Publications by authors named "Kidsadagon Pringproa"

35 Publications

Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Collected from Outbreaks in Northern Thailand in 2021.

Vet Sci 2022 Apr 18;9(4). Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Ruminant Clinic, Department of Food Animal Clinics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Understanding molecular epidemiology is essential for the improvement of lumpy skin disease (LSD) eradication and control strategies. The objective of this study was to perform a molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) isolated from dairy cows presenting LSD-like clinical signs in northern Thailand. The skin nodules were collected from 26 LSD-suspected cows involved in six outbreaks during the period from July to September of 2021. LSDVs were confirmed from clinical samples using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR-positive samples were subsequently amplified and sequenced using a G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) gene for molecular characterization and phylogenetic analyses. All 26 samples were positive for LSDV by PCR. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 24 LSDV isolates obtained from cattle in northern Thailand were closely related to other LSDV sequences acquired from Asia (China, Hong Kong, and Vietnam). On the other hand, two LSDV isolates of the cows presenting LSD-like clinical signs after vaccination were clustered along with LSDV Neethling-derived vaccines. The outcomes of this research will be beneficial in developing effective control strategies for LSDV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9040194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9025784PMC
April 2022

Transcriptome analysis of infected Crandell Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells by canine parvovirus type 2c Laotian isolates.

Gene 2022 May 16;822:146324. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand; Research Center of Producing and Development of Products and Innovations for Animal Health and Production, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand. Electronic address:

The advent of RNA sequencing technology provides insight into the dynamic nature of tremendous transcripts within Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells in response to canine parvovirus (CPV-2c) infection. A total of 1,603 genes displayed differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 789 up-regulated genes and 814 downregulated genes in the infected cells. Gene expression profiles have shown a subtle pattern of defense mechanism and immune response to CPV through significant DEGs when extensively examined via Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analysis. Prospective GO analysis was performed and identified several enriched GO biological process terms with significant participating roles in the immune system process and defense response to virus pathway. A Gene network was constructed using the 22 most significantly enriched genes of particular interests in defense response to virus pathways to illustrate the key pathways. Eleven genes (C1QBP, CD40, HYAL2, IFNB1, IFNG, IL12B, IL6, IRF3, LSM14A, MAVS, NLRC5) were identified, which are directly related to the defense response to the virus. Results of transcriptome profiling permit us to understand the heterogeneity of DEGs during in vitro experimental study of CPV infection, reflecting a unique transcriptome signature for the CPV virus. Our findings also demonstrate a distinct scenario of enhanced CPV responses in CRFK cells for viral clearance that involved multistep and perplexity of biological processes. Collectively, our data have given a fundamental role in anti-viral immunity as our highlights of this study, thus providing outlooks on future research priorities to be important in studying CPV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2022.146324DOI Listing
May 2022

Potentiality of Melittin-Loaded Niosomal Vesicles Against Vancomycin-Intermediate and Staphylococcal Skin Infection.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 16;16:7639-7661. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: is an important human pathogen, especially causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Over the decades, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains have often become life-threatening. Consequently, exploration and development of competent approaches to combat these serious circumstances are urgently required.

Methods: The antibacterial activity of melittin (Mel) on , methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and clinical isolates of vancomycin-intermediate (VISA) was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and time-killing assays. The localization of Mel on the bacterial cell was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and its effect on the membrane was indicated based on propidium iodide uptake. The non-ionic surfactant vesicle (NISV) or niosome nanocarrier was established for Mel loading (Mel-loaded NISV) by the thin-film hydration method. Physicochemical and in vitro biological properties of Mel-loaded NISVs were characterized. The cellular uptake of Mel-loaded NISVs was evaluated by holotomography analysis. In addition, an ex vivo study was conducted on a porcine ear skin model to assess the permeation ability of Mel-loaded NISVs and their potential to inhibit bacterial skin infection.

Results: The effective inhibitory activity of Mel on skin pathogens was demonstrated. Among the tested strains, VISA was most susceptible to Mel. Regarding to its function, Mel targeted the bacterial cell envelope and disrupted cell membrane integrity. Mel-loaded NISVs were successfully fabricated with a nano-size of 120-200 nm and entrapment efficiency of greater than 90%. Moreover, Mel-loaded NISVs were taken up and accumulated in the intracellular space. Meanwhile, Mel was released and distributed throughout the cytosol and nucleus. Mel-loaded NISVs efficiently inhibited the growth of bacteria, particularly MRSA and VISA. Importantly, they not only penetrated epidermal and dermal skin layers, but also reduced the bacterial growth in infected skin.

Conclusion: Mel-loaded NISVs have a great potential to exhibit antibacterial activity. Therapeutic application of Mel-loaded NISVs could be further developed as an alternative platform for the treatment of skin infection via dermal and transdermal delivery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S325901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8606986PMC
November 2021

Clinical characteristics of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) cases in Asian elephants () in Thailand during 2006-2019.

Vet Q 2021 Dec;41(1):268-279

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Center of Elephant and Wildlife Research, Chiang Mai University (FVM-CMU), Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus causes a hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) that is a major cause of death in juvenile Asian elephants with EEHV1 and EEHV4 being the most prevalent.

Aim: To perform a retrospective clinical data analysis.

Methods: Records of a total of 103 cases in Thailand confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood and/or tissue samples.

