI in elderly occupants and a predictive model was constructed. We performed this study retrospectively and gathered all the data under the Korean In-Depth Accident Study (KIDAS) investigation system. Among 3697 patients who visited the emergency room in the regional emergency medical center due to motor vehicle crashes from 2011 to 2018, we analyzed the data of 822 elderly occupants, which were divided into two groups: the TBI patients (N = 357) and the non-TBI patients (N = 465). According to multiple logistic regression analysis, the probabilities of TBI in the elderly caused by rear-end (OR = 1.833) and multiple collisions (OR = 1.897) were higher than in frontal collision. Furthermore, the probability of TBI in the elderly was 1.677 times higher in those with unfastened seatbelts compared to those with fastened seatbelts (OR = 1.677). This study was meaningful in that it incorporated several indicators that affected the occurrence of the TBI in the elderly occupants. In addition, it was performed to determine the probability of TBI according to sex, vehicle type, seating position, seatbelt status, collision type, and crush extent using logistic regression analysis. In order to derive more precise predictive models, it would be needed to analyze more factors for vehicle damage, environment, and occupant injury in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069019PMC
April 2021

Factors affecting frontline Korean nurses' mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Int Nurs Rev 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

College of Nursing, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Aim: To identify the factors affecting fear, anxiety and depressive symptoms among frontline nurses working with COVID-19 patients or are in charge of COVID-19 screening in Korea.

Background: Nurses are at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection because they are in closer, longer-duration contact with patients. These situations can negatively affect the mental health of nurses.

Methods: This study analysed data from COVID-19 module in the Korean Nurses' Health Study. Data from 906 participants were analysed. To identify the factors influencing mental health, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed.

Results: Caring for patients who are COVID-19-positive increased levels of fear, anxiety and depressive symptoms of nurses. The hospital safety climate influenced mental well-being among nurses.

Conclusion: Caring for patients with COVID-19 had a negative impact on fear, anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, the higher was the perceived hospital safety climate, the lower were the nurses' psychological symptoms. Further research on the mental health of nurses is warranted.

Implications For Nursing And Health Policy: Institutions should manage human resources to enable periodic rotation of nurses' work and working periods related to COVID-19. In addition, hospital managers should provide sufficient personal protective equipment, related education, and safety climate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/inr.12679DOI Listing
April 2021

Predictors of actual turnover among nurses working in Korean hospitals: A nationwide longitudinal survey study.

J Nurs Manag 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

College of Nursing, Ewha Research Institute of Nursing Science, Ewha Womans University, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03760, Republic of Korea.

Aims: To examine the factors affecting actual turnover among nurses working in hospitals using the Brewer-Kovner synthesis model.

Background: To increase retention of nurses, it is important to understand factors contributing to actual turnover among nurses.

Methods: A longitudinal study design was utilized with 2,633 of 20,613 eligible female hospital nurses who participated in Korea Nurses' Health Study. We created two age groups: a younger group (20-35 years) and an older group (36-49 years). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors influencing turnover by age group.

Results: Pregnancy and childbirth increased young nurses' turnover. When we excluded intent to leave, depression and burnout were significant factors affecting young nurses' turnover. Salary and hospital size were factors predicting nurse turnover among nurses over 36-year age.

Conclusions: It is essential to develop prevention strategies of female nurse turnover based on the age group in Korea.

Implications For Nursing Management: Nurse managers and healthcare institutes need to develop new managerial and policy strategies to reduce nurse turnover in each age group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13347DOI Listing
April 2021

Measurement of the Positive Muon Anomalous Magnetic Moment to 0.46 ppm.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(14):141801

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

We present the first results of the Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) Muon g-2 Experiment for the positive muon magnetic anomaly a_{μ}≡(g_{μ}-2)/2. The anomaly is determined from the precision measurements of two angular frequencies. Intensity variation of high-energy positrons from muon decays directly encodes the difference frequency ω_{a} between the spin-precession and cyclotron frequencies for polarized muons in a magnetic storage ring. The storage ring magnetic field is measured using nuclear magnetic resonance probes calibrated in terms of the equivalent proton spin precession frequency ω[over ˜]_{p}^{'} in a spherical water sample at 34.7 °C. The ratio ω_{a}/ω[over ˜]_{p}^{'}, together with known fundamental constants, determines a_{μ}(FNAL)=116 592 040(54)×10^{-11} (0.46 ppm). The result is 3.3 standard deviations greater than the standard model prediction and is in excellent agreement with the previous Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) E821 measurement. After combination with previous measurements of both μ^{+} and μ^{-}, the new experimental average of a_{μ}(Exp)=116 592 061(41)×10^{-11} (0.35 ppm) increases the tension between experiment and theory to 4.2 standard deviations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.141801DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of encapsulated edible halophyte with different biopolymers on the inhibition of sodium absorption in mouse.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 16;9(4):1972-1979. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Animal Science and Technology Chung-Ang University Anseong-si Korea.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of edible halophyte encapsulated with biopolymers on inhibition of sodium absorption in mouse. encapsulated with four biopolymers (pectin, chitosan, cellulose and dextrin) were fed to mice for 48 hr, and inhibiting sodium absorption was measured. In primary in vitro condition, fresh encapsulated with 1% cellulose had 40% binding rate. Juice residue encapsulated with 1% chitosan had the highest sodium binding rate by 50%. In mouse model, fresh, juice, and juice residue of encapsulated with 4% chitosan had the highest sodium absorption inhibitory rate by 19%. These results indicate that biopolymer-encapsulated could be combined with sodium under in vitro condition, and encapsulated with biopolymers reduced sodium absorption in a mouse model. Chitosan and cellulose had the highest sodium absorption inhibitory effects compared with the other biopolymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020925PMC
April 2021

