Publications by authors named "Ki Byung Song"

131 Publications

ASO Visual Abstract: Predictive Performance of Current Nodal Staging Systems in Various Categories of Pancreatic Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10679-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Predictive Performance of Current Nodal Staging Systems in Various Categories of Pancreatic Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Aug 22. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Background: Nodal staging systems (NSS) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) classify patients on the basis of number of metastatic lymph nodes (MLN), metastatic/retrieved lymph node ratio (LNR), and log odds of positive LN (LODDS). The relative prognostic performance of these NSS, however, remains unclear.

Patients And Methods: We identified 2584 patients who underwent surgery for PDAC between 2010 and 2019. Subgroups of each staging system were classified using K-adaptive partitioning method and assessed by comparing time-dependent areas under the curve (AUC) 5 years after surgery.

Results: Patients were subgrouped by MLN (0, 1-3, ≥ 4), LNR (0, 0-0.23, > 0.23), and LODDS (< - 3.5, - 3.5 to - 0.970, > - 0.97). All three NSS were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The AUCs for OS were comparable for the MLN (0.622), LNR (0.609), and LODDS (0.596) systems. Subgroup evaluation based on 12 retrieved lymph nodes (RLN), R1 resection, and extent of resection showed that the AUCs of the MLN and LNR NSS were comparable for OS and RFS regardless of the number of RLNs, R1 resection, and extent of resection. By contrast, the AUCs of the LODDS NSS were lower.

Conclusion: The NSS based on the number of MLN is the best prognostic indicator, with prognostic performance comparable to the other NSS and greater convenience for practical use. This NSS was applicable regardless of the numbers of RLN, R1 resection, and extent of resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10641-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparison of perioperative outcomes in pancreatic head cancer patients following either a laparoscopic or open pancreaticoduodenectomy with a superior mesenteric artery first approach.

Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2021 Aug;25(3):358-365

Division of Hepato-Biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Backgrounds/aims: A superior mesenteric artery first approach (SFA) technique can improve the complete resection rate. It can be used to determine whether an operation can be performed by invading the superior mesenteric artery before performing a pancreatic transection in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes between laparoscopic and open SFA for PDAC.

Methods: Between January 2017 and August 2019, consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic and open pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for PDAC using SFA procedures were included and compared between laparoscopic and open procedures.

Results: Fourteen and 83 patients underwent laparoscopic and open surgeries, respectively. In perioperative outcomes, there were no significant differences in the amount of intraoperative blood loss or transfusion rate between the two groups. In the laparoscopic group, the operation time was longer with less patients showing wound infection. R0 resection rate and the number of retrieved lymph nodes showed no significant difference. The average time to adjuvant chemotherapy was longer in the open group. There was no significant difference in the mean survival time or the recurrence free period.

Conclusions: Patients who underwent laparoscopic PD using SFA showed perioperative outcomes comparable compared to those of patients who underwent open procedures performed by experienced surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14701/ahbps.2021.25.3.358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382868PMC
August 2021

Surgical outcomes are hampered after endoscopic ultrasonography-guided ethanol lavage and/or Taxol injection in cystic lesions of the pancreas.

Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2021 Aug;25(3):342-348

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Backgrounds/aims: Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided ethanol lavage and Taxol injection (EUS-ELTI) for pancreatic cystic lesions have been recently performed in some medical centers. The aim of this study was to optimize patient selection and analyze outcomes of patients who underwent surgeries after EUS-ELTI for pancreatic cystic lesions.

Methods: Among 310 patients who underwent EUS-ELTI between January 2007 and December 2014, 23 underwent surgeries after EUS-ELTI owing to incomplete treatment and/or adverse events. Surgical outcomes of patients who underwent surgeries after EUSELTI were evaluated. Clinical outcomes of patients who underwent surgeries after EUS-ELTI were then retrospectively compared with those of patients who underwent upfront surgery for left-sided pancreatic lesions without an EUS-ELTI procedure.

Results: The pathology revealed degenerated cysts in 12 patients, mucinous cyst neoplasms in five, neuroendocrine tumors in two, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) in one, solid pseudopapillary tumor in one, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma arising from an IPMN in one, and hepatoid carcinoma in one. Twelve patients underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy and five patients underwent open distal pancreatectomy. When clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared between patients who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy after EUS-ELTI and those who did not receive an EUS-ELTI procedure, the spleen-preserving rate was 0% in the EUS-ELTI group and 61.7% (365/592) in the control group ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: Surgical outcomes are compromised after EUS-ELTI for cystic tumor of the pancreas. Further studies are needed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the EUS-ELTI procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14701/ahbps.2021.25.3.342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382853PMC
August 2021

Clinical Outcomes Between a Minimally Invasive and Open Extended Cholecystectomy for T2 Gallbladder Cancer: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Although a minimally invasive extended cholecystectomy (MIEC) for T2 gallbladder cancer (T2 GBC) has been performed in many experienced centers, no oncologic comparison with open extended cholecystectomy (OEC) has yet been reported. T2 GBC patients who underwent MIEC ( = 60) or OEC ( = 135) were enrolled. We used propensity score matching (PSM) using pre- and intraoperative variables. Short- and long-term outcomes were then compared before and after PSM. Before PSM, OEC patients more frequently showed completion of surgery after a simple cholecystectomy (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.551), and lymph node enlargement on preoperative computed tomography (SMD = -0.471). PSM was used to select 56 patients from each of the 2 patient groups. MIEC patients showed comparable complication rate (7.1% versus 12.5%,  = .365) and shorter hospital stay (5.7 days versus 9.8 days,  < .001). The median follow-up period was 26.2 months, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate (96.8% versus 91.1%,  = .464) and 5-year recurrence free survival (RFS) (54.7% versus 44.4%,  = .580) outcomes were still comparable between MIEC and OEC groups. MIEC have advantages such as early recovery and comparable short-term outcomes compared with OEC. MIEC showed comparable OS and RFS outcomes compared with OEC. MIEC is a safe option without oncological compromise for T2 GBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2021.0417DOI Listing
August 2021

