Publications by authors named "Kiel Peck"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biodistribution of unmodified cardiosphere-derived cell extracellular vesicles using single RNA tracing.

J Extracell Vesicles 2022 Jan;11(1):e12178

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potent signalling mediators. Although interest in EV translation is ever-increasing, development efforts are hampered by the inability to reliably assess the uptake of EVs and their RNA cargo. Here, we establish a novel qPCR-based method for the detection of unmodified EVS using an RNA Tracer (DUST). In this proof-of-concept study we use a human-specific Y RNA-derived small RNA (YsRNA) we dub "NT4" that is enriched in cardiosphere-derived cell small EVs (CDC-sEVs). The assay is robust, sensitive, and reproducible. Intravenously administered CDC-sEVs accumulated primarily in the heart on a per mg basis. Cardiac injury enhanced EV uptake in the heart, liver, and brain. Inhibition of EV docking by heparin suppressed uptake variably, while inhibition of endocytosis attenuated uptake in all organs. In vitro, EVs were uptaken more efficiently by macrophages, endothelial cells, and cardiac fibroblasts compared to cardiomyocytes. These findings demonstrate the utility of DUST to assess uptake of EVs in vivo and in vitro.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jev2.12178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8743874PMC
January 2022

Extracellular Vesicles Secreted by TDO2-Augmented Fibroblasts Regulate Pro-inflammatory Response in Macrophages.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 22;9:733354. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted lipid bilayer vesicles that mediate cell to cell communication and are effectors of cell therapy. Previous work has shown that canonical Wnt signaling is necessary for cell and EV therapeutic potency. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) is a target gene of canonical Wnt signaling. Augmenting TDO2 in therapeutically inert fibroblasts endows their EVs with immunomodulatory capacity including attenuating inflammatory signaling in macrophages. Transcriptomic analysis showed that macrophages treated with EVs from fibroblasts overexpressing TDO2 had blunted inflammatory response compared to control fibroblast EVs. , EVs from TDO2-overexpressing fibroblasts preserved cardiac function. Taken together, these results describe the role of a major canonical Wnt-target gene (TDO2) in driving the therapeutic potency of cells and their EVs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.733354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8571098PMC
October 2021

Engineered Fibroblast Extracellular Vesicles Attenuate Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis in Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 23;9:733158. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease for which no curative treatment exists. We have previously engineered dermal fibroblasts to produce extracellular vesicles with tissue reparative properties dubbed activated specialized tissue effector extracellular vesicles (ASTEX). Here, we investigate the therapeutic utility of ASTEX and in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. RNA sequencing demonstrates that ASTEX are enriched in micro-RNAs (miRs) cargo compared with EVs from untransduced dermal fibroblast EVs (DF-EVs). Treating primary macrophages with ASTEX reduced interleukin (IL)6 expression and increased IL10 expression compared with DF-EV-exposed macrophages. Furthermore, exposure of human lung fibroblasts or vascular endothelial cells to ASTEX reduced expression of smooth muscle actin, a hallmark of myofibroblast differentiation (respectively). , intratracheal administration of ASTEX in naïve healthy mice demonstrated a favorable safety profile with no changes in body weight, lung weight to body weight, fibrotic burden, or histological score 3 weeks postexposure. In an acute phase (short-term) bleomycin model of lung injury, ASTEX reduced lung weight to body weight, IL6 expression, and circulating monocytes. In a long-term setting, ASTEX improved survival and reduced fibrotic content in lung tissue. These results suggest potential immunomodulatory and antifibrotic properties of ASTEX in lung injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.733158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512699PMC
September 2021

Myofilament Phosphorylation in Stem Cell Treated Diastolic Heart Failure.

Circ Res 2021 12 13;129(12):1125-1140. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Rationale: Phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins has been implicated in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); such changes may contribute to diastolic dysfunction by altering contractility, cardiac stiffness, Ca-sensitivity, and mechanosensing. Treatment with cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) restores normal diastolic function, attenuates fibrosis and inflammation, and improves survival in a rat HFpEF model.