Potentiation of the Anticancer Effects by Combining Docetaxel with Ku-0063794 Against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibition by Ku-0063794 could confer profound anticancer effects against cancer cells because it eliminates feedback activation of Akt. Herein, we aimed to determine anticancer effects of docetaxel and Ku-0063794, individually or in combination, against breast cancer cells, especially triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells.

Material And Methods: MCF-7 breast cancer and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell lines for in vitro studies and mouse xenograft model for in vivo studies were used to investigate the effect of docetaxel, Ku-0063794, or their combination.

Results: In the in vitro experiments, combination therapy synergistically reduced cell viability and induced higher apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells than the individual monotherapies (p<0.05). Western blot analysis and flow cytometric analysis showed that the combination therapy induced higher apoptotic cell death than the individual monotherapies (p<0.05). In the in vivo experiment, docetaxel and Ku-0063794 combination therapy reduced the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells xenografted in the nude mice better than in the individual monotherapies (p<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the combination therapy induced the highest expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the lowest expression of Bcl-xL in the MDA-MB-231 cells xenografted in the nude mice (p<0.05). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence, incorporating both in vitro and in vivo experiments, consistently validated that unlike individual monotherapies, docetaxel and Ku-0063794 combination therapy significantly inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and autophagy (p<0.05).

Conclusion: These data suggest that docetaxel and Ku-0063794 combination therapy has higher anticancer activities over individual monotherapies against MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells through a greater inhibition of autophagy and EMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.1063DOI Listing
April 2021

Characteristics of pediatric thoracic trauma: in view of before and after the establishment of a regional trauma center.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, 20 Ilsan-ro, Wonju, Gangwon, 26426, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Pediatric thoracic trauma differs from those of adult in terms of the small anatomy and rapid tissue recovery. Therefore, it is important to know the characteristics of the pediatric thoracic trauma to improve treatment results. In addition, this study examined the changes in pediatric thoracic trauma features and results from the establishment of a level 1 regional trauma center.

Methods: Data of 168 patients' ≤ 15 years old diagnosed with thoracic trauma between 2008 and 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Pedestrian traffic accidents were the most common cause of chest injury. The average injury severity score was 17.1 ± 12.4 and the average pediatric trauma score was 5.6 ± 4.1. Lung contusion was the most common in 134 cases. There were 48 cases of closed thoracostomy. There was one thoracotomy for cardiac laceration, one case for extracorporeal membranous oxygenation, and six cases for embolization. Of all, 25 patients died, providing a mortality rate of 14.9%. In addition, independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality were hemopneumothorax and cardiac contusion. Since 2014, when the level 1 regional trauma center was established, more severely injured thoracic trauma patients came. However, the mortality was similar in the two periods.

Conclusions: Understanding the clinical features of pediatric thoracic trauma patients can help in efficient treatment. In addition, as the severity of pediatric thoracic trauma patients has increased due to the establishment of the regional trauma center, so pediatric trauma center should be organized in regional trauma center to improve the outcomes of pediatric thoracic trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00068-021-01658-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019336PMC
April 2021

The 3'-UTR Polymorphisms in the Thymidylate Synthase (TS) Gene Associated with the Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Silent Brain Infarction.

J Pers Med 2021 Mar 12;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam 13488, Korea.

Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a key gene involved in the repair of DNA damage and DNA synthesis that plays an important role in vascular development and recovery. In particular, TS gene polymorphisms play a major role in the progression of vascular disease and cancer metastasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of three TS polymorphisms (1100T>C [rs699517], 1170A>G [rs2790], and 1494ins/del [rs151264360]) with ischemic stroke and silent brain infarction (SBI) in Koreans. A total of 1299 participants (507 stroke patients, 383 SBI patients, and 409 controls) were enrolled in the study. Genotyping of the three TS polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To examine the association between TS gene polymorphisms and the diseases, we performed statistical analyses, including multivariable logistic regression and Fisher's exact tests. We found that TS 1100T>C and 1170A>G genotypes were strongly associated with ischemic stroke and SBI susceptibility. More specifically, the TS 1100T>C polymorphism was associated with the likelihood of ischemic stroke (TT vs. CC: AOR = 2.151, 95% CI = 1.275-3.628, = 0.004) and SBI (TT vs. TC+CC: AOR = 1.443, 95 % CI = 1.009-2.063, = 0.045). In contrast, the TS 1170A > G polymorphism exhibited lower correlation with the risk of stroke (AA vs. GG: AOR = 0.284, 95% CI = 0.151-0.537, < 0.0001) and SBI (AA vs. GG: AOR = 0.070, 95% CI = 0.016-0.298, = 0.0002). Furthermore, we confirmed that the TS 1100T>C polymorphism was synergistic with low folic acid levels (AOR = 6.749, < 0.0001). Altogether, these results suggest that TS 1100T>C and 1170A > G polymorphisms are associated with the risk of ischemic stroke and SBI, and our study provides the first evidence that 3'-UTR variants in TS are potential biomarkers in ischemic stroke and SBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000293PMC
March 2021

