Publications by authors named "Khye Seng Goh"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Utility and diagnostic performance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by two immunochromatographic assays as compared with the molecular Genotype assay in Nigeria.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2013 Mar 25;2(1):34-7. Epub 2013 Jan 25.

WHO Supranational TB Reference Laboratory, TB & Mycobacteria Unit, Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe, 97183 Abymes, Guadeloupe, France.

Among the disadvantages of smear microscopy for detection of tuberculosis cases is its inability to differentiate between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This study evaluated two, new immunochromatographic assays - Capilia TB-Neo and SD Bioline - on unheated and heated cultures at 80°C for 30min respectively for their ability to discriminate between MTB complex and NTM as compared with the molecular Genotype assay. Mycobacteria used in the study were obtained from smear-positive specimens collected from patients at four major hospitals in Cross River State, Nigeria. Capilia TB-Neo and SD Bioline showed sensitivities of 98.8% and 93.8% respectively and 100% specificity for both assays. Heating the isolates did not significantly impact the test performance. Both tests are recommended for use in rapid differentiation of strains isolated in Nigeria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2012.12.002DOI Listing
March 2013

A molecular epidemiological and genetic diversity study of tuberculosis in Ibadan, Nnewi and Abuja, Nigeria.

PLoS One 2012 18;7(6):e38409. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Zankli Medical Centre, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Nigeria has the tenth highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) among the 22 TB high-burden countries in the world. This study describes the biodiversity and epidemiology of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB in Ibadan, Nnewi and Abuja, using 409 DNAs extracted from culture positive TB isolates.

Methodology/principal Findings: DNAs extracted from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were studied by spoligotyping and 24 VNTR typing. The Cameroon clade (CAM) was predominant followed by the M. africanum (West African 1) and T (mainly T2) clades. By using a smooth definition of clusters, 32 likely epi-linked clusters related to the Cameroon genotype family and 15 likely epi-linked clusters related to other "modern" genotypes were detected. Eight clusters concerned M. africanum West African 1. The recent transmission rate of TB was 38%. This large study shows that the recent transmission of TB in Nigeria is high, without major regional differences, with MDR-TB clusters. Improvement in the TB control programme is imperative to address the TB control problem in Nigeria.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0038409PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3377642PMC
December 2012

Simple and rapid method for detection of nitrate reductase activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium canettii grown in the Bactec MGIT960 system.

J Microbiol Methods 2010 May 15;81(2):208-10. Epub 2010 Mar 15.

Unité de la Tuberculose et des Mycobactéries, Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, Abymes, Guadeloupe.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis reduces nitrate very strongly as compared to Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG. Nitrate reductase, in conjunction with niacin accumulation, constitutes one of the major biochemical tests used in clinical microbiology laboratories to differentiate M. tuberculosis from other members of the M. tuberculosis complex, as well as nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Determination of nitrate reductase activity is currently performed using cultures grown on solid media with a slow detection time and the need for large quantities of bacilli, as otherwise the test is not reliable. Hereby, we propose a nitrate reduction test coupled to Bactec MGIT960 system as a simple, rapid and economic method with a total gain of time of about 3 to 4weeks over the conventional solid medium. In our study, almost all the M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium canettii strains gave a strongly positive nitrate reductase result within 1day of positive detection by the MGIT960 system. In contrast, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG and M. africanum strains remained negative even after 14days of incubation. The possibility to detect nitrate reductase within 1 to 3days of a positive culture using MGIT960 opens new perspectives with the possibility of confirming M. tuberculosis - starting directly from pathological specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2010.03.005DOI Listing
May 2010

Sequencing of the pncA gene in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has important diagnostic applications: Identification of a species-specific pncA mutation in "Mycobacterium canettii" and the reliable and rapid predictor of pyrazinamide resistance.

J Clin Microbiol 2007 Feb 29;45(2):595-9. Epub 2006 Nov 29.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA.

Testing for susceptibility to pyrazinamide (PZA) and analysis of the pncA gene sequences of 423 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates have revealed a unique silent nucleotide substitution that enables the rapid identification of "M. canettii" (proposed name). Moreover, the lack of a defined mutation within the pncA gene strongly suggests that an alternative mechanism is responsible for PZA resistance. Our results indicate that DNA sequencing of the pncA gene has the potential to shorten the turnaround time and increase the accuracy of PZA susceptibility testing of the M. tuberculosis complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01454-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1829052PMC
February 2007

Study of the gyrB gene polymorphism as a tool to differentiate among Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies further underlines the older evolutionary age of 'Mycobacterium canettii'.

Mol Cell Probes 2006 Jun-Aug;20(3-4):182-90. Epub 2006 Mar 6.

Unité de la Tuberculose et des Mycobactéries, Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe, Morne Jolivière, BP484, F97183 Abymes, Cedex, Guadeloupe.