Objective: Phosphorylation changes that underlie HFpEF and those reversed by CDC therapy, with a focus on the sarcomeric subproteome were analyzed.

Methods And Results: Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet, with echocardiographically verified diastolic dysfunction, were randomly assigned to either intracoronary CDCs or placebo. Dahl salt-sensitive rats receiving low salt diet served as controls. Protein and phosphorylated Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues from left ventricular tissue were quantified by mass spectrometry. HFpEF hearts exhibited extensive hyperphosphorylation with 98% of the 529 significantly changed phospho-sites increased compared with control. Of those, 39% were located within the sarcomeric subproteome, with a large group of proteins located or associated with the Z-disk. CDC treatment partially reverted the hyperphosphorylation, with 85% of the significantly altered 76 residues hypophosphorylated. Bioinformatic upstream analysis of the differentially phosphorylated protein residues revealed PKC as the dominant putative regulatory kinase. PKC isoform analysis indicated increases in PKC α, β, and δ concentration, whereas CDC treatment led to a reversion of PKCβ. Use of PKC isoform specific inhibition and overexpression of various PKC isoforms strongly suggests that PKCβ is the dominant kinase involved in hyperphosphorylation in HFpEF and is altered with CDC treatment.

Conclusions: Increased protein phosphorylation at the Z-disk is associated with diastolic dysfunction, with PKC isoforms driving most quantified phosphorylation changes. Because CDCs reverse the key abnormalities in HFpEF and selectively reverse PKCβ upregulation, PKCβ merits being classified as a potential therapeutic target in HFpEF, a disease notoriously refractory to medical intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.316311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8666591PMC
December 2021

Extracellular vesicles derived from cardiosphere-derived cells as a potential antishock therapeutic.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 08;91(2S Suppl 2):S81-S88

From the Coagulation and Blood Research (Blood) (T.C.C., X.W., J.D.K., J.G.-M., C.L.S., B.L., A.P.C., J.A.B.), United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, San Antonio, Texas; Capricor Therapeutics Institute (J.J.M., K.A.P., L.R.-B., N.A.A., L.S.M.), Beverly Hills, California; Department of Biological Chemistry (S.J.G.), Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland; and Department of Biomedical Engineering (C.R.R.), The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from cardiosphere-derived cells (CDC-EVs) are coming to light as a unique cell-free therapeutic. Because of their novelty, however, there still exist prominent gaps in knowledge regarding their therapeutic potential. Herein the therapeutic potential of CDC-EVs in a rat model of acute traumatic coagulopathy induced by multiple injuries and hemorrhagic shock is outlined.

Methods: Extracellular vesicle surface expression of procoagulant molecules (tissue factor and phosphatidylserine) was evaluated by flow cytometry. Extracellular vesicle thrombogenicity was tested using calibrated thrombogram, and clotting parameters were assessed using a flow-based adhesion model simulating blood flow over a collagen-expressing surface. The therapeutic efficacy of EVs was then determined in a rat model of acute traumatic coagulopathy induced by multiple injuries and hemorrhagic shock.

Results: Extracellular vesicles isolated from cardiosphere-derived cells are not functionally procoagulant and do not interfere with platelet function. In a rat model of multiple injuries and hemorrhagic shock, early administration of EVs significantly reduced the elevation of lactate and creatinine and did not significantly enhance coagulopathy in rats with acute traumatic coagulopathy.

Conclusion: The results of this study are of great relevance to the development of EV products for use in combat casualty care, as our studies show that CDC-EVs have the potential to be an antishock therapeutic if administered early. These results demonstrate that research using CDC-EVs in trauma care needs to be considered and expanded beyond their reported cardioprotective benefits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000003218DOI Listing
August 2021

Cardiosphere-derived cells, with and without a biological scaffold, stimulate myogenesis and recovery of muscle function in mice with volumetric muscle loss.