Results: The severity of clinical signs varied among EEHV subtypes. EEHV1A was the most prevalent with 58%, followed by EEHV4 with 34%, EEHV1B with 5.8% and EEHV1&4 co-infection with 1.9%. Overall case fatality rate was 66%. When compared among subtypes, 100% case fatality rate was associated with EEHV1&4 co-infection, 83% with EEHV1B, 75% with EEHV1A, and the lowest at 40% for EEHV4. Calves 2- to 4-year old were in the highest age risk group and exhibited more severe clinical signs with the highest mortality. Majority of cases were found in weaned or trained claves and higher number of cases were observed in rainy season. A gender predilection could not be demonstrated. Severely affected elephants presented with thrombocytopenia, depletion of monocytes, lymphocytes and heterophils, a monocyte:heterophil (M:H) ratio lower than 2.37, hypoproteinemia (both albumin and globulin), severe grade of heterophil toxicity, and low red blood cell counts and pack cell volumes. Survival was not affected by antiviral drug treatment in the severely compromised animals.

Conclusion: Early detection by laboratory testing and aggressive application of therapies comprising of supportive and anti-viral treatment can improve survival outcomes of this disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2021.1980633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475116PMC
December 2021

Effect of Ethanolic Fraction on In Vitro Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

Vet Sci 2021 Jun 9;8(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Animal and Aquatic Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major epidemic in pig production, leading to economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. The use of medicinal plants with antiviral properties might be useful help to prevent and control PRRSV outbreaks. (CS) heartwood is an important herbal ingredient used in Thai folk medicine, possessing various biological activities, including antiviral activity. The present study focuses on the in vitro antiviral activity against PRRSV of a semi-purified fraction of ethanolic CS crude extract using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Qualification of the fractions illustrating positive antiviral activity was carried out with liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The preparative chromatography separated the crude extract into six consecutive fractions, among which the first fraction showed potential antiviral activity by inhibiting PRRSV replication in a MARC-145 monolayer (virus titer 2.75 median tissue culture infective dose (TCID)/mL (log) vs. 9.50 median log10 TCID/mL of the control) at 72 h post-infection, and this fraction included byakangelicin, brazilin, naringenin, and brazilein. These results provide useful information for further study to effectively develop the CS bioactive antiviral compounds against PRRSV as a feed additive or veterinary drug in the pig industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229879PMC
June 2021

Pathogenesis of hemorrhagic disease caused by elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

Sci Rep 2021 06 21;11(1):12998. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) is an acute fatal disease in elephants. Despite the fact that the underlying pathogenesis of EEHV-HD has been proposed, it remains undetermined as to what mechanisms drive these hemorrhagic and edematous lesions. In the present study, we have investigated and explained the pathogenesis of acute EEHV-HD using blood profiles of EEHV-HD and EEHV-infected cases, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, special stains, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). It was found that EEHV genomes were predominantly detected in various internal organs of EEHV-HD cases. Damage to endothelial cells, vasculitis and vascular thrombosis of the small blood vessels were also predominantly observed. Increases in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecules-1 (PECAM-1)- and von Willebrand factor (vWF)-immunolabeling positive cells were significantly noticed in injured blood vessels. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was significantly up-regulated in EEHV-HD cases when compared to EEHV-negative controls. We have hypothesized that this could be attributed to the systemic inflammation and disruption of small blood vessels, followed by the disseminated intravascular coagulopathy that enhanced hemorrhagic and edematous lesions in EEHV-HD cases. Our findings have brought attention to the potential application of effective preventive and therapeutic protocols to treat EEHV infection in Asian elephants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92393-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217522PMC
June 2021

Prevalence of autoantibodies that bind to kidney tissues in cats and association risk with antibodies to feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia.

J Vet Sci 2021 May;22(3):e38

Department of Companion Animal and Wildlife Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Background: The feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia (FVRCP) vaccine, prepared from viruses grown in the Crandell-Rees feline kidney cell line, can induce antibodies to cross-react with feline kidney tissues.

Objectives: This study surveyed the prevalence of autoantibodies to feline kidney tissues and their association with the frequency of FVRCP vaccination.

Methods: Serum samples and kidneys were collected from 156 live and 26 cadaveric cats. Antibodies that bind to kidney tissues and antibodies to the FVRCP antigen were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and kidney-bound antibody patterns were investigated by examining immunofluorescence. Proteins recognized by antibodies were identified by Western blot analysis.

Results: The prevalences of autoantibodies that bind to kidney tissues in cats were 41% and 13% by ELISA and immunofluorescence, respectively. Kidney-bound antibodies were observed at interstitial cells, apical border, and cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubules; the antibodies were bound to proteins with molecular weights of 40, 47, 38, and 20 kDa. There was no direct link between vaccination and anti-kidney antibodies, but positive antibodies to kidney tissues were significantly associated with the anti-FVRCP antibody. The odds ratio or association in finding the autoantibody in cats with the antibody to FVRCP was 2.8 times higher than that in cats without the antibody to FVRCP.

Conclusions: These preliminary results demonstrate an association between anti-FVRCP and anti-cat kidney tissues. However, an increase in the risk of inducing kidney-bound antibodies by repeat vaccinations could not be shown directly. It will be interesting to expand the sample size and follow-up on whether these autoantibodies can lead to kidney function impairment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2021.22.e38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170220PMC
May 2021

Immune response in dairy cattle against combined foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicemia vaccine under field conditions.