Circulating GLP-1 Levels as a Potential Indicator of Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Adult Women.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 6;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Health Sciences, Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, plays an important role in regulating glucose homeostasis. In this study, the applicability of circulating GLP-1 levels as an early indicator of metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk was examined. Women without diagnosed diseases were grouped according to their number of MetS risk factors (MetS RFs) (no RFs as Super-healthy, = 61; one or two RFs as MetS risk carriers, = 60; 3 ≤ RFs as MetS, = 19). The circulating GLP-1 levels and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were significantly higher in the MetS group than in the other two groups. The GLP-1 levels correlated positively with adiposity, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), but not with fasting glucose and lipid profiles, whose significances were maintained after adjustments for age, smoking and drinking habits, menopausal status, and total calorie intake. The GLP-1 levels also increased proportionally with the number of MetS RFs. In the MetS group, the GLP-1 levels were much higher in individuals with obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m). In conclusion, the circulating GLP-1 level may be applicable as a potential early indicator of MetS risk in women without diagnosed diseases. Further study with a large population is needed to confirm the conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001839PMC
March 2021

Combining Everolimus and Ku0063794 Promotes Apoptosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Reduced Autophagy Resulting from Diminished Expression of miR-4790-3p.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 11;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

It is challenging to overcome the low response rate of everolimus in the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To overcome this challenge, we combined everolimus with Ku0063794, the inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2, to achieve higher anticancer effects. However, the precise mechanism for the synergistic effects is not clearly understood yet. To achieve this aim, the miRNAs were selected that showed the most significant variation in expression according to the mono- and combination therapy of everolimus and Ku0063794. Subsequently, the roles of specific miRNAs were determined in the processes of the treatment modalities. Compared to individual monotherapies, the combination therapy significantly reduced viability, increased apoptosis, and reduced autophagy in HepG2 cells. The combination therapy led to significantly lower expression of miR-4790-3p and higher expression of zinc finger protein225 (ZNF225)-the predicted target of miR-4790-3p. The functional study of miR-4790-3p and ZNF225 revealed that regarding autophagy, miR-4790-3p promoted it, while ZNF225 inhibited it. In addition, regarding apoptosis, miR-4790-3p inhibited it, while ZNF225 promoted it. It was also found that HCC tissues were characterized by higher expression of miR-4790-3p and lower expression of ZNF225; HCC tissues were also characterized by higher autophagic flux. We, thus, conclude that the potentiated anticancer effect of the everolimus and Ku0063794 combination therapy is strongly associated with reduced autophagy resulting from diminished expression of miR-4790-3p, as well as higher expression of ZNF225.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998287PMC
March 2021

DEHP Down-Regulates Tshr Gene Expression in Rat Thyroid Tissues and FRTL-5 Rat Thyrocytes: A Potential Mechanism of Thyroid Disruption.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Apr 31;36(2):447-454. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is known to disrupt thyroid hormonal status. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of this disruption is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the direct effects of DEHP on the thyroid gland.

Methods: DEHP (vehicle, 50 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 weeks. The expression of the thyroid hormone synthesis pathway in rat thyroid tissues was analyzed through RNA sequencing analysis, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. DEHP was treated to FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, and an RT-PCR analysis was performed. A reporter gene assay containing the promoter of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in Nthy-ori 3-1 human thyroid cells was constructed, and luciferase activity was determined.

Results: After DEHP treatment, the free thyroxine (T4) and total T4 levels in rats significantly decreased. RNA sequencing analysis of rat thyroid tissues showed little difference between vehicle and DEHP groups. In the RT-PCR analysis, Tshr expression was significantly lower in both DEHP groups (50 and 500 mg/kg) compared to that in the vehicle group, and IHC staining showed that TSHR expression in the 50 mg/kg DEHP group significantly decreased. DEHP treatment to FRTL-5 cells significantly down-regulated Tshr expression. DEHP treatment also reduced luciferase activity in a reporter gene assay for TSHR.

Conclusion: Although overall genetic changes in the thyroid hormone synthesis pathway are not clear, DEHP exposure could significantly down-regulate Tshr expression in thyroid glands. Down-regulation of Tshr gene appears to be one of potential mechanisms of thyroid disruption by DEHP exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.920DOI Listing
April 2021

Safety of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in patients under Sacral Neuromodulation with an InterStim Neuromodulator.