Biomaterials 2021 07 27;274:120852. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA. Electronic address:

Extremity trauma to military personnel and civilians commonly results in volumetric muscle loss (VML), leaving patients suffering chronic physical disability. Biomaterial-based technologies such as extracellular matrices (ECMs) are currently in clinical testing for soft tissue repair, but, in preclinical models of VML, the efficacy of ECMs is equivocal. In a murine model of VML, we investigated the effects of ECM and/or cardiosphere-derived cell (CDC) therapy; the latter improves skeletal myogenesis and muscle function in mdx mice, so we reasoned that CDCs may exert disease-modifying bioactivity in VML. While ECM alone improves functional recovery, CDCs have no additive or synergistic benefits with ECM transplantation following VML injury. However, CDCs alone are sufficient to promote muscle recovery, leading to sustained increases in muscle function throughout the study period. Notably, CDCs stimulate satellite cell accumulation in the muscle defect area and hasten myogenic progression (as evidenced by qPCR gene expression profiling), leading to global increases in myofiber numbers and anterior muscle compartment volume. Together, these data implicate CDCs as a viable therapeutic candidate to regenerate skeletal muscle injured by VML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120852DOI Listing
July 2021

Mechanistic and therapeutic distinctions between cardiosphere-derived cell and mesenchymal stem cell extracellular vesicle non-coding RNA.

Sci Rep 2021 04 21;11(1):8666. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Capricor Therapeutics, Inc., 8840 Wilshire Blvd., Beverly Hills, CA, 90211, USA.

Cell therapy limits ischemic injury following myocardial infarction (MI) by preventing cell death, modulating the immune response, and promoting tissue regeneration. The therapeutic efficacy of cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is associated with extracellular vesicle (EV) release. Prior head-to-head comparisons have shown CDCs to be more effective than MSCs in MI models. Despite differences in cell origin, it is unclear why EVs from different adult stem cell populations elicit differences in therapeutic efficacy. Here, we compare EVs derived from multiple human MSC and CDC donors using diverse in vitro and in vivo assays. EV membrane protein and non-coding RNA composition are highly specific to the parent cell type; for example, miR-10b is enriched in MSC-EVs relative to CDC-EVs, while Y RNA fragments follow the opposite pattern. CDC-EVs enhance the Arg1/Nos2 ratio in macrophages in vitro and reduce MI size more than MSC-EVs and suppress inflammation during acute peritonitis in vivo. Thus, CDC-EVs are distinct from MSC-EVs, confer immunomodulation, and protect the host against ischemic myocardial injury and acute inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87939-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060398PMC
April 2021

Small molecule inhibitors and culture conditions enhance therapeutic cell and EV potency via activation of beta-catenin and suppression of THY1.

Nanomedicine 2021 04 13;33:102347. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Primary cell therapy continues to face significant hurdles to therapeutic translation including the inherent variations that exist from donor to donor, batch to batch, and scale-up driven modifications to the manufacturing process. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are stromal/progenitor cells with clinically demonstrated tissue reparative capabilities. Mechanistic investigations have identified canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling as a therapeutic potency marker, and THY1 (CD90) expression as inversely correlated with potency. Here we demonstrate that the cardiosphere formation process increases β-catenin levels and enriches for therapeutic miR content in the extracellular vesicles of these cells, namely miR-146a and miR-22. We further find that loss of potency is correlated with impaired cardiosphere formation. Finally, our data show that small GSK3β inhibitors including CHIR, and BIO and "pro-canonical Wnt" culturing conditions can rescue β-catenin signaling and reduce CD90 expression. These findings identify strategies that could be used to maintain CDC potency and therapeutic consistency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2020.102347DOI Listing
April 2021

Exosomes isolated from human cardiosphere-derived cells attenuate pressure overload-induced right ventricular dysfunction.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 09 1;162(3):975-986.e6. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md. Electronic address:

Objectives: Cardiosphere-derived cell (CDC) transplantation has been shown to attenuate right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. However, live cell transplantation requires complex handling protocols that may limit its use. Exosomes are protein and nucleic acid-containing nanovesicles secreted by many cell types, including stem cells, which have been shown to exert a cardioprotective effect comparable with whole cells following myocardial injury. We therefore sought to evaluate 3 human CDC-derived exosome preparations in a juvenile porcine model of acute pressure-induced RV dysfunction.