BMC Vet Res 2021 May 5;17(1):186. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Veterinary Bioscience and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, 50100, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and Haemorrhagic septicemia (HS) are two important diseases that are known to have caused significant economic losses to the cattle industry. Accordingly, vaccinations have been recognized as an efficient method to control and prevent both of the above-mentioned diseases. This study aimed to determine the immune response to FMD virus antigens and the recombinant outer membrane protein of HS (rOmpH) of Pasteurella multocida in cattle administered as a combination vaccine and compare antibody titers with the two vaccines given independently, under field conditions. Dairy cattle were divided into three groups. Each group was immunized with different vaccine types according to the vaccination program employed in this study. Antibody responses were determined by indirect ELISA, liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA) and viral neutralization test (VNT). Furthermore, the cellular immune responses were measured by lymphocyte proliferation assay (LPA).

Results: The overall antibody titers to HS and FMDV were above cut-off values for the combined FMD-HS vaccine in this study.The mean antibody titer against HS after the first immunization in the combined FMD-HS vaccine groups was higher than in the HS vaccine groups. However, no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between groups. Likewise, the antibody titer to the FMDV serotypes O/TAI/189/87 and Asia 1/TAI/85 determined by LPB-ELISA in the combined vaccine were not statistically significantly different when compared to the FMD vaccine groups. However, the mean VNT antibody titer of combined vaccine against serotype O was significantly higher than the VN titer of FMD vaccine groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, the LPA results showed that all vaccinated groups displayed significantly higher than the negative control (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, no differences in the lymphocyte responses were observed in comparisons between the groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: The combined FMD-HS vaccine formulated in this study could result in high both antibody and cellular immune responses without antigenic competition. Therefore, the combined FMD-HS vaccine can serve as an alternative vaccine against both HS and FMD in dairy cattle under field conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02889-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097834PMC
May 2021

Seroprevalence of the viral pig diseases among backyard pigs in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Prev Vet Med 2021 May 20;190:105330. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Veterinary Bioscience, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand. Electronic address:

The Participatory One-Health Disease Detection project (PODD) (www.cmonehealth.org) developed a health-based surveillance system with the local government of Chiang Mai community ownership that has been created a mobile application on smartphone for reporting an abnormal event, especially animal health. Previously, the PODD project has obtained a significant number of pig abnormal events. Therefore, there are likely to be some diseases that are currently circulating among backyard pigs. A cross-sectional serological study was undertaken to determine the risk factors for virus infection and prevalence of antibodies against the classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and influenza A virus (IAV) among backyard pigs in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Antibodies against the CSFV, PRRSV and PCV2 in backyard pigs were shown in swine level to be 14 % (95 % CI: 9-20), 14 % (95 % CI: 10-19), and 15 % (95 % CI: 8-23), respectively. For the household level, antibodies against the CSFV, PRRSV and PCV2 were found to be 23 % (95 % CI: 13-37), 22 % (95 % CI: 14-23), and 48 % (95 % CI: 32-63), respectively, while antibodies against IAV were shown to be absent. The use of artificial insemination for breeding purposes has been considered to be a significant risk factor associated with PRRSV (OR = 21.08, 95 % CI: 1.92-232.02) and CSFV (OR = 7.7, 95 % CI: 1.49-39.90) infections. Meanwhile, a risk factor for PCV2 infection was found to significantly involve the feeding of pigs with commercial feed (OR = 9.64, 95 % CI: 1.85-50.26). The findings of this study indicate that infections with CSFV, PRRSV, and PCV2 remain a significant concern and may have an impact on the growth performance of the backyard pigs. The lack of antibodies against the influenza A virus has indicated a low degree of interspecies transmission of influenza A among backyard pigs in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Effective control measures need to be prepared and implemented, and these should include the strict regulation of pig imports as a free source of the viruses along with effective animal quarantine, policies, and appropriate vaccination programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105330DOI Listing
May 2021

Consistency of dark skeletal muscles in Thai native black-bone chickens ().

PeerJ 2021 13;9:e10728. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Black-bone chickens () have become economically valuable, particularly in Southeast Asia as a consequence of popular traditional Chinese medical practices. Chickens with whole body organ darkness are considered to have higher value and are, therefore, more often requested. This research study aimed to investigate the darkness in 34 skeletal muscles of 10 Thai black-bone chickens (five males and five females). The evaluation of muscle darkness was done on two levels: (i) a color chart was employed at the macroanatomical level and (ii) by using melanin pigment to evaluate the structure at the microanatomy level. The results revealed that the accumulation of melanin pigment in the muscle tissue was observed in the endomysium, perimysium and epimysium. With respect to the results of the color chart test, iliotibialis lateralis pars preacetabularis, gastrocnemius, fibularis longus and puboischiofemoralis pars medialis showed the highest degree of darkness, while serratus profundus, pectoralis, iliotibialis cranialis, flexor cruris lateralis, and flexor cruris medialis appeared to be the least dark. In addition, we found that the highest and lowest amounts of melanin pigment was noted in the flexor carpi ulnaris and pectoralis ( < 0.05), respectively; however, there was no significant difference ( > 0.05) observed between the sexes. These results reveal that the 34 specified muscles of black-bone chickens showed uneven distribution of darkness due to the differing accumulations of melanin pigments of each muscle.This information may provide background knowledge for a better understanding of melanin accumulation and lead to breeding improvements in Thai black-bone chickens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811297PMC
January 2021