Urology 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Objective: To retrospectively investigate the safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients under sacral neuromodulation (InterStim II).

Methods: Data of patients who received a sacral neuromodulator at the urological department of a Swiss center of tertiary care from 2007 to 2018 and subsequently received at least 1 MRI with implanted device were retrospectively analyzed. Patient characteristics, data on implantation, MRI characteristics and complications potentially related to the MRI were analyzed. In addition, patient interviews were performed to verify the data gathered from patient records.

Results: A total of 55 consecutive patients with a median age of 48 years (range 16 - 80 years) and a total of 191 MRIs (median 3, range 1 - 13) were included to the study. The majority of MRIs (92%) were performed with 1.5 Tesla. The majority of the 1.5 Tesla (58%) as well as 3 Tesla (56%) MRIs assessed body regions other than the head. Complication possibly related to the MRI were only found in 2 (1%) MRI scans in two patients who reported on transient electrifying pain and heat sensation at the implantation site of the neuromodulator during MRI.

Conclusion: MRI scans in patients with an implanted InterStim II sacral neuromodulator and with the device being turned off seem to be safe, even if they involve body regions other than the head, at least with 1.5 Tesla.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.03.013DOI Listing
March 2021

High-fiber diets attenuate emphysema development via modulation of gut microbiota and metabolism.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 26;11(1):7008. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Dietary fiber functions as a prebiotic to determine the gut microbe composition. The gut microbiota influences the metabolic functions and immune responses in human health. The gut microbiota and metabolites produced by various dietary components not only modulate immunity but also impact various organs. Although recent findings have suggested that microbial dysbiosis is associated with several respiratory diseases, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, and allergy, the role of microbiota and metabolites produced by dietary nutrients with respect to pulmonary disease remains unclear. Therefore, we explored whether the gut microbiota and metabolites produced by dietary fiber components could influence a cigarette smoking (CS)-exposed emphysema model. In this study, it was demonstrated that a high-fiber diet including non-fermentable cellulose and fermentable pectin attenuated the pathological changes associated with emphysema progression and the inflammatory response in CS-exposed emphysema mice. Moreover, we observed that different types of dietary fiber could modulate the diversity of gut microbiota and differentially impacted anabolism including the generation of short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, and sphingolipids. Overall, the results of this study indicate that high-fiber diets play a beneficial role in the gut microbiota-metabolite modulation and substantially affect CS-exposed emphysema mice. Furthermore, this study suggests the therapeutic potential of gut microbiota and metabolites from a high-fiber diet in emphysema via local and systemic inflammation inhibition, which may be useful in the development of a new COPD treatment plan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86404-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997879PMC
March 2021

Redevelopment after spontaneous sputum conversion in noncavitary nodular bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease.

J Infect Chemother 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Although spontaneous sputum conversion can occur in noncavitary nodular bronchiectatic (NC-NB) Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD), little is known about redevelopment after spontaneous conversion. We investigated the redevelopment phenomenon after spontaneous sputum conversion in patients with NC-NB MAC-LD.

Material And Methods: Among patients diagnosed with NC-NB MAC-LD between 2000 and 2013, 140 patients who experienced spontaneous sputum conversion, and whose follow-up duration after conversion was ≥6 months, were enrolled at a tertiary referral center in South Korea. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: Of the 140 patients, 34 (24.3%) underwent redevelopment during the median follow-up period of 71.0 months (interquartile range [IQR], 58.8-87.5). Redevelopment occurred at a median interval of 25.0 months (IQR, 11.5-41.8) after spontaneous sputum conversion. The mean age of the 34 patients with redevelopment was 63.6 years, and 73.5% were women. No statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics were noted between the 34 patients with redevelopment and those with persistent conversion. Among the 34 patients with redevelopment, 6 received treatment at a median interval of 8 months (IQR, 1.5-16.8) after redevelopment. No significant differences in clinical characteristics were noted between the six treated and 28 untreated patients.

Conclusion: At least approximately 24% of patients with spontaneous sputum conversion in NC-NB MAC-LD had redevelopment, and a portion of them required treatment. These findings suggest that long-term follow-up is necessary for patients with NC-NB MAC-LD, even those who experience spontaneous sputum conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2021.03.006DOI Listing
March 2021

Preparation of Chemically Modified Lignin-Reinforced PLA Biocomposites and Their 3D Printing Performance.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 23;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Materials Chemistry & Engineering Laboratory, School of Polymer System Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 16890, Korea.