Metabolic activity by FDG-PET/CT after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in borderline resectable and locally advanced pancreatic cancer and association with survival.

Br J Surg 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The optimal prognostic markers for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic cancer are not yet established.

Method: Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to surgery and underwent FDG-PET/CT between July 2012 and December 2017 were included. Metabolic parameters including standardised uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on PET/CT, and response evaluations using PERCIST criteria, were investigated for its impact on survival and recurrence. Cox proportional hazards model was performed. Differences in risk were expressed as hazard ratio [HR] with 95% confidence interval [c.i.].

Results: The patients with borderline resectable (N = 106) or locally advanced pancreatic cancer (N = 82) were identified. The median survival was 33.6 months. Decreased metabolic parameters of PET/CT after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were associated with positive impacts on survival and recurrence such as SUVmax (HR 1.16, 95% c.i. 1.01 to 1.32, P = 0.025), SUVpeak (HR 1.26, 95% c.i. 1.05 to 1.51, P = 0.011), and MTV (HR 1.15, 95% c.i. 1.04 to 1.26, P = 0.005). Large delta values were related to a positive impact on recurrence such as SUVmax (HR 1.21, 95% c.i. 1.06 to 1.38, P = 0.005). Post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy SUVmax ≥3 (HR 3.46, 95% c.i. 1.21 to 9.91; P = 0.036) was an independent prognostic factor for negative impact on survival. Patients with post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy SUVmax <3 showed more chemotherapy cycles (8.7 versus 6.2, P = 0.001), more frequent complete metabolic response (25 vs 2.2%, P = 0.002), smaller tumour size (2.1 vs 3.1 cm, P = 0.002), and less frequent lymphovascular invasion (23.7 vs 51.1%, P = 0.020) than patients with SUVmax ≥3.

Conclusion: Reduction in metabolic tumour parameters of FDG- PET/CT after neoadjuvant chemotherapy indicates improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjs/znab229DOI Listing
August 2021

Longitudinal Changes in Body Composition of Long-Term Survivors of Pancreatic Head Cancer and Factors Affecting the Changes.

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 2;10(15). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Previous studies on changes in body composition of pancreatic cancer patients have only focused on short-term survivors. We studied longitudinal body composition changes and factors affecting them in long-term survivors by analyzing many abdominal computed tomography images using artificial intelligence technology. Of 302 patients who survived for >36 months after surgery were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors affecting body composition changes and repeated-measures analysis of variance to observe differences in the course of change according to each factor were performed. In logistic analysis, preoperative sarcopenia and recurrence were the main factors influencing body composition changes at 1 and 3 years after surgery, respectively. In changes of longitudinal body composition, the decrease in body composition was the greatest at 3-6 months postoperatively, and the preoperative status did not recover even 3 years after surgery. Especially, males showed a greater reduction in skeletal muscle (SKM) after surgery than females ( < 0.01). In addition, SKM ( < 0.001) and subcutaneous adipose tissue ( < 0.05) mass rapidly decreased in case of recurrence. In conclusion, long-term survivors of pancreatic cancer did not recover their preoperative body composition status, and preoperative sarcopenia and recurrence influenced body composition changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348760PMC
August 2021

Perioperative and oncologic outcomes of right anterior sectionectomy for liver disease: A single-center experience with 415 patients.

ANZ J Surg 2021 09 27;91(9):1847-1853. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Hepato-biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Right anterior sectionectomy (RAS) is technically difficult and performed infrequently, so there are few published reports about experiences with this surgery. We describe 10 years' worth of clinicopathologic and oncologic outcomes associated with RAS.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 415 patients treated with RAS for hepatic tumors located at segment five and/or eight between January 2008 and December 2017.

Results: All patients underwent RAS with the alternative Glissonean pedicle clamp and Kelly clamp-crushing methods for transection. The mean operative time was 165 min, and the mean transection time was 28 min. Major morbidity (≥grade III) occurred in 28 cases (6.7%). Bile leakage occurred in 63 patients (15.1%), but no patients required reoperation. Grade A, B, and C post-hepatectomy liver failure occurred in 39 (9.4%), 7 (1.7%), and 0 patients, respectively. There were no in-hospital deaths caused by postoperative complications. The mean hospital stay was 13.3 days. The mean tumor size was 3.8 cm. Among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients (n = 361, 87.0%), the 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 78.3%, 64.4%, and the 5- and 10-year disease-free survival rates were 57.2%, 37.7%, respectively.

Conclusions: RAS was associated with acceptable procedure-related morbidity and mortality as well as appropriate oncologic outcomes for HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.17098DOI Listing
September 2021

The clinicopathologic and operative characteristics of patients with small nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Jul 21;91(7-8):E484-E492. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Incidentally detected, small nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PNETs) are increasingly diagnosed on imaging modalities. This retrospective investigation evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics and perioperative and oncologic outcomes in patients with small NF-PNETs undergoing curative resection.