Attempt to Isolate Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) Using a Continuous Cell Culture System.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Dec 7;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection is known to cause acute fatal hemorrhagic disease, which has killed many young Asian elephants (). Until recently, in vitro isolation and propagation of the virus have not been successful. This study aimed to isolate and propagate EEHV using continuous cell lines derived from human and/or animal origins. Human cell lines, including EA. hy926, A549, U937, RKO, SW620, HCT-116 and HT-29, and animal cell lines, including CT26.CL25 and sp2/0-Ag14, were investigated in this study. Mixed frozen tissue samples of the heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney obtained from fatal EEHV1A- or EEHV4-infected cases were homogenized and used for cell inoculation. At 6, 24, 48 and 72 h post infection (hpi), EEHV-inoculated cells were observed for cytopathic effects (CPEs) or were assessed for EEHV infection by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) or quantitative PCR. The results were then compared to those of the mock-infected controls. Replication of EEHV in the tested cells was further determined by immunohistochemistry of cell pellets using anti-EEHV DNA polymerase antibodies or re-inoculated cells with supernatants obtained from passages 2 or 3 of the culture medium. The results reveal that no CPEs were observed in the tested cells, while immunolabeling for EEHV gB was observed in only U937 human myeloid leukemia cells. However, quantitation values of the EEHV terminase gene, as well as those of the EEHV gB or EEHV DNA polymerase proteins in U937 cells, gradually declined from passage 1 to passage 3. The findings of this study indicate that despite poor adaptation in U937 cells, this cell line displays promise and potential to be used for the isolation of EEHV1 and EEHV4 in vitro.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10122328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762348PMC
December 2020

Disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus).

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jan 24;83(1):108-111. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Veterinary Diagnostic Center, Chiang Mai University Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

This case study had focused on a male, 7-year-old Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) with a history of biting its tail and the development of skin masses around its inguinal area, prior to its death. Macroscopically, multiple firm white nodular masses of 0.5-5 cm in diameter were found in the subcutis of the inguinal area, and in the lungs, spleen and liver. Microscopically, masses in the skin, lungs and spleen were composed of neoplastic spindle cells admixed with mononuclear cells and multinucleated giant cells. The neoplastic cells were arranged in a sheet pattern. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for vimentin, Iba-1, CD 204 and Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, while the cells were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle actin. Based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical results, disseminated histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870405PMC
January 2021

A Preliminary Study of the Cross-Reactivity of Canine MAGE-A with Hominid Monoclonal Antibody 6C1 in Canine Mammary Gland Tumors: An Attractive Target for Cancer Diagnostic, Prognostic and Immunotherapeutic Development in Dogs.

Vet Sci 2020 Aug 10;7(3). Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Veterinary Bioscience and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A), a family of cancer/testis antigens, has been recognized as a potential target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. However, there has been very little information available with regard to this antigen in dogs. This study aimed to investigate the expression of MAGE-A in canine mammary gland tumors (CMTs) using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting with human monoclonal MAGE-A antibody 6C1. The present study has provided evidence of cross-reactivity of the canine MAGE-A expression with the human MAGE-A antibody in CMTs. The MAGE-A antigens were expressed in moderate- and high-grade malignant CMTs (22.22%, 2/9), but no expression was observed in benign CMTs. The immunohistochemical staining of canine MAGE antigen in CMT cells showed nuclear and nuclear-cytoplasmic expression patterns that may be involved with the mitotic cell division of tumor cells. Molecular weights of the canine MAGE-A antigen presented in this study were approximately 42-62 kDa, which were close to those of other previous studies involving humans and dogs. The findings on this protein in CMTs could supply valuable oncological knowledge for the development of novel diagnostic, prognostic and immunotherapeutic tumor markers in veterinary medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558761PMC
August 2020

In vivo characterization of target cells for acute elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

Sci Rep 2020 07 9;10(1):11402. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) is a dangerous viral infectious disease in young Asian elephants. Despite hypotheses underlying pathogenesis of the disease, it is unclear which cell types the virus targets during acute or persistent infections. This study investigated the tissues and target cells permissive for EEHV infection and replication in vivo. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the non-structural proteins of EEHV, DNA polymerase (EEHV DNAPol), were generated and validated. These were used to examine EEHV infection and replication in various tissues of acute EEHV-HD cases and compared to an EEHV-negative control. The results indicated that viral antigens were distributed throughout the epithelia of the alimentary tract and salivary glands, endothelia and smooth muscle cells, and monocytic lineage cells of the EEHV-infected elephants. Moreover, EEHV DNAPol proteins were also found in the bone marrow cells of the EEHV1A-HD and EEHV1A/4-HD cases. This study demonstrated for the first time the target cells that favor in vivo EEHV replication during acute infection, providing a promising foundation for investigating EEHV propagation in vitro.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68413-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347588PMC
July 2020

Identification of potential canine mammary tumour cell biomarkers using proteomic approach: Differences in protein profiles among tumour and normal mammary epithelial cells by two-dimensional electrophoresis-based mass spectrometry.

Vet Comp Oncol 2020 Dec 8;18(4):787-795. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Veterinary Bioscience and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are regarded as invasive with a high rate of recurrent and metastasis in intact female dogs. Tumour diagnosis, therefore, is an important step in predicting and monitoring tumour progression. This study was designed to identify protein expression on CMTs by employing a proteomic approach. The primary cell culture from benign mixed tumour, simple carcinoma, complex carcinoma and normal mammary gland were established, and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) was subsequently performed. The different spots on each sample type were collected for identification using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and transketolase (TKT) were identified in benign mixed tumour cells and complex carcinoma cells. In contrast, cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and pyruvate kinase PKM were identified in simple carcinoma cells. Moreover, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein tumour antigen was identified specifically in complex carcinoma cells. In addition, ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase platelet type and elongation factor 2 proteins were observed in benign cells. In conclusion, all expressed proteins in this study have been recognized for acting as their expression that differs from healthy mammary epithelial cells. Expectantly, this study identified the expressed proteins that might be useful in further diagnostic biomarker studies on CMTs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12610DOI Listing
December 2020

Distribution of Melanin Pigmentation in 33 Organs of Thai Black-Bone Chickens ().