Methods: Twenty immunocompetent juvenile Yorkshire pigs (7-10 kg) underwent pulmonary arterial banding followed by intramyocardial test agent administration: control (n = 6), XO-1 (n = 4), XO-2 (n = 5), and XO-3 (n = 5). Animals were monitored for 28 days postoperatively with periodic phlebotomy and echocardiography, followed by extensive postmortem gross and histopathologic analysis.

Results: All animals survived the banding operation. One died suddenly on postoperative day 1; another was excluded due to nonstandard response to banding. Of the remaining animals, there were no clinical concerns. RV fractional area change was improved in the XO-1 and XO-2 groups relative to controls at postoperative day 28. On histologic analysis, exosome-treated groups exhibited decreased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with respect to controls.

Conclusions: Human CDC-derived exosome administration was associated with significant preservation of RV systolic function in the setting of acute pressure overload. Such acellular preparations may prove superior to whole cells and may represent a novel therapeutic approach to clinical myocardial injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.06.154DOI Listing
September 2021

Targeting extracellular vesicles to injured tissue using membrane cloaking and surface display.

J Nanobiotechnology 2018 Aug 30;16(1):61. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd., Davis Building, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are nano-sized, membrane-bound vesicles shed by most eukaryotic cells studied to date. EVs play key signaling roles in cellular development, cancer metastasis, immune modulation and tissue regeneration. Attempts to modify exosomes to increase their targeting efficiency to specific tissue types are still in their infancy. Here we describe an EV membrane anchoring platform termed "cloaking" to directly embed tissue-specific antibodies or homing peptides on EV membrane surfaces ex vivo for enhanced vesicle uptake in cells of interest. The cloaking system consists of three components: DMPE phospholipid membrane anchor, polyethylene glycol spacer and a conjugated streptavidin platform molecule, to which any biotinylated molecule can be coupled for EV decoration.

Results: We demonstrate the utility of membrane surface engineering and biodistribution tracking with this technology along with targeting EVs for enhanced uptake in cardiac fibroblasts, myoblasts and ischemic myocardium using combinations of fluorescent tags, tissue-targeting antibodies and homing peptide surface cloaks. We compare cloaking to a complementary approach, surface display, in which parental cells are engineered to secrete EVs with fusion surface targeting proteins.

Conclusions: EV targeting can be enhanced both by cloaking and by surface display; the former entails chemical modification of preformed EVs, while the latter requires genetic modification of the parent cells. Reduction to practice of the cloaking approach, using several different EV surface modifications to target distinct cells and tissues, supports the notion of cloaking as a platform technology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-018-0388-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116387PMC
August 2018

A comprehensive method for identification of suitable reference genes in extracellular vesicles.

J Extracell Vesicles 2017 9;6(1):1347019. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Capricor Therapeutics Institute, Beverly Hills, CA, USA.

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is one of the most sensitive, economical and widely used methods for evaluating gene expression. However, the utility of this method continues to be undermined by a number of challenges including normalization using appropriate reference genes. The need to develop tailored and effective strategies is further underscored by the burgeoning field of extracellular vesicle (EV) biology. EVs contain unique signatures of small RNAs including microRNAs (miRs). In this study we develop and validate a comprehensive strategy for identifying highly stable reference genes in a therapeutically relevant cell type, cardiosphere-derived cells. Data were analysed using the four major approaches for reference gene evaluation: NormFinder, GeNorm, BestKeeper and the Delta Ct method. The weighted geometric mean of all of these methods was obtained for the final ranking. Analysis of RNA sequencing identified miR-101-3p, miR-23a-3p and a previously identified EV reference gene, miR-26a-5p. Analysis of a chip-based method (NanoString) identified miR-23a, miR-217 and miR-379 as stable candidates. RT-qPCR validation revealed that the mean of miR-23a-3p, miR-101-3p and miR-26a-5p was the most stable normalization strategy. Here, we demonstrate that a comprehensive approach of a diverse data set of conditions using multiple algorithms reliably identifies stable reference genes which will increase the utility of gene expression evaluation of therapeutically relevant EVs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20013078.2017.1347019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5549828PMC
August 2017
-->