Methods: The medical records of 444 patients who underwent pancreatic resection for NF-PNETs at a single, large-volume institution between January 2000 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into those with small (≤2 cm) and large (>2 cm) tumors based on the largest tumor diameter on preoperative computed tomography (CT). Outcomes were also evaluated in subgroups of patients with small NF-PNET who did and did not undergo lymphadenectomy.

Results: Of the 444 patients with NF-PNETs, 195 (43.9%) had small (≤2 cm) and 249 (56.1%) had large (>2 cm) NF-PNETs. The rate of parenchyma-preserving surgery (14.4% vs. 7.2%, p = 0.014) and the ratio of spleen preservation for left-sided pancreatectomy (65.6% vs. 38.3%, p < 0.001) were higher in the small NF-PNET group. Size on CT >2 cm (p < 0.001, hazard ratio [HR]: 5.836, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.474-13.769), presence of perineural invasion (p < 0.001, HR: 3.025, 95% CI: 1.640-5.577), World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 2 (p = 0.007, HR: 2.861, 95% CI: 1.325-6.176), and WHO Grade 3 (p < 0.001, HR: 11.537, 95% CI: 5.282-25.199) were independent predictors of disease-free survival (DFS). DFS did not differ significantly in patients with small NF-PNETs who did and did not undergo lymphadenectomy (p = 0.886).

Conclusions: Assessment of long-term oncologic outcomes suggests that surgical resection may cure small NF-PNETs. Minimally invasive surgery and organ-preserving surgery are acceptable treatment options for select patients with small NF-PNETs. The effect on survival outcomes of lymph node dissection for small NF-PNETs remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.17055DOI Listing
July 2021

The impact of preoperative EUS-FNA for distal resectable pancreatic cancer: Is it really effective enough to take risks?

Surg Endosc 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Aims: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is frequently used for the preoperative histologic diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. However, debate continues regarding the clinical merits of preoperative EUS-FNA for the management of resectable pancreatic cancer. We aimed to evaluate the benefits and safety of preoperative EUS-FNA for resectable distal pancreatic cancer.

Methods: The medical records of 304 consecutive patients with suspected distal pancreatic cancer who underwent EUS-FNA were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the clinical benefits of preoperative EUS-FNA. We also reviewed the medical records of 528 patients diagnosed with distal pancreatic cancer who underwent distal pancreatectomy with or without EUS-FNA. The recurrence rates and cancer-free survival periods of patients who did or did not undergo preoperative EUS-FNA were compared.

Results: The diagnostic accuracy of preoperative EUS-FNA was high (sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value 100%; accuracy, 90.7%; negative predictive value, 73.8%). Among patients, 26.7% (79/304) avoided surgery based on the preoperative EUS-FNA findings. Of the 528 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy, 193 patients received EUS-FNA and 335 did not. During follow-up (median 21.7 months), the recurrence rate was similar in the two groups (EUS-FNA, 72.7%; non-EUS-FNA, 75%; P = 0.58). The median cancer-free survival was also similar (P = 0.58); however, gastric wall recurrence was only encountered in the patients with EUS-FNA (n = 2).

Conclusion: Preoperative EUS-FNA is not associated with increased risks of cancer-specific or overall survival. However, clinicians must consider the potential risks of needle tract seeding, and care should be taken when selecting patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08627-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Minimally Invasive Versus Open Pancreatectomy for Right-Sided and Left-Sided G1/G2 Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Multicenter Matched Analysis with an Inverse Probability of Treatment-Weighting Method.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Background: Limited evidence exists for the safety and oncologic efficacy of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PNETs) according to tumor location. This study aimed to compare the surgical outcomes of MIS and open surgery (OS) for right- or left-sided NF-PNETs.

Methods: The study collected data on patients who underwent surgical resection (pancreatoduodenectomy, distal/total/central pancreatectomy, duodenum-preserving pancreas head resection, or enucleation) of a localized NF-PNET between January 2000 and July 2017 at 14 institutions. The inverse probability of treatment-weighting method with propensity scores was used for analysis.

Results: The study enrolled 859 patients: 478 OS and 381 MIS patients. A matched analysis by tumor location showed no differences in resection margin, intraoperative blood loss, or complications between MIS and OS. However, MIS was associated with a longer operation time for right-sided tumors (393.3 vs 316.7 min; P < 0.001) and a shorter postoperative hospital stay for left-sided tumors (8.9 vs 12.9 days; P < 0.01). The MIS group was associated with significantly higher survival rates than the OS group for right- and left-sided tumors, but survival did not differ for the patients divided by tumor grade and location. Multivariable analysis showed that MIS did not affect survival for any tumor location.