Animals (Basel) 2020 Apr 30;10(5). Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Animal and Aquatic Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

The black-bone chicken () is a breed of chicken that is commonly found in Thailand. This breed is known for having a number of black colored organs. Consumers have been notably attracted to the black-bone chicken breed for the characteristic darkness that is observed in many of its organs. However, the degree of darkness in all organs of the black-bone chicken is still in question. Importantly, there have not yet been any published reports on the distribution of melanin pigment in the organs of the black-bone chicken. This research study aims to examine the distribution of the melanin pigment in 33 organs of the Thai black-bone chicken. Ten black-bone chickens (five male, five female) were included in this study. Thirty-two organs including the brain, spinal cord, sciatic nerve, larynx, trachea, syrinx, lungs, heart, pericardium, aorta, brachial vein, kidney, cloaca, oviduct, testis, gastrocnemius muscle, femur, tongue, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, omentum, abdominal fat, spleen, and skin were examined in this study. Histological sections taken from tissue samples of each of these organs were studied. The findings revealed that the presence of the melanin pigment was not significantly different ( > 0.005) between male and female specimens. Notably, the liver was the only organ in which the melanin pigment had not accumulated. Consequently, there was not a uniform pattern of melanin pigment accumulation throughout the organs of the chickens. The melanin pigment was present in all of the tissue layers of most organs, while the melanin pigment was found in only specific layers of some of the organs. In conclusion, the distribution of melanin pigmentation in the organs of each of the animals in this study was found to be different. However, in some tissue samples, such as those obtained from the liver, no accumulation of the melanin pigment was observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10050777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278803PMC
April 2020

In vitro screening antiviral activity of Thai medicinal plants against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Mar 30;16(1):102. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Animal and Aquatic Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, 239, Huaykaew Road, Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.

Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) results in economic losses in the swine industry globally. Several studies have investigated the use of plant extracts in the prevention and control of PRRS outbreaks. Thai medicinal plants may be useful for treating PRRSV infection in pigs. Therefore, we investigated the in vitro anti-PRRSV and antioxidant properties of seven Thai medicinal plants: Caesalpinia sappan Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Houttuynia cordata, Perilla frutescens, Clinacanthus nutans, Phyllanthus emblica, and Tiliacora triandra.

Results: Using antiviral screening, we observed that T. triandra extract strongly inhibited PRRSV infectivity in MARC-145 cells [virus titer 3.5 median tissue culture infective dose (TCID)/ml (log10)] at 24 h post-infection, whereas C. sappan extract strongly inhibited PRRSV replication [virus titer 2.5 TCID/ml (log10)] at 72 h post-infection. C. sappan extract had the highest total phenolic content [220.52 mM gallic acid equivalent/g] and lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration [1.17 mg/ml in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.58 mg/ml in 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt].

Conclusion: T. triandra extract could inhibit PRRSV infectivity, whereas C. sappan extract was the most effective in inhibiting PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells. This study elucidates the antiviral activities of Thai medicinal plant extracts in vivo. The results promise that Thai medicinal plant extracts, particularly T. triandra and C. sappan extracts, can be developed into pharmaceutical drugs for the prevention of PRRS in pigs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02320-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106583PMC
March 2020

Detection and characterization of microRNA expression profiling and its target genes in response to canine parvovirus in Crandell Reese Feline Kidney cells.

PeerJ 2020 12;8:e8522. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Food Animal Clinics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in gene regulators in many biological and molecular phenomena. Unraveling the involvement of miRNA as a key cellular factor during in vitro canine parvovirus (CPV) infection may facilitate the discovery of potential intervention candidates. However, the examination of miRNA expression profiles in CPV in tissue culture systems has not been fully elucidated.

Method: In the present study, we utilized high-throughput small RNA-seq (sRNA-seq) technology to investigate the altered miRNA profiling in miRNA libraries from uninfected (Control) and CPV-2c infected Crandell Reese Feline Kidney cells.

Results: We identified five of known miRNAs (miR-222-5p, miR-365-2-5p, miR-1247-3p, miR-322-5p and miR-361-3p) and three novel miRNAs (Novel 137, Novel 141 and Novel 102) by sRNA-seq with differentially expressed genes in the miRNA repertoire of CPV-infected cells over control. We further predicted the potential target genes of the aforementioned miRNAs using sequence homology algorithms. Notably, the targets of miR-1247-3p exhibited a potential function associated with cellular defense and humoral response to CPV. To extend the probing scheme for gene targets of miR-1247-3p, we explored and performed Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of its target genes. We discovered 229 putative targets from a total of 38 enriched GO terms. The top over-represented GO enrichment in biological process were lymphocyte activation and differentiation, marginal zone B cell differentiation, negative regulation of cytokine production, negative regulation of programed cell death, and negative regulation of signaling. We next constructed a GO biological process network composed of 28 target genes of miR-1247-3p, of which, some genes, namely , , , , , and were among the genes with obviously intersected in multiple GO terms.