Using a simple esterification reaction of a hydroxyl group with an anhydride group, pristine lignin was successfully converted to a new lignin (COOH-lignin) modified with a terminal carboxyl group. This chemical modification of pristine lignin was confirmed by the appearance of new absorption bands in the FT-IR spectrum. Then, the pristine lignin and COOH-lignin were successfully incorporated into a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) matrix by a typical melt-mixing process. When applied to the COOH-lignin, interfacial adhesion performance between the lignin filler and PLA matrix was better and stronger than pristine lignin. Based on these results for the COOH-lignin/PLA biocomposites, the cost of printing PLA 3D filaments can be reduced without changing their thermal and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the potential of lignin as a component in PLA biocomposites adequate for 3D printing was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926467PMC
February 2021

Factors Affecting Physical and Mental Fatigue among Female Hospital Nurses: The Korea Nurses' Health Study.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Feb 13;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 13.

College of Nursing, Konyang University, 158 Gwanjeodong-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 35365, Korea.

Nurses often experience work-related physical and mental fatigue. This study sought to identify the levels of physical and mental fatigue present among Korean female nurses and discern factors influencing their onset. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS). A total of 14,839 hospital nurses were assessed by hierarchical regression analysis. The mean scores of physical and mental fatigue were 12.57 and 5.79 points, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, the work department had a significant influence on both physical and mental fatigue, that is, nurses working in special care units experienced greater degrees of both physical and mental fatigue than those working in general units. Nurse fatigue is an important consideration to monitor to ensure nurses' continued wellbeing as well as good patient safety levels. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a strategy to mitigate nursing fatigue while considering the characteristics of specific departments. In nursing practice, the introduction of a counseling program and guarantee of rest time that can alleviate the mental and physical fatigue of nurses working in special care units should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918797PMC
February 2021

Use of Menstrual Sanitary Products in Women of Reproductive Age: Korea Nurses' Health Study.

Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2021 Feb;12(1):20-28

Department of Precision Medicine, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Cheongju, Korea.

Objectives: The use of menstrual hygiene products and its effect on women's health remains under studied. Patterns of menstrual hygiene product use and the rationale behind choices among Korean women aged 18-45 years were examined.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was a part of the Korea Nurses' Health Study. A total of 20,613 nurses participated, and 8,658 nurses participated in Module 7 which included a menstrual hygiene products-related survey. The data were collected through the mobile survey using a self-reported questionnaire. Participants' use of menstrual hygiene products and related characteristics were analyzed using frequency (percentage) or mean (SD).

Results: The most common types of menstrual hygiene products across all age groups were disposable menstrual pads (89.0%), followed by cloth menstrual pads (4.5%), tampons (4.2%), and only 1.6% used a menstrual cup. Disposable menstrual pads were the most common across all age groups, but in those aged under 30 years this was followed by tampon use (6%). The most important criteria when choosing a menstrual hygiene product was comfort for disposable menstrual pads (31.3%) and tampons (41.5%), natural ingredients or organic products for cloth menstrual pads (51.4%), and custom fit for the menstrual cup (50.7%). However, for all menstrual hygiene products (except cloth menstrual pads), there was a higher proportion of anxiety than perception of safety, and low awareness of toxic shock syndrome.

Conclusion: It is important for women to use menstrual hygiene products with confidence. More research is needed to better understand potential health effects of menstrual hygiene products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.1.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899234PMC
February 2021

Epigenetic regulation of TGF-β-induced EMT by JMJD3/KDM6B histone H3K27 demethylase.

Oncogenesis 2021 Feb 26;10(2):17. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 24341, Republic of Korea.

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways are well-recognized for their role in proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells, but much less is understood about their contribution to interactions with other signaling events. Recent studies have indicated that crosstalk between TGF-β and Ras signaling makes a contribution to TGF-β-mediated EMT. Here, we demonstrate that Jumonji domain containing-3 (JMJD3 also called KDM6B) promotes TGF-β-mediated Smad activation and EMT in Ras-activated lung cancer cells. JMJD3 in lung cancer patients was significantly increased and JMJD3 expression in lung tumor tissues was correlated with expression of K-Ras or H-Ras in particular, and its expression was regulated by Ras activity in lung cancer cells. JMJD3 promotes TGF-β-induced Smad activation and EMT in Ras-activated lung cancer cells through the induction of syntenin, a protein that regulates TGF-β receptor activation upon ligand binding. Tissue array and ChIP analysis revealed that JMJD3 epigenetically induces syntenin expression by directly regulating H3K27 methylation levels. Mechanical exploration identified a physical and functional association of JMJD3 with syntenin presiding over the TGF-β in Ras-activated lung cancer cells. Taken together, these findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which JMJD3 promotes syntenin expression resulting in oncogenic Ras cooperation with TGF-β to promote EMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41389-021-00307-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910473PMC
February 2021

Cavity formation and its predictors in noncavitary nodular bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease.

Respir Med 2021 Apr 13;179:106340. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: The temporal dynamics of cavity formation in patients with the noncavitary nodular bronchiectatic (NC-NB) form of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) have not yet been well described. We aimed to investigate the development of new cavities in the NC-NB form of MAC-PD.

Methods: Of the patients diagnosed with NC-NB-type MAC-PD between 2002 and 2013 and followed-up until July 2018 at a tertiary referral center in South Korea, we identified 589 patients who underwent follow-up chest computed tomography at least once after the diagnosis and retrospectively analysed their medical records.