Conclusion: The short-term outcomes offered by MIS were comparable with those of OS except for a longer operation time for right-sided NF-PNETs. The oncologic outcomes were not compromised by MIS regardless of tumor location or grade. These findings suggest that MIS can be performed safely for selected patients with localized NF-PNETs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10092-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Current Status and Future Perspectives of Perioperative Therapy for Resectable Biliary Tract Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Review.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a group of aggressive malignancies that arise from the bile duct and gallbladder. BTCs include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IH-CCA), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EH-CCA), and gallbladder cancer (GBCA). BTCs are highly heterogeneous cancers in terms of anatomical, clinical, and pathological characteristics. Until recently, the treatment of resectable BTC, including surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, has largely been based on institutional practice guidelines and evidence from small retrospective studies. Recently, several large randomized prospective trials have been published, and there are ongoing randomized trials for resectable BTC. In this article, we review prior and recently updated evidence regarding surgery, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and adjuvant radiation therapy for patients with resectable BTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037230PMC
April 2021

Development, validation, and comparison of a nomogram based on radiologic findings for predicting malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: An international multicenter study.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Surgery, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Although we previously proposed a nomogram to predict malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and validated it in an external cohort, its application is challenging without data on tumor markers. Moreover, existing nomograms have not been compared. This study aimed to develop a nomogram based on radiologic findings and to compare its performance with previously proposed American and Korean/Japanese nomograms.

Methods: We recruited 3708 patients who underwent surgical resection at 31 tertiary institutions in eight countries, and patients with main pancreatic duct >10 mm were excluded. To construct the nomogram, 2606 patients were randomly allocated 1:1 into training and internal validation sets, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated using 10-fold cross validation by exhaustive search. This nomogram was then validated and compared to the American and Korean/Japanese nomograms using 1102 patients.

Results: Among the 2606 patients, 90 had main-duct type, 900 had branch-duct type, and 1616 had mixed-type IPMN. Pathologic results revealed 1628 low-grade dysplasia, 476 high-grade dysplasia, and 502 invasive carcinoma. Location, cyst size, duct dilatation, and mural nodule were selected to construct the nomogram. AUC of this nomogram was higher than the American nomogram (0.691 vs 0.664, P = .014) and comparable with the Korean/Japanese nomogram (0.659 vs 0.653, P = .255).

Conclusions: A novel nomogram based on radiologic findings of IPMN is competitive for predicting risk of malignancy. This nomogram would be clinically helpful in circumstances where tumor markers are not available. The nomogram is freely available at http://statgen.snu.ac.kr/software/nomogramIPMN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.962DOI Listing
April 2021

Prognostic Impact of Perioperative CA19-9 Levels in Patients with Resected Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 24;10(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

We aimed to examine the predictive value of changes in perioperative carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 levels for patients operated for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA). A total of 322 patients who underwent curative resection for pCCA were divided into three groups: normal preoperative CA19-9 (CA19-9 ≤ 37 U/mL), normalization (preoperative CA19-9 > 37 U/mL, postoperative CA19-9 ≤ 37 U/mL), and non-normalization (pre- and postoperative CA19-9 > 37 U/mL) groups. The association of clinicopathological factors with overall survival (OS) was investigated. The non-normalization group ( = 82) demonstrated significantly worse OS than the normal CA19-9 ( = 114) and normalization ( = 126) groups (5-year OS, 16.9%, 29.4%, and 34.4%, respectively; both ≤ 0.001). The cutoff points of 300 U/mL for preoperative ( = 0.001) and 37 U/mL for postoperative ( < 0.001) CA19-9 levels showed the strongest prognostic values. In the non-normalization group, patients who underwent R1 resection displayed significantly worse OS than those who underwent R0 resection (median OS, 10.2 vs. 15.7 months; = 0.016). Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (hazard ratio (HR), 2.07; < 0.001), postoperative CA19-9 > 37 U/mL (HR, 1.94; < 0.001), transfusion (HR, 1.74; = 0.002), and T stage (T3,4) (HR, 1.67; = 0.006) were related to worse OS. Persistent high CA19-9 level after resection of pCCA and R1 resection, especially in the non-normalization group, was associated with poor OS. A high postoperative CA19-9 level was an independent prognostic factor in resected pCCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036534PMC
March 2021

Lack of Association between Postoperative Pancreatitis and Other Postoperative Complications Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 11;10(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Background: Prediction of post-pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) morbidity is difficult, especially in the early postoperative period when CT (Computed Tomography) scans are not available. Elevated serum amylase and lipase in postoperative day 0 or 1 may be used to define postoperative acute pancreatitis (POAP), but the existing literature does not agree on whether POAP is significantly associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF).

Methods: We analyzed the data obtained from a previously published randomized controlled trial. POAP was defined as elevations in serum amylase above 110 U/L on postoperative day 0 or 1. Clinically relevant POAP (CR-POAP) was defined as elevations in C-reactive protein level (CRP) on postoperative day 2 in those with POAP. Postoperative complications including severe complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ IIIa), POPF, and clinically relevant POPF (CR-POPF) were analyzed.

Results: In 246 patients, POAP did not show significant associations with total postoperative complications (odds ratio (OR) 0.697; 95% CI, 0.360-1.313; = 0.271), severe complications (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.258-1.747; = 0.367), and CR-POPF (OR 0.998; 95% CI, 0.310-3.886; = 0.998) in multivariable analysis.

Conclusions: In patients undergoing PD, POAP was not significantly associated with postoperative complications including POPF. Caution should be taken when using POAP as a predictor of POPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001526PMC
March 2021

Effectiveness of early endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage for postoperative fluid collection.

Surg Endosc 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Postoperative abdominal fluid collections (PAFCs) are a potentially fatal complication of pancreatobiliary surgery. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has recently been shown to be effective in treating PAFCs of more than 4 weeks old. Little is currently known, however, regarding the EUS-guided drainage of PAFCs of less than 4 weeks. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of the early drainage (< 4 weeks) of PAFCs via EUS guidance.

