Publications by authors named "Ki Kwang Oh"

6 Publications

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Central and peripheral pain intervention by Ophiorrhizarugosa leaves: Potential underlying mechanisms and insight into the role of pain modulators.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Aug 5;276:114182. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata is a traditional medicinal plant used by the indigenous and local tribes (Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya) of Bangladesh for the management of chest pain, body ache, and earache. However, the knowledge of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potentials of this plant is scarce.

Aim Of The Study: Therefore, we scrutinized the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of O. rugosa leaves along with its possible mechanism(s) of action using chemical and heat-induced pain models.

Methods And Materials: O. rugosa was extracted using 100% ethanol (EEOR) followed by exploring phytochemicals and assessing acute toxicity. To determine anti-nociceptive potentials, chemical-induced (acetic acid and formalin) and heat-induced (hot plate and tail immersion) nociceptive models were followed. To investigate the possible involvement of opioid receptors during formalin, hot plate, and tail immersion tests, naltrexone was administered whereas methylene blue and glibenclamide were used to explore cGMP involvement and ATP-sensitive K channel pathways, respectively. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory potential was assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test model. Motor behaviours of EEOR were assessed by the open-field test. Finally, bioactive constituents (identified by GC-MS) from O. rugosa were subjected to molecular docking and ADME/t analysis to evaluate its potency and safety.

Results: During chemical-induced and heat-induced pain models, EEOR exhibited significant and effective nociception suppression at all experimental doses (200 and 400 mg/kg). Also, the administration of naltrexone corroborated the association of opioid receptors with the anti-nociceptive activity by EEOR. Similarly, cGMP and ATP-sensitive K channel pathways were also found to be involved in the anti-nociceptive mechanism. Furthermore, significant and dose-dependent inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan was recorded for EEOR. Both doses of EEOR did not affect the animal's locomotor capacity in the open-field test. Besides, in silico test identified the key compounds (loliolide, harman, squalene, vitamin E, and gamma-sitosterol) that inhibited some particular receptors regarding pain and inflammation.

Conclusion: This research exposes central and peripheral pain intervention as well as anti-inflammatory activity of O. rugosa. Also, the identified compounds from this plant support its activities by effectively inhibiting anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory receptors. Overall, these outcomes valorize the ethnomedicinal efficacy of O. rugosa in managing various painful conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114182DOI Listing
August 2021

Network pharmacology approach to decipher signaling pathways associated with target proteins of NSAIDs against COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 05 5;11(1):9606. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Bio-Health Convergence, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, Korea.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) showed promising clinical efficacy toward COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) patients as potent painkillers and anti-inflammatory agents. However, the prospective anti-COVID-19 mechanisms of NSAIDs are not evidently exposed. Therefore, we intended to decipher the most influential NSAIDs candidate(s) and its novel mechanism(s) against COVID-19 by network pharmacology. FDA (U.S. Food & Drug Administration) approved NSAIDs (19 active drugs and one prodrug) were used for this study. Target proteins related to selected NSAIDs and COVID-19 related target proteins were identified by the Similarity Ensemble Approach, Swiss Target Prediction, and PubChem databases, respectively. Venn diagram identified overlapping target proteins between NSAIDs and COVID-19 related target proteins. The interactive networking between NSAIDs and overlapping target proteins was analyzed by STRING. RStudio plotted the bubble chart of the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analysis of overlapping target proteins. Finally, the binding affinity of NSAIDs against target proteins was determined through molecular docking test (MDT). Geneset enrichment analysis exhibited 26 signaling pathways against COVID-19. Inhibition of proinflammatory stimuli of tissues and/or cells by inactivating the RAS signaling pathway was identified as the key anti-COVID-19 mechanism of NSAIDs. Besides, MAPK8, MAPK10, and BAD target proteins were explored as the associated target proteins of the RAS. Among twenty NSAIDs, 6MNA, Rofecoxib, and Indomethacin revealed promising binding affinity with the highest docking score against three identified target proteins, respectively. Overall, our proposed three NSAIDs (6MNA, Rofecoxib, and Indomethacin) might block the RAS by inactivating its associated target proteins, thus may alleviate excessive inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88313-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100301PMC
May 2021

Therapeutic Potentials of Fruit (Seed) Reflected into an Array of Pharmacological Assays and Prospective Receptors-Mediated Pathways.

Life (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy.

(SF), a valuable Bangladeshi fruit, is considered an alternative therapeutic agent. Mainly, seeds are used as nutritional phytotherapy to ease physical and mental status by preventing chronic diseases. Here, we scrutinized the seed's fundamental importance in traditional medicine by following an integrated approach combining in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies. The SF was fractionated with different solvents, and the ethyl acetate fraction of SF (EaF-SF) was further studied. Mice treated with EaF-SF (200 and 400 mg/kg) manifested anxiolysis evidenced by higher exploration in elevated plus maze and hole board tests. Similarly, a dose-dependent drop of immobility time in a forced swimming test ensured significant anti-depressant activity. Moreover, higher dose treatment exposed reduced exploratory behaviour resembling decreased movement and prolonged sleeping latency with a quick onset of sleep during the open field and thiopental-induced sleeping tests, respectively. In parallel, EaF-SF significantly ( < 0.001) and dose-dependently suppressed acetic acid and formalin-induced pain in mice. Also, a noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity and a substantial ( < 0.01) clot lysis activity (thrombolytic) was observed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis resulted in 49 bioactive compounds. Among them, 12 bioactive compounds with Lipinski's rule and safety confirmation showed strong binding affinity (molecular docking) against the receptors of each model used. To conclude, the seed is a prospective source of health-promoting effects that can be an excellent candidate for preventing degenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11020155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921944PMC
February 2021

Network pharmacology of bioactives from Sorghum bicolor with targets related to diabetes mellitus.