Results: The patients' mean age was 62.0 years, 64.7% were women. During the median follow-up of 3.8 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1.7-5.9), new cavity formation was noted in 51 (8.7%) patients. The median interval between the diagnosis of NC-NB MAC-PD and cavity formation was 3.7 years (IQR 1.8-5.4), with a constant occurrence over time. The Cox regression analysis showed that a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-3.23; P = 0.030) and M. intracellulare as the causative organism (adjusted HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.15-3.59; P = 0.014) were independently associated with new cavity formation.

Conclusions: New cavity formation was noted in 8.7% of the patients with NC-NB MAC-PD in approximately 4 years after diagnosis, particular in those infected with M. intracellulare and those with a previous history of tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2021.106340DOI Listing
April 2021

and L. Mixture Regulates Lipolytic Activity in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Cells.

J Med Food 2021 Feb;24(2):172-179

Department of Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Korea.

In this study, we investigated the lipolytic effects of an (Indian gooseberry [IG]) and L. (barley sprout [BP]) mixture on differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. On the ninth day of differentiation, Oil red O staining and Western blotting were performed; additionally, glycerol release and triglyceride (TG), fatty acid (FA), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were measured. Compared to the differentiation-induced control (C) group, the IG and BP mixture inhibited intracellular TG and FA levels by 61.7% and 48.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. Moreover, the mixture increased glycerol release and cAMP levels by more than twofold more than those in the C group. Western blotting was performed to confirm the protein expression involved in lipolysis, and the IG and BP mixture was found to significantly increase the protein activities of AMP-activated protein kinase, protein kinase A, and hormone-sensitive lipase compared to those of the C group. Furthermore, the mixture significantly inhibited the protein activities of phosphodiesterase 3B, adipose TG lipase, and perilipin compared to those of the C group at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. We found that the IG and BP mixture activates the cAMP pathway and regulates lipolytic enzymes, which are necessary for lipolysis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the IG and BP mixture can be potentially developed as a new material for targeting mechanisms underlying lipolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2020.4810DOI Listing
February 2021

Association of genetic variants of RNF213 with ischemic stroke risk in Koreans.

Genes Genomics 2021 Apr 20;43(4):389-397. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, 13488, South Korea.

Background: Large artery disease (LAD), cardioembolism (CE), and small vessel disease (SVD) are well-established causes of ischemic stroke. Although a founder variant of RNF213 has been regarded a genetic susceptibility for Moyamoya disease (MMD) and certain types of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS), correlations between RNF213 variants and ischemic stroke with SVD remain largely unknown.

Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the associations of four RNF213 polymorphisms (4448G>A, 4810G>A, 4863G>A, and 4950G>A) with ischemic stroke subtypes in Koreans.

Methods: Genetic data from 529 stroke patients were analyzed and compared to 424 age- and sex-matched controls. Genetic variants of RNF213, as obtained from the Human Gene Mutation Database, were analyzed in the study subjects using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. We investigated four single-nucleotide polymorphisms of RNF213 to elucidate their association with ischemic stroke [LAD, (n = 192), SVD (n = 145) and CE (n = 51)].

Results: The RNF213 4950G>A genotype was observed more frequently in cerebral stroke patients and was more strongly associated with SVD than LAD (P = 0.014). RNF213 4448/4950 in combination with G-A was higher in SVD patients. However, the RNF213 4863/4950 allele combination was associated with increased risk of SVD and LAD. These results confirmed that RNF213 4950GA+AA variants were more frequent in ischemic stroke, especially in SVD, and that RNF213 G-G-G-A and G-G-G-A (4448/4810/4863/4950) haplotype sequences play a role in LAD and CE as well as SVD.

Conclusions: Our data reported that the RNF213 4950G>A genotypes and several RNF213 (4448/4810/4863/4950) haplotypes were associated with ischemic stroke in Koreans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-020-01022-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Outdoor air pollution and diminished ovarian reserve among infertile Korean women.

Environ Health Prev Med 2021 Feb 11;26(1):20. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, CHA Fertility Center Seoul Station, CHA University School of Medicine, Seoul, 04637, Korea.

Background: Mounting evidence implicates an association between ambient air pollution and impaired reproductive potential of human. Our study aimed to assess the association between air pollution and ovarian reserve in young, infertile women.

Methods: Our study included 2276 Korean women who attended a single fertility center in 2016-2018. Women's exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentrations of particulate matter (PM and PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO), and ozone (O) that had been collected at 269 air quality monitoring sites. Exposure estimates were computed for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months prior to the ovarian reserve tests. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) ratio (defined as an observed-to-expected AMH based on age) and low AMH (defined as < 0.5 ng/mL) were employed as indicators of ovarian reserve. We included a clustering effect of 177 districts in generalized estimating equations approach. A secondary analysis was conducted restricting the analyses to Seoul residents to examine the association in highly urbanized setting.