Methods: The data of patients who had undergone EUS-guided PAFC drainage between July 2008 and January 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Data of EUS-guided PAFC drainage were obtained from prospectively collected EUS database of our institute and reviewed of patients' clinical parameters based on electrical medical record.

Results: A total of 48 patients who had undergone EUS-guided PAFC drainage within 4 weeks of pancreatobiliary surgery were enrolled. The indications of procedure included abdominal pain (n = 27), fever (n = 18), leukocytosis (n = 2), and increased size of PAFC during external tube drainage (n = 1). Technical success was achieved in all cases, and the clinical success rate was 95.8% (46/48). Four patients underwent secondary procedures. The median period from surgery to EUS-guide drainage was 14 days (Interquartile range [IQR] 10-16), and median time to resolution was 23.5 days (IQR 8.5-33.8). Adverse events occurred in two cases that were developed intracystic bleeding and were successfully resolved by arterial coil embolization.

Conclusions: Early EUS-guided drainage is a technically feasible, effective, and safe method in patients who have developing PAFCs within 4 weeks of pancreatobiliary surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-08247-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Circulating tumour cells as an indicator of early and systemic recurrence after surgical resection in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 01 18;11(1):1644. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, AMIST, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Early recurrence in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a decisive factor in determining a patient's prognosis. We determined in our current study whether circulating tumour cells (CTCs) exist in the blood of PDAC patients and can be used as a predictor of recurrence patterns (i.e. time and site) after surgical resection. Between December 2017 and November 2018, the mononuclear cell layer was obtained from the peripheral blood of 36 patients diagnosed with PDAC. CTCs were then isolated using the CD-PRIME™ platform and detected via immunostaining. The patient records were analyzed to correlate these data with survival and recurrence patterns. Twelve patients were CTC-positive (33.3%) and showed a significantly frequent rate of systemic recurrence (distant metastases and peritoneal dissemination) (p = 0.025). On multi-variable logistic regression analysis, CTC positivity was an independent risk factor for early recurrence (p = 0.027) and for systemic recurrence (p = 0.033). In summary, the presence or absence of CTC in the blood of the patients with PDAC could help predict the recurrence pattern after surgery. PDAC patients with CTC positivity at tumour diagnosis should therefore undergo a comprehensive strategy for systemic therapy and active monitoring to detect possible early recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80383-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814057PMC
January 2021

Risk prediction for malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: logistic regression versus machine learning.

Sci Rep 2020 11 18;10(1):20140. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Pancreatic Surgery Unit, Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institute At Center for Digestive Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Most models for predicting malignant pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms were developed based on logistic regression (LR) analysis. Our study aimed to develop risk prediction models using machine learning (ML) and LR techniques and compare their performances. This was a multinational, multi-institutional, retrospective study. Clinical variables including age, sex, main duct diameter, cyst size, mural nodule, and tumour location were factors considered for model development (MD). After the division into a MD set and a test set (2:1), the best ML and LR models were developed by training with the MD set using a tenfold cross validation. The test area under the receiver operating curves (AUCs) of the two models were calculated using an independent test set. A total of 3,708 patients were included. The stacked ensemble algorithm in the ML model and variable combinations containing all variables in the LR model were the most chosen during 200 repetitions. After 200 repetitions, the mean AUCs of the ML and LR models were comparable (0.725 vs. 0.725). The performances of the ML and LR models were comparable. The LR model was more practical than ML counterpart, because of its convenience in clinical use and simple interpretability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76974-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676251PMC
November 2020

Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Resected Ampulla of Vater Carcinoma: Retrospective Analysis of 646 Patients.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 9;53(2):424-435. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients with resected ampulla of Vater (AoV) carcinoma.

Materials And Methods: Data from 646 patients who underwent surgical resection at Asan Medical Center between 2000 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: The median age of the patients was 62 years, and 54.2% were male. Patients were classified into AC group (n=165, 25.5%) and no AC group (n=481, 74.5%). With a median follow-up duration of 88 months, in patients with stage I, II, III, median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was not reached, 44 months, and 15 months, respectively, and the median overall survival (OS) were not reached, 88 months and 35 months, respectively. Despite no statistical significance, RFS and OS were better in stage II patients with AC than in those without AC (median RFS, 151 months vs. 38 months; p=0.156 and median OS, 153 months vs. 74 months; p=0.299). In multivariate analysis for RFS and OS, TNM stage, R1 resection status, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion remained significant factors, whereas AC (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 1.00; p=0.052) was marginally related with RFS. After propensity score matching in only stage II/III patients, RFS and OS with AC were numerically longer than those without AC (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.06; p=0.116 and HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.06; p=0.111).

Conclusion: AC with fluoropyrimidine did not improve survival of patients with resected AoV carcinoma. However, multivariate analysis with prognostic factors showed a marginally significant survival benefit with AC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053873PMC
April 2021

Predictors of early recurrence following a curative resection in patients with a carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2020 Nov 28;99(5):259-267. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Ampulla of Vater (AoV) carcinoma has a relatively good prognosis. The 5-year recurrence rate for AoV is still around 40%-50% however, and most recurrences occur in the early period. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of an early recurrence in AoV patients following a curative resection.