PLoS One 2020 31;15(12):e0240873. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Bio-Health Convergence, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Sorghum bicolor (SB) is rich in protective phytoconstituents with health benefits and regarded as a promising source of natural anti-diabetic substance. However, its comprehensive bioactive compound(s) and mechanism(s) against type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have not been exposed. Hence, we implemented network pharmacology to identify its key compounds and mechanism(s) against T2DM.

Methods: Compounds in SB were explored through GC-MS and screened by Lipinski's rule. Genes associated with the selected compounds or T2DM were extracted from public databases, and the overlapping genes between SB-compound related genes and T2DM target genes were identified using Venn diagram. Then, the networking between selected compounds and overlapping genes was constructed, visualized, and analyzed by RStudio. Finally, affinity between compounds and genes was evaluated via molecular docking.

Results: GC-MS analysis of SB detected a total of 20 compounds which were accepted by the Lipinski's rule. A total number of 16 compounds-related genes and T2DM-related genes (4,763) were identified, and 81 overlapping genes between them were selected. Gene set enrichment analysis exhibited that the mechanisms of SB against T2DM were associated with 12 signaling pathways, and the key mechanism might be to control blood glucose level by activating PPAR signaling pathway. Furthermore, the highest affinities were noted between four main compounds and six genes (FABP3-Propyleneglyco monoleate, FABP4-25-Oxo-27-norcholesterol, NR1H3-Campesterol, PPARA-β-sitosterol, PPARD-β-sitosterol, and PPARG-β-sitosterol).

Conclusion: Our study overall suggests that the four key compounds detected in SB might ameliorate T2DM severity by activating the PPAR signaling pathway.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240873PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774932PMC
January 2021

Active ingredients and mechanisms of Phellinus linteus (grown on Rosa multiflora) for alleviation of Type 2 diabetes mellitus through network pharmacology.

Gene 2021 Feb 26;768:145320. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Bio-Health Convergence, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, South Korea. Electronic address:

Phellinus linteus (mushroom) grown on Rosa multiflora ([email protected]), exposed beneficial effect and safety on Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from Korean folk remedies. However, its active chemical constituents and mechanism(s) against T2DM have not been confirmed. Hence, we deciphered the active compounds and mechanism(s) of [email protected] against T2DM through network pharmacology. GC-MS of [email protected] manifested 54 compounds and drug-likeness properties of these compounds were confirmed by Lipinski's rule. The compound (40) related genes were composed of Similarity Ensemble Approach (SEA) and SwissTargetPrediction (STP). The overlapping genes (61) between the two databases were identified. Besides, the T2DM related genes (4,736) were extracted from DisGeNet and OMIM database. In parallel, a Venn diagram was constructed between the overlapping genes (61) and T2DM related genes (4,736), and finally, 48 genes were picked. The interactive networks between compounds and overlapping genes were plotted and visualized by RStudio. In addition, KEGG Pathway enrichment analysis was evaluated by String. String analysis showed that the mechanisms of [email protected] against T2DM were related to 16 pathways, where inhibition of gluconeogenesis by inactivating metabolic pathways was noted as the hub pathway of [email protected] against T2DM. Besides, bubble chart indicated that activation of the AMPK signaling pathway might enhance the insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation, which is regarded the key signaling pathway of [email protected] against T2DM. Furthermore, the autodock vina revealed the promising binding affinity energy of the epicholesterol (the most drug-likeness compound) on HMGCR (hub gene). Overall, this work hints at the therapeutic evidence of [email protected] on T2DM, and this data expound the main chemical compounds and mechanisms of [email protected] against T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.145320DOI Listing
February 2021

Kenaf ( L.) Leaves and Seed as a Potential Source of the Bioactive Compounds: Effects of Various Extraction Solvents on Biological Properties.

Life (Basel) 2020 Sep 28;10(10). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, College of Biomedical Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

(Kenaf) is a potential source of bioactive constituents and natural antioxidant. The current study determined the impact of various solvents on extraction yield, recovery of polyphenol and flavonoid, antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties of Kenaf leaves and seed. The powder of leaves and seed was separately extracted with -hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water solvent. Among them, the ethanol extract of leaves and seed showed the highest extraction yield, and their GC-MS analysis revealed a total of 55 and 14 bioactive compounds, respectively. The total polyphenols (TP) and flavonoids (TF) content were quantified by a spectrophotometric technique where water extracts displayed a noteworthy amount of TP and TF content compared to other extracts. A similar demonstration was noticed in antioxidant activity, evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity. In addition, cytotoxicity and anti-lung cancer activity were identified against mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH3T3) and human lung cancer (A549) cells. All extracts of leaves and seed were observed as non-toxic to the NIH3T3 cells, but slight toxicity was expressed by -hexane extracts at the optimum dose (1000 µg/mL) of treatment. In parallel, -hexane and ethanol extracts (leaves and seed) exposed promising anti-lung cancer activity at the same concentration. Furthermore, antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion assay, and seed extracts exhibited a significant inhibition zone against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Overall, Kenaf seed extracted with polar solvents was found very potent in terms of important bioactive compounds and pharmacological aspects, which can be an excellent biological matrix of natural antioxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life10100223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601236PMC
September 2020