Results: The mean age was 36.6 ± 4.2 years and AMH level was 3.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL in the study population. Average AMH ratio was 0.8 ± 0.7 and low AMH was observed in 10.3% of women (n=235). The average concentration of six air pollutants was not different between the normal ovarian reserve and low AMH groups for all averaging periods. In multivariable models, an interquartile range (IQR)-increase in 1 month-average PM was associated with decrease in AMH ratio among total population (β= -0.06, 95% confidence interval: -0.11, 0.00). When we restrict our analysis to those living in Seoul, IQR-increases in 1 and 12 month-average PM were associated with 3% (95% CI: -0.07, 0.00) and 10% (95% CI: -0.18, -0.01) decrease in AMH ratio. The ORs per IQR increase in the six air pollutants were close to null in total population and Seoul residents.

Conclusions: In a cohort of infertile Korean women, there was a suggestive evidence of the negative association between ambient PM concentration and ovarian reserve, highlighting the potential adverse impact of air pollution on women's fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-021-00942-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879617PMC
February 2021

Eif2b3 mutants recapitulate phenotypes of vanishing white matter disease and validate novel disease alleles in zebrafish.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr;30(5):331-342

Department of Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.

Leukodystrophy with vanishing white matter (VWM), also called Childhood Ataxia with Central Nervous System Hypomyelination, is caused by mutations in the subunits of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor, EIF2B1, EIF2B2, EIF2B3, EIF2B4 or EIF2B5. However, little is known regarding the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms, and there is no curative treatment for VWM. In this study, we established the first EIF2B3 animal model for VWM disease in vertebrates by CRISPR mutagenesis of the highly conserved zebrafish ortholog eif2b3. Using CRISPR, we generated two mutant alleles in zebrafish eif2b3, 10- and 16-bp deletions, respectively. The eif2b3 mutants showed defects in myelin development and glial cell differentiation, and increased expression of genes in the induced stress response pathway. Interestingly, we also found ectopic angiogenesis and increased VEGF expression. Ectopic angiogenesis in the eif2b3 mutants was reduced by the administration of VEGF receptor inhibitor SU5416. Using the eif2b3 mutant zebrafish model together with in silico protein modeling analysis, we demonstrated the pathogenicity of 18 reported mutations in EIF2B3, as well as of a novel variant identified in a 19-month-old female patient: c.503 T > C (p.Leu168Pro). In summary, our zebrafish mutant model of eif2b3 provides novel insights into VWM pathogenesis and offers rapid functional analysis of human EIF2B3 gene variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab033DOI Listing
April 2021

Deleting from the cerebellum rather than its neuronal subtypes causes a delay in motor learning in mice.

Elife 2021 Jan 26;10. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, United States.

Rett syndrome is a devastating childhood neurological disorder caused by mutations in . Of the many symptoms, motor deterioration is a significant problem for patients. In mice, deleting from the cortex or basal ganglia causes motor dysfunction, hypoactivity, and tremor, which are abnormalities observed in patients. Little is known about the function of in the cerebellum, a brain region critical for motor function. Here we show that deleting from the cerebellum, but not from its neuronal subtypes, causes a delay in motor learning that is overcome by additional training. We observed irregular firing rates of Purkinje cells and altered heterochromatin architecture within the cerebellum of knockout mice. These findings demonstrate that the motor deficits present in Rett syndrome arise, in part, from cerebellar dysfunction. For Rett syndrome and other neurodevelopmental disorders, our results highlight the importance of understanding which brain regions contribute to disease phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.64833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837679PMC
January 2021

Platelet Receptor-Ligand Stochasticity Drives Fluidization of Blood Clots.

Authors:
Oleg V Kim

Biophys J 2021 01;120(2):187-188

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2020.12.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840438PMC
January 2021

Harnessing adipose‑derived stem cells to release specialized secretome for the treatment of hepatitis B.

Int J Mol Med 2021 03 15;47(3). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Republic of Korea.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the function of repairing damaged tissue, which is known to be mediated by the secretome, the collection of secretory materials shed from MSCs. Adjusting the culture conditions of MSCs can lead to a significant difference in the composition of the secretome. It was hypothesized that pre‑sensitization of MSCs with specific disease‑causing agents could harness MSCs to release the therapeutic materials specialized for the disease. To validate this hypothesis, the present study aimed to generate a 'disease‑specific secretome' for hepatitis caused by hepatitis B virus using hepatitis BX antigen (HBx) as a disease‑causing material. Secretary materials (HBx‑IS) were collected following the stimulation of adipose‑derived stem cells (ASCs) with 100‑fold diluted culture media of AML12 hepatocytes that had been transfected with pcDNA‑HBx for 24 h. An animal model of hepatitis B was generated by injecting HBx into mice, and the mice were subsequently intravenously administered a control secretome (CS) or HBx‑IS. Compared with the CS injection, the HBx‑IS injection significantly reduced the serum levels of interleukin‑6 and tumor necrosis factor‑α (pro‑inflammatory cytokines). Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry of the liver specimens revealed that the HBx‑IS injection led to a higher expression of liver regeneration‑related markers, including hepatocyte growth factor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a lower expression of pro‑apoptotic markers, such as cleaved caspase 3 and Bim in mouse livers, and a lower expression of pro‑inflammatory markers (F4/80 and CD68) compared to the CS injection. HBx‑IS exhibited higher liver regenerative, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic properties, particularly in the mouse model of hepatitis B compared to CS. This suggests that the secretome obtained by stimulating ASCs with disease‑causing agents may have a more prominent therapeutic effect on the specific disease than the naïve secretome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.4848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834954PMC
March 2021

Cohort profile: National Investigation of Birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 (NICKs-2008).