Methods: The clinicopathological data for 501 consecutive patients that underwent a resection for AoV in our institute between January 2000 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The characteristics of any recurrences and early recurrence patients were analyzed accordingly. Early recurrence was defined as occurring within one year of resection.

Results: There were 170 diagnosed recurrences in our study population, 57.1% of whom were men, with a mean age of 60.1 years (range, 30-94 years). Almost all of the study patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy, and 9% underwent minimally invasive surgery. Of the 170 recurrent cases, 107 were diagnosed with an early recurrence and had 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates of 77.7%, 18.4%, 10.5%, respectively. The factors that significantly influenced early recurrences, determined by multivariate analysis, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), lymph node ratio (LNR), and poor differentiation were found to be independent determinants of a recurrence within 1 year.

Conclusion: An early recurrence in AoV patients is ultimately lethal even though this cancer has a good prognosis. LVI, LNR, and poor differentiation are powerful predictors of an early recurrence in AoV. Hence, intensive surveillance and new therapeutic strategies should be considered for AoV patients with these predictors following a curative resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2020.99.5.259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606130PMC
November 2020

A comparison of minimally invasive vs open distal pancreatectomy for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Propensity score matching analysis.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2020 Oct 22. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Surgery, Division of Hepato-Biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan college of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Owing to concerns regarding adequate oncological outcomes and perioperative complications, minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has limited generalizability. The aim of this study was to assess the perioperative and oncologic outcomes of MIDP compared with open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) for resectable PDAC after propensity score matching (PSM).

Methods: The patients who underwent MIDP and ODP for PDAC between January 2010 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, perioperative outcomes, pathological outcomes, and overall and disease-free survival data were collected to compare MIDP and ODP. After PSM, perioperative and oncologic outcomes were analyzed.

Results: A total of 156 MIDP patients were compared with 156 ODP patients for resectable PDAC after PSM. Tumor size, TNM stage, differentiation, harvested lymph nodes, and positive lymph nodes were not different except for R1 resection and lymphovascular invasion between the MIDP and ODP groups. Operation times, overall complications, POPF, and adjuvant treatment were also not different between the two groups. The MIDP group had shorter hospital stays (10.0 vs 13.4 days, P < 0.001) and shorter interval times from surgery to adjuvant treatment (37.6 days vs 46.0 days, P = 0.002) than the ODP group. The MIDP group had better overall survival (34.9 vs 24.5 months, P = 0.012) and disease-free survival (16.2 vs 10.3 months, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy has advantages with respect to postoperative hospital stay, interval between surgery, and adjuvant treatment. MIDP is associated with the possibility of improved survival rate for resectable PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.853DOI Listing
October 2020

Assessment of learning curve and oncologic feasibility of robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy: A propensity score-based comparison with open approach.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2020 Oct 15. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Though robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy(R-PD) is gradually adopted, learning curve and its feasibility is still controversial. We analyzed our first 70 R-PD cases, comparing surgical outcomes and feasibility to those of open pancreaticoduodenectomy (O-PD).

Methods: Medical records of 70 patients of R-PD and 269 patients of O-PD between 2015 and 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Cumulative sum analysis was used to determine learning curve. Surgical outcomes were compared between early(1-35) and late cases(36-70). Additional analyses with O-PD using propensity score-matching were done.

Results: Learning curve of R-PD completed after 30 cases. Shorter operative time, lower estimated blood loss, and shorter length of stay were noted in later cases. Complication rate tended to decrease over time. In comparison with O-PD after matching, R-PD showed longer operation time(414.5 minutes vs 244.7 minutes; P < .001), with no differences in estimated blood loss, or length of stay. While overall complication rate was higher in R-PD(45.5% vs 21.8%; P = .010), no statistically significant difference was observed in major complication rates(23.6% vs 10.9%; P = .084). R0 rate was equivalent.

Conclusion: Surgical performance of R-PD improved over time. Learning curve of R-PD completed after 30 cases. R-PD is a promising modality, based on comparison of perioperative and oncologic feasibilities to those of O-PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.837DOI Listing
October 2020

Risk Factors for Recurrence in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor and Size as a Surrogate in Determining the Treatment Strategy: A Korean Nationwide Study.

Neuroendocrinology 2021 1;111(8):794-804. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Surgery, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: The prognostic factors of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) are unclear, and the treatment guidelines are insufficient. This study aimed to suggest a treatment algorithm for PNET based on risk factors for recurrence in a large cohort.

Methods: Data of 918 patients who underwent curative intent surgery for PNET were collected from 14 tertiary centers. Risk factors for recurrence and survival analyses were performed.

Results: The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 86.5%. Risk factors for recurrence included margin status (R1, hazard ratio [HR] 2.438; R2, HR 3.721), 2010 WHO grade (G2, HR 3.864; G3, HR 7.352), and N category (N1, HR 2.273). A size of 2 cm was significant in the univariate analysis (HR 8.511) but not in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.407). Tumor size was not a risk factor for recurrence, but strongly reflected 2010 WHO grade and lymph node (LN) status. Tumors ≤2 cm had lower 2010 WHO grade, less LN metastasis (p < 0.001), and significantly longer 5-year DFS (77.9 vs. 98.2%, p < 0.001) than tumors >2 cm. The clinicopathologic features of tumors <1 and 1-2 cm were similar. However, the LN metastasis rate was 10.3% in 1-2-cm sized tumors and recurrence occurred in 3.0%. Tumors <1 cm in size did not have any LN metastasis or recurrence.