Conclusion: The miRNA-1247-3p and its cognate target genes suggested their great potential as novel therapeutic targets or diagnostic biomarkers of CPV or other related viruses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023829PMC
February 2020

Production of polyclonal antibody against kidney antigens: a model for studying autoantibody in feline chronic kidney diseases.

J Vet Sci 2019 Nov;20(6):e73

Department of Companion Animal and Wildlife Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Chronic kidney disease is considered to be most common in geriatric domestic cats. It has been reported that the feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia (FVRCP) vaccine prepared from the Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell line can induce cross-reactions of antibodies with feline kidney tissues. As an anti-cat kidney antibody was not available commercially for this study of autoantibody in cats, the purpose of this study was to produce anti-cat kidney antibody in rabbits for further study of autoantibody in cats after FVRCP vaccination. Kidney proteins from cadaveric cats were extracted and immunized into rabbits using Montanide as the adjuvant. Based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurement, all immunized rabbits produced high levels of anti-cat kidney antibodies and some began to produce antibodies as early as 2 weeks after immunization. Immunofluorescence staining of rabbit sera showed kidney-bound antibodies in glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, apical surface of the proximal convoluted tubule, peritubular surface, and interstitial cells. Western blot analysis of cat kidney proteins revealed molecular weights (M.W.) of 72, 55, 47, and 31 kDa, while binding to the CRFK cell proteins was observed at M.W. of 43 and 26 kDa. The antibody that recognized the 47 kDa protein was similarly detected in cats with autoantibody presence after FVRCP vaccination. The kidney-bound antibody profile at different time points and its patterns in rabbits could be used as a model for the study of autoantibody to cat kidney in feline chronic kidney diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2019.20.e73DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883193PMC
November 2019

Feline bocavirus-1 associated with outbreaks of hemorrhagic enteritis in household cats: potential first evidence of a pathological role, viral tropism and natural genetic recombination.

Sci Rep 2019 11 8;9(1):16367. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Feline bocavirus-1 (FBoV-1) was identified in cats from different households with hemorrhagic enteritis during outbreaks of an unusual clinical presentation of feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) in Thailand. Use of polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of the FBoV-1 DNA in several tissues, suggesting hematogenous viremia, with the viral nucleic acid, detected by in situ hybridization (ISH), was localized in intestinal cells and vascular endothelium of intestinal mucosa and serosa, and in necrosis areas primarily in various lymph nodes while FPLV-immunohistochemical analysis revealed viral localization only in cryptal cells, neurons, and limited to leukocytes in the mesenteric lymph node. Full-length coding genome analysis of the Thai FBoV-1 strains isolated from moribund cats revealed three distinct strains with a high between-strain genetic diversity, while genetic recombination in one of the three FBoV-1 strains within the NS1 gene. This is the first report identifying natural genetic recombination of the FBoV-1 and describing the pathology and viral tropism of FBoV-1 infection in cats. Although the role of FBoV-1 associated with systemic infection of these cats remained undetermined, a contributory role of enteric infection of FBoV-1 is possible. Synergistic effects of dual infection with FPLV and FBoV-1 are hypothesized, suggesting more likely severe clinical presentations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52902-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6841677PMC
November 2019

Interleukin 17 (IL-17) manipulates mouse bone marrow- derived neutrophils in response to acute lung inflammation.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Dec 3;67:101356. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Interleukin 17 (IL-17) mediates neutrophil migration to the lungs during acute inflammation, potentially leading to lung tissue damage. In the present study, we evaluated whether IL-17 could facilitate certain neutrophil functions in a mouse model. Mice were divided into four groups and intranasally challenged with PBS (1 = Control), Influenza A (H1N1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 = Mix), Influenza A alone (3 = Flu), or K. pneumoniae (4 = KP) alone. Bone marrow, BAL cells, and lung specimens were collected seven days post-challenge for analysis. Mice in the Flu group showed the highest mortality rate. Neutrophils were the prominent cell type in BAL from Mix and KP, whereas lymphocytes were most numerous in Flu. Lesions in the lungs revealed considerably damage in the Mix, Flu, and KP groups. Isolated bone marrow-derived neutrophils were in vitro primed with mouse recombinant IL-17A protein (rIL-17A) followed by various functional assays. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in rIL-17A primed cells showed significant elevations in all groups. Phagocytosis and bacterial destruction showed no significant difference between (+) or (-) rIL-17A groups. The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in rIL-17A-primed neutrophils showed elevated NET production. We next monitored expressions of genes in neutrophils. IL-17A mRNA expression was significantly increased in Mix and Flu; IL-1β mRNA only significantly increased in Flu, and IL-17RA showed constitutive expressions in all groups. In summary, neutrophils may cause tissue damage during lung inflammation through specific functions influenced by IL-17.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2019.101356DOI Listing
December 2019

Possible roles of monocytes/macrophages in response to elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infections in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