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

Background: An adequate large-scale pediatric cohort based on nationwide administrative data is lacking in Korea.

Purpose: This study established the National Investigation of Birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 (NICKs-2008) based on data from a nationwide population-based health screening program and data on healthcare utilization for children.

Methods: The NICKs-2008 study consisted of the Korean National Health Insurance System (NHIS) and the National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children (NHSPIC) databases comprising children born in 2008 (n = 469,248) and 2009 (n = 448,459) in the Republic of Korea. The NHIS database contains data on age, sex, residential area, income, healthcare utilization (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes, procedure codes, and drug classification codes), and healthcare providers. The NHSPIC consists of seven screening rounds. These screening sessions comprised physical examination, developmental screening (rounds 2-7), a general health questionnaire, and age-specific anticipatory guidance.

Results: During the 10-year follow-up, 2,718 children (0.3%) died, including more boys than girls (hazard ratio = 1.145, p < 0.001). A total of 848,048 children participated in at least one of the seven rounds of the NHSPIC, while 96,046 participated in all seven screening programs. A total of 823 infants (0.1%) weighed less than 1000 g, 3177 (0.4%) weighed 1000-1499 g, 37,166 (4.4%) weighed 1500-2499 g, 773,081 (91.4%) weighed 2500-4000 g, and 32,016 (5.1%) weighed over 4000 g. There were 23,404 (5.5%) premature babies in 2008 compared to 23,368 (5.6%) in 2009. The developmental screening test indicated appropriate development in 95-98% of children, follow-up requirements for 1-4% of children, and recommendations for further evaluation for 1% of children.

Conclusion: The NICKs-2008, which integrates data from the NHIS and NHSPIC databases, can be used to analyze disease onset prior to hospitalization based on information such as lifestyle, eating habits, and risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.01284DOI Listing
January 2021

Application of self-assembly peptides targeting the mitochondria as a novel treatment for sorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):874. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

Currently, there is no appropriate treatment option for patients with sorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Meanwhile, pronounced anticancer activities of newly-developed mitochondria-accumulating self-assembly peptides (Mito-FF) have been demonstrated. This study intended to determine the anticancer effects of Mito-FF against sorafenib-resistant Huh7 (Huh7-R) cells. Compared to sorafenib, Mito-FF led to the generation of relatively higher amounts of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as the greater reduction in the expression of antioxidant enzymes (P < 0.05). Mito-FF was found to significantly promote cell apoptosis while inhibiting cell proliferation of Huh7-R cells. Mito-FF also reduces the expression of antioxidant enzymes while significantly increasing mitochondrial ROS in Huh7-R cells. The pro-apoptotic effect of Mito-FFs for Huh7-R cells is possibly caused by their up-regulation of mitochondrial ROS, which is caused by the destruction of the mitochondria of HCC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79536-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806888PMC
January 2021

Mismatches Between the Number of Installed Automated External Defibrillators and the Annual Rate of Automated External Defibrillator Use Among Places.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Apr 13;36(2):183-188. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea.

Aim: In South Korea, the law concerning automated external defibrillators (AEDs) states that they should be installed in specific places including apartment complexes. This study was conducted to investigate the current status and effectiveness of installation and usage of AEDs in South Korea.

Methods: Installation and usage of AEDs in South Korea is registered in the National Emergency Medical Center (NEMC) database. Compared were the installed number, usage, and annual rate of AED use according to places of installation. All data were obtained from the NEMC database.

Results: After excluding AEDs installed in ambulances or fire engines (n = 2,003), 36,498 AEDs were registered in South Korea from 1998 through 2018. A higher number of AEDs were installed in places required by the law compared with those not required by the law (20,678 [56.7%] vs. 15,820 [43.3%]; P <.001). Among them, 11,318 (31.0%) AEDs were installed in apartment complexes. The overall annual rate of AED use was 0.38% (95% CI, 0.33-0.44). The annual rate of AED use was significantly higher in places not required by the law (0.62% [95% CI, 0.52-0.72] versus 0.21% [95% CI, 0.16-0.25]; P <.001). The annual rate of AED use in apartment complexes was 0.13% (95% CI, 0.08-0.17).

Conclusion: There were significant mismatches between the number of installed AEDs and the annual rate of AED use among places. To optimize the benefit of AEDs in South Korea, changes in the policy for selecting AED placement are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X20001508DOI Listing
April 2021