Discussion/conclusion: Radical surgery is needed in suspected LN metastasis or G3 PNET or tumors >2 cm. Surveillance for <1-cm PNETs should be sufficient. Tumors sized 1-2 cm require limited surgery with LN resection, but should be converted to radical surgery in cases of doubtful margins or LN metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511875DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of Flowable Thrombin-Containing Collagen-Based Hemostatic Matrix for Preventing Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 24;9(10). Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Division of Hepato-Biliary Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine & Asan Medical Center, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a flowable hemostatic matrix, and their effects for postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreatectomy.

Methods: This was a randomized, clinical, single-center, single-blind (participant), non-inferiority, phase IV, and parallel-group trial. The primary endpoint was the incidence of POPF. The secondary endpoints were risk factors for POPF, drain removal days, incidence of complication, 90-day mortality, and length of hospital stay.

Results: This study evaluated a total of 53 patients, of whom 26 patients were in the intervention group (flowable hemostatic matrix) and 27 patients were in the control group (thrombin-coated collagen patch). POPF was more common in the control group than in the intervention group (59.3% vs. 30.8%, = 0.037). Among participants who underwent distal pancreatectomy, POPF (33.3% vs. 92.3%, = 0.004), and clinically relevant POPF (8.3% vs. 46.2%, = 0.027) was more common in the control group. A multivariate logistic regression model identified flowable hemostatic matrix use as an independent negative risk factor for POPF, especially in cases of distal pancreatectomy (DP) (odds ratio 17.379, 95% confidential interval 1.453-207.870, p = 0.024).

Conclusion: Flowable hemostatic matrix application is a simple, feasible, and effective method of preventing POPF after pancreatectomy, especially for patients with DP. Non-inferiority was demonstrated in the efficacy of preventing POPF in the intervention group compared to the control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601002PMC
September 2020

FOLFIRINOX in borderline resectable and locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 16;12:1758835920953294. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Despite the scarcity of data based on randomized trials, FOLFIRINOX is widely used in the management of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). We investigated the clinical outcomes of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with BRPC and LAPC.

Methods: This single-center retrospective analysis included a total of 199 consecutive patients with BRPC or LAPC who received conventional or modified FOLFIRINOX between February 2013 and January 2017. An independent radiologist reviewed all baseline computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans were reviewed for vascular invasion status.

Results: With median follow-up duration of 40.3 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 36.7-43.8] in surviving patients, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 10.6 (95% CI, 9.5-11.7) and 18.1 (95% CI, 16.0-20.3) months, respectively. The 1-year PFS rate was 66.0% (95% CI, 65.3-66.7%), and the 2-year OS rate was 37.2% (95% CI, 36.5-37.9%). PFS and OS did not differ between BRPC and LAPC groups [median PFS, 11.1 months (95% CI, 8.8-13.5) 10.1 months (95% CI, 8.4-11.8),  = 0.47; median OS, 18.4 months (95% CI, 16.1-20.8) 17.1 months (95% CI, 13.2-20.9),  = 0.50]. Curative-intent conversion surgery (R0/R1) was performed in 63 patients (31.7%). C•A 19-9 response, objective tumor response to FOLFIRINOX, and conversion surgery were independent prognostic factors for OS.

Conclusion: FOLFIRINOX was effective for management of BRPC and LAPC. Given the potential for cure, a significant proportion of patients can undergo conversion curative-intent surgery following FOLFIRINOX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920953294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498966PMC
September 2020

Arterial resection during pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with arterial invasion: A single-center experience with 109 patients.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Sep;99(37):e22115

Division of Hepato-biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center.

Pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer with arterial invasion is controversial and performed infrequently. As its indication evolves and neoadjuvant chemotherapy also evolves, it is meaningful to identify short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatectomy with arterial resection (AR). This study aimed to retrospectively analyze the clinical outcomes of pancreatectomy with AR for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treated with pancreatectomy with AR at our institute between January 2000 and April 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Operative outcome and survival were compared according to the presence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.This study included 109 patients (38 underwent surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 71 underwent upfront surgery). The median hospital stay was 17 (interquartile range, 12-26.5) days. Clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (grade B or C) occurred in 14 patients (12.8%). The major morbidity (≥grade III) and mortality rates were 26.6% and 0.9%, respectively. R0 resection was achieved in 80 patients (73.4%). Microscopic actual tumor invasion into the arterial wall was identified in 25 patients (22.9%). The median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 18.4 months. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy group showed better OS than the upfront surgery group, without statistical significance (25.3 vs 16.2 months, P = .06). Progression-free survival was better in patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (13.2 vs 7.1 months, P = .01). Patients with partial response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed better OS than those with stable disease (33.7 vs 17.5 months, P = .04).Pancreatectomy with AR for advanced pancreatic cancer showed acceptable procedure-related morbidity and mortality. A survival benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was identified, compared to upfront surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489745PMC
September 2020

Spatial Distribution and Prognostic Implications of Tumor-Infiltrating FoxP3- CD4+ T Cells in Biliary Tract Cancer.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan 31;53(1):162-171. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The clinical implications of tumor-infiltrating T cell subsets and their spatial distribution in biliary tract cancer (BTC) patients treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin were investigated.

Materials And Methods: A total of 52 BTC patients treated with palliative gemcitabine plus cisplatin were included. Multiplexed immunohistochemistry was performed on tumor tissues, and immune infiltrates were separately analyzed for the stroma, tumor margin, and tumor core.