PLoS One 2019 6;14(9):e0222158. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) is the primary cause of acute, highly fatal, hemorrhagic diseases in young Asian elephants. Although monocytopenia is frequently observed in EEHV-HD cases, the role monocytes play in EEHV-disease pathogenesis is unknown. This study seeks to explain the responses of monocytes/macrophages in the pathogenesis of EEHV-HD. Samples of blood, frozen tissues, and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from EEHV1A-HD, EEHV4-HD, co-infected EEHV1A and 4-HD, and EEHV-negative calves were analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the persistent EEHV4-infected and EEHV-negative calves were also studied. The results showed increased infiltration of Iba-1-positive macrophages in the inflamed tissues of the internal organs of elephant calves with EEHV-HD. In addition, cellular apoptosis also increased in the tissues of elephants with EEHV-HD, especially in the PBMCs, compared to the EEHV-negative control. In the PBMCs of persistent EEHV4-infected elephants, cytokine mRNA expression was high, particularly up-regulation of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Moreover, viral particles were observed in the cytoplasm of the persistent EEHV4-infected elephant monocytes. Our study demonstrated for the first time that apoptosis of the PBMCs increased in cases of EEHV-HD. Furthermore, this study showed that monocytes may serve as a vehicle for viral dissemination during EEHV infection in Asian elephants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222158PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6730851PMC
March 2020

Biliary cystadenoma associated with Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic cat (Felis catus).

Vet Parasitol 2018 Jul 5;258:138-141. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Veterinary Bioscience, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand. Electronic address:

A 12-year-old, female, domestic cat (Felis catus) presented with dehydration, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy. The cat was unresponsive to medical treatment and euthanized; the carcass was submitted for pathological diagnosis. Necropsy revealed icteric mucous membranes. The liver was enlarged, with multinodular, cystic, white masses, 0.5-4.0 cm in diameter, scattered throughout. Microscopically, the biliary epithelium presented with a proliferation of multifocal cystic masses, occasionally with periodic acid-Schiff-positive fluid within the cysts. Simple cuboidal epithelial cells showed small, round to oval, vesicular nuclei and rare mitotic figures. There were also multifocal trematode-like parasites situated within the biliary tracts. Immunohistochemistry of the cystic masses was positive for pan-cytokeratin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, while negative for vimentin. Molecular analysis and gene sequencing of the parasite indicated that it was Opisthorchis viverrini. Based on the pathological findings and molecular analysis, the cat was diagnosed with biliary cystadenoma related to O. viverrini infection. This report described an unusual case of O. viverrini infection associated with biliary tumor in a cat, and raises the possibility of domestic cats as a reservoir host of the human liver fluke.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.05.001DOI Listing
July 2018

Development of in situ hybridization for detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in Asian elephants.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Jul 7;30(4):628-632. Epub 2018 May 7.

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Kochakul, Boonsri), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most important viral infectious diseases affecting the elephant population worldwide, especially juveniles and young adults. We developed a chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH) test for detection of EEHV in Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). Digoxigenin (DIG) DNA probes from the polymerase and terminase genes of EEHV were synthesized using a PCR DIG-labeling method, and detection of hybridized probe to target EEHV DNA was carried out by anti-DIG immunolabeling. Distribution of EEHV-1A and EEHV-4 genomes was found to be prominent in mononuclear phagocytic cells of spleen and endothelial cells of visceral organs. ISH enables the detection of EEHV infection and has applications in understanding pathogenesis of EEHV in Asian elephants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638718773810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505903PMC
July 2018

Production of antibody against elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) unveils tissue tropisms and routes of viral transmission in EEHV-infected Asian elephants.

Sci Rep 2018 03 16;8(1):4675. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Center of Excellence in Elephant and Wildlife Research, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most devastating viral infectious diseases in elephants worldwide. To date, it remains unclear how elephants get infected by the virus, where the virus persists, and what mechanisms drive the pathogenesis of the disease. The present study was aimed to develop an antibody against glycoprotein B (gB) of EEHV, investigate the EEHV tissue tropisms, and provide the possible routes of EEHV transmission in Asian elephants. Samples from elephant organs that had died from EEHV1A and EEHV4 infections, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from EEHV4- and non-EEHV-infected calves were used in this study. The results of western immunoblotting indicated that the antibody can be used for detection of gB antigens in both EEHV1A- and EEHV4-infected samples. Immunohistochemical detection indicated that the EEHV gB antigens were distributed mainly in the epithelial cells of the salivary glands, stomach and intestines. Immunofluorescence test of PBMC for EEHV gB in the EEHV4-infected calf indicated that the virus was observed predominantly in the mononuclear phagocytic cells. The findings in the present study unveil tissue tropisms in the EEHV1A- and EEHV4-infected calves and point out that saliva and intestinal content are likely sources for virus transmission in EEHV-infected Asian elephants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22968-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5856810PMC
March 2018

ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS INFECTION IN TWO ASIAN ELEPHANT ( ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) CALVES.

J Zoo Wildl Med 2018 Mar;49(1):178-182

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is an infection associated with fatal hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). This brief communication describes the postmortem evaluation of two Asian elephant calves diagnosed with EEHV4 and EEHV1A in conjunction with Clostridium perfringens infection. Case 1 was a 7-mo-old, male captive-born Asian elephant that developed diarrhea and died 2 days after clinical presentation. Examination of the heart, lungs, liver, and spleen revealed predominantly basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels. Case 2 was a 3-mo-old, female wild-born Asian elephant that showed signs of lethargy, anorexia, and convulsions and died 6 hr after clinical presentation. No intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed. The heart, lung, liver, and spleen of both calves tested positive for EEHV by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified EEHV4 and EEHV1A in Case 1 and 2, respectively. Additionally, liver, spleen, and hemorrhagic intestinal tissue samples tested positive for C. perfringens α, β, and ε toxins. This is the first reported case to describe coinfection of EEHV and C. perfringens in Asian elephant calves.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2017-0001R1.1DOI Listing
March 2018

Antiviral activity of five Asian medicinal pant crude extracts against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017 Sep 14;10(9):871-876. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand. Electronic address:

Objective: To study the antiviral properties of the five Asian medicinal plants against in vitro infection by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1).