Results: The density of CD8+ T cells, FoxP3- CD4+ helper T cells, and FoxP3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells was significantly higher in the tumor margin than in the stroma and tumor core. The density of LAG3- or TIM3-expressing CD8+ T cell and FoxP3- CD4+ helper T cell infiltrates was also higher in the tumor margin. In extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, there was a higher density of T cell subsets in the tumor core and regulatory T cells in all regions. A high density of FoxP3- CD4+ helper T cells in the tumor margin showed a trend toward better progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.092) and significantly better overall survival (OS) (p=0.012). In multivariate analyses, a high density of FoxP3- CD4+ helper T cells in the tumor margin was independently associated with favorable PFS and OS.

Conclusion: The tumor margin is the major site for the active infiltration of T cell subsets with higher levels of LAG3 and TIM3 expression in BTC. The density of tumor margin-infiltrating FoxP3- CD4+ helper T cells may be associated with clinical outcomes in BTC patients treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812013PMC
January 2021

Predictive Factors Associated with Complications after Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 26;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Although laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) has become more popular, the postoperative complication rate remains high. We sought to identify the risk factors for post-LDP complications. We examined 1227 patients who underwent LDP between March 2005 and December 2015 at a single large-volume center. We used logistic regression for the analysis. The overall (13.2%) and major (3.3%) complication rates were determined. Postoperative pancreatic fistula was the most frequent complication, and 58 patients (4.7%) had clinically significant (grade B) pancreatic fistulas. No 90-day mortality was recorded. Long operative time (≥200 min), large estimated blood loss (≥320 mL), LDP performed by an inexperienced surgeon (<50 cases), and concomitant splenectomy were identified as risk factors for overall complications using a logistic regression model. For major complications, male sex ( = 0.020), long operative time ( = 0.005), and LDP performed by an inexperienced surgeon ( = 0.026) were significant predictive factors. Using logistic regression analysis, surgery-related factors, including long operative time and LDP performed by an inexperienced surgeon, were correlated with overall and major complications of LDP. As LDP is a technically challenging procedure, surgery-related variables emerged as the main risk factors for postoperative complications. Appropriate patient selection and sufficient surgeon experience may be essential to reduce the complications of LDP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563868PMC
August 2020

Surgical Decisions Based on a Balance between Malignancy Probability and Surgical Risk in Patients with Branch and Mixed-Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 26;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Objective: To propose a decision tool considering both malignancy probability and surgical risk for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Background Data Summary: Surgical risk and malignancy probability are both critical factors in making decisions about surgical resection of IPMN.

Methods: We included 800 patients who underwent pancreatic resection for branch duct and mixed-type IPMN (April 1995 to June 2018). A nomogram was used to obtain the malignancy probability (MP-N). The surgical risks were estimated as the postoperative complication rate and serious complication from the ACS NSQIP surgical risk calculator (SC-ACS NSQIP). The risk-benefit analysis was conducted in two ways: calculation of the cutoff value of MP-N using the complication rate and directly comparing the MP-N and SC-ACS NSQIP results.

Results: The optimal cutoff value of MP-N was 32% and 21% in the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and distal pancreatectomy (DP) groups, respectively, when using the major complication rate (Clavien grades III over). When we applied the optimal cutoff value to the two surgical methods, surgery was reduced by 51.7% in the PD group and 56% in the DP group, and the AUC value of the malignant predictions were 0.7126 and 0.7615, respectively. According to the direct comparison of MP-N and SC-ACS NSQIP, surgery was reduced by 31.7%, and the AUC value of malignant prediction was 0.6588.

Conclusion: Our risk-benefit analysis model considering both malignancy probability and surgical risk is relatively acceptable, and it may help surgeons and patients make treatment decisions for a disease with a broad spectrum of malignancy rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565903PMC
August 2020

Clinical features and outcomes of endovascular treatment of latent pseudoaneurysmal bleeding after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

ANZ J Surg 2020 12 6;90(12):E148-E153. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The endovascular treatment is the first-line therapy for late massive arterial haemorrhage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of patients who experienced pseudoaneurysm (PA) bleeding after PD and treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and stent-graft placement (SGP).

Methods: A total of 37 patients (TAE = 16, stent graft = 16, both = 5) had an endovascular treatment due to hepatic artery PA bleeding after PD at our institution from January 2008 to December 2018.

Results: There were 35 men and two women with a mean age of 62 years (range 45-82 years). The latency of bleeding ranged from postoperative days 3 to 46 (median day 21). The most common site of bleeding was gastroduodenal artery stump (n = 22). In TAE group (n = 16), the technical success rate was 100% and the clinical success rate was 87.5%. In SGP group (n = 16), the technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 93.8%. Five patients underwent SGP and TAE simultaneously; TAE was performed to prevent endoleak. A total of three patients experienced hepatic ischaemia (TAE = 2, SGP = 1). However, there was no statistically significant difference of hepatic ischaemia occurrence between the two groups P = 0.55).

Conclusions: In patients with suspected PA, urgent angiography should be considered immediately for diagnosis and treatment. The SGP can be performed first if it is technically feasible. However, TAE is also a safe and effective treatment in patients with intact portal flow, as well as those with preserved collateral pathways after hepatobiliary surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.16184DOI Listing
December 2020
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