Methods: Crude extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (C. longa), Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Kaempferia parviflora (K. parviflora), and Psidium guajava obtained by both water and ethanol extractions were investigated for their cytotoxicity in the Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Thereafter, they were investigated in vitro for antiviral activity and cytokine response upon H5N1 virus infection.

Results: The results revealed that both water and ethanol extracts of all the five studied plants showed significant antiviral activity against H5N1 virus. Among these plants, C. longa and K. parviflora showed strong anti-H5N1 activity. Thus, they were selected for further studies on their cytokine response upon virus infection. It was found that ethanol and water crude extracts of C. longa and K. parviflora induced significant upregulation of TNF-α and IFN-β mRNA expressions, suggesting their roles in the inhibition of H5N1 virus replication.

Conclusions: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is among the earliest reports to illustrate the antiviral property of these Asian medicinal plants against the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus. The results of this study shed light on alternative therapeutic sources for treatment of H5N1 influenza virus infection in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.010DOI Listing
September 2017

Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus in Vientiane, Laos.

Arch Virol 2017 May 25;162(5):1355-1361. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand.

The global emergence of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) has been well documented. In the present study, 139 rectal swab samples collected from diarrheic dogs living in Vientiane, Laos, in 2016 were tested for the presence of the canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 gene by PCR. The results showed that 82.73% (115/139) of dogs were CPV positive by PCR. The partial VP2 gene was sequenced in 94 of the positive samples; 91 samples belonged to CPV-2c (426Glu) subtype, while 3 samples belonged to the CPV-2a (426Asn) subtype. Notably, phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences revealed a close relationship between Laotian isolates and novel Chinese CPV-2c isolates. In Laotian CPV isolates, aligned protein sequences indicated a high rate of residue substitutions at positions 305, 324, 345, 370, 375, and 426 in the GH loop. The mutation at residue 370 (Q370R), a single mutation, was characterized as a unique mutant residue specific to the Laotian CPV-2c variant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-016-3212-1DOI Listing
May 2017

Intravenous transplantation of mouse embryonic stem cells attenuates demyelination in an ICR outbred mouse model of demyelinating diseases.

Neural Regen Res 2016 Oct;11(10):1603-1609

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Induction of demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) of experimental mice using cuprizone is widely used as an animal model for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of demyelination. However, different mouse strains used result in different pathological outcomes. Moreover, because current medicinal treatments are not always effective in multiple sclerosis patients, so the study of exogenous cell transplantation in an animal model is of great importance. The aims of the present study were to establish an alternative ICR outbred mouse model for studying demyelination and to evaluate the effects of intravenous cell transplantation in the present developed mouse model. Two sets of experiments were conducted. Firstly, ICR outbred and BALB/c inbred mice were fed with 0.2% cuprizone for 6 consecutive weeks; then demyelinating scores determined by luxol fast blue stain or immunolabeling with CNPase were evaluated. Secondly, attenuation of demyelination in ICR mice by intravenous injection of mES cells was studied. Scores for demyelination in the brains of ICR mice receiving cell injection (mES cells-injected group) and vehicle (sham-inoculated group) were assessed and compared. The results showed that cuprizone significantly induced demyelination in the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum of both ICR and BALB/c mice. Additionally, intravenous transplantation of mES cells potentially attenuated demyelination in ICR mice compared with sham-inoculated groups. The present study is among the earliest reports to describe the cuprizone-induced demyelination in ICR outbred mice. Although it remains unclear whether mES cells or trophic effects from mES cells are the cause of enhanced remyelination, the results of the present study may shed some light on exogenous cell therapy in central nervous system demyelinating diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.193239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5116839PMC
October 2016

Tropism and Induction of Cytokines in Human Embryonic-Stem Cells-Derived Neural Progenitors upon Inoculation with Highly- Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Influenza Virus.

PLoS One 2015 14;10(8):e0135850. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction caused by neurovirulent influenza viruses is a dreaded complication of infection, and may play a role in some neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson-like diseases and encephalitis lethargica. Although CNS infection by highly pathogenic H5N1 virus has been demonstrated, it is unknown whether H5N1 infects neural progenitor cells, nor whether such infection plays a role in the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. To pursue this question, we infected human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) differentiated from human embryonic stem cells in vitro with H5N1 virus, and studied the resulting cytopathology, cytokine expression, and genes involved in the differentiation. Human embryonic stem cells (BG01) were maintained and differentiated into the neural progenitors, and then infected by H5N1 virus (A/Chicken/Thailand/CUK2/04) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. At 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-infection (hpi), cytopathic effects were observed. Then cells were characterized by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, supernatants quantified for virus titers, and sampled cells studied for candidate genes.The hNPCs were susceptible to H5N1 virus infection as determined by morphological observation and immunofluorescence. The infection was characterized by a significant up-regulation of TNF-α gene expression, while expressions of IFN-α2, IFN-β1, IFN-γ and IL-6 remained unchanged compared to mock-infected controls. Moreover, H5N1 infection did not appear to alter expression of neuronal and astrocytic markers of hNPCs, such as β-III tubulin and GFAP, respectively. The results indicate that hNPCs support H5N1 virus infection and may play a role in the neuroinflammation during acute viral encephalitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135850PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4537284PMC
May 2016
-->