The present investigation evaluated the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of hsp65 and gyrB targets for differentiation of the species within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) both by including new restriction enzymes and previously unstudied species. The hsp65 restriction analysis using HhaI resulted in a characteristic 'Mycobacterium canettii' pattern. A study of the gyrB gene polymorphism using TaqIalpha and HinfI allowed the initial division of MTC into two major groups, one consisting of M. tuberculosis and 'M. canettii' as opposed to another single group with other species. Three different patterns were observed with RsaI, the first characteristic of Mycobacterium microti, the second with Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis BCG and Mycobacterium caprae (M. caprae was easily separated from M. bovis, and M. bovis BCG by SacII digestion), and the third with M. tuberculosis, 'M. canettii', Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, and the dassie bacillus. Although further discrimination within the last group was not obtained using additional restriction enzymes, the HaeIII and RsaI digestions highlighted an important gyrB polymorphism among 'M. canettii' strains. A study of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the gyrB by sequence analysis not only confirmed the results of the restriction analysis, but showed further differences among 'M. canettii' isolates that were not picked up using the existing battery of restriction enzymes. As many as 11 different SNPs were identified in the collection of eight 'M. canettii' isolates studied. Considering that gyrB variability among MTC member species other than 'M. canettii' is as restricted as hsp65 variability among MTC, our data corroborate a recent proposition that the 'M. canettii' group is evolutionary much older than the other MTC members. In conclusion, gyrB PCR-RFLP is a simple and rapid low-cost method that combined with phenotypic characteristics, may be helpful to differentiate most of the subspecies within the MTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2005.11.008DOI Listing
July 2006

Molecular evolutionary history of tubercle bacilli assessed by study of the polymorphic nucleotide within the nitrate reductase (narGHJI) operon promoter.

J Clin Microbiol 2005 Aug;43(8):4010-4

Unité de la Tuberuclose et des Mycobactéries, Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe.

A well-characterized collection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates, representing all known subspecies as well as some relevant genotypic families of M. tuberculosis, was analyzed for the newly discovered narGHJI -215 C-to-T promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). This point mutation has been shown in earlier studies to be responsible for the differential nitrate reductase activity of M. tuberculosis versus M. bovis. As previously defined by the presence or the absence of the TbD1 genetic locus, the group included both the "modern" W-Beijing, Haarlem, and Central-Asian1 (CAS1) families as well as the "ancestral" East-African-Indian (EAI) clade. Interestingly, among "modern" M. tuberculosis isolates, those previously classified as Principal Genetic Group 1 (PGG1) organisms by katG463-gyrA95 polymorphism analysis did not present the two-banded narGHJI restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR products pattern common to the other PGG1 MTC members, including the "ancestral" M. tuberculosis isolates. Instead, they showed a one-banded pattern, aligning them with other evolutionarily recent M. tuberculosis isolates of the PGG2 and PGG3 groups, such as Haarlem, Latin-American and Mediterranean (LAM), and X families. The presence of a nitrate reductase producer phenotype in "Mycobacterium canettii" and some "ancestral" M. tuberculosis isolates, despite a two-band -215C genotype, argues in favor of an alternate mechanism to explain the differential nitrate reductase activity of certain PGG1 subspecies of the MTC. Overall, these findings may help to establish the precise evolutionary history of important genotype families such as W-Beijing and suggest that the -215T genotype may have contributed the virulence, spread, and evolutionary success of "modern" M. tuberculosis strains compared to the remaining MTC organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.43.8.4010-4014.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1233921PMC
August 2005

Multicenter evaluation of mycobacteria identification by PCR restriction enzyme analysis in laboratories from Latin America and the Caribbean.

J Microbiol Methods 2005 May 25;61(2):193-9. Epub 2004 Dec 25.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo-Escola Paulista de Medicina, Rua Botucatu, 862 3 degrees andar, São Paulo 04023-062, Brazil.

The identification of mycobacterial species in clinical isolates is essential for making patient care decisions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) is a simple and rapid identification method, based on amplification of 441 bp of the hsp65 gene and restriction with BstEII and HaeIII. As a contribution to the validation of PRA, a multicenter study was performed in eight laboratories located in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, and Guadeloupe. Each laboratory received 18 coded isolates from the collection of the Institute of Tropical Medicine (Antwerp, Belgium), representing duplicates of nine laboratory strains: Mycobacterium terrae CIPT 140320001, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum CIPT 140220031, Mycobacterium flavescens ATCC 14474, Mycobacterium triviale ATCC 23292, Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum ATCC 19530, Mycobacterium chitae ATCC 19627, Mycobacterium abscessus ATCC 19977, Mycobacterium kansasii ATCC 12478, and Mycobacterium peregrinum ATCC 14467. A detailed protocol including amplification, enzymatic digestion, and gel preparation was provided to each laboratory. Two laboratories identified correctly all 18 (100%) isolates, one identified correctly 17 (94.5%), two identified 14 (77.7%), one identified 11 (61%), and two identified 8 (44.4%) isolates. Errors detected in laboratories with more than 77% accuracy were associated with electrophoresis running conditions and an unspecific amplicon produced by a single strain. Lower accuracy was mainly related to inappropriate use of DNA markers and insufficient training in interpretation of patterns. In conclusion, the PRA method was readily implemented in some Latin American and Caribbean laboratories of mycobacteria, but improvements in critical points, as gel running conditions and training in interpretiation of patterns, are needed in order to improve accuracy. In others, improvement in critical points is still necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2004.11.015DOI Listing
May 2005

Taxonomic and phylogenetic status of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a Caribbean setting.

Mol Cell Probes 2004 Dec;18(6):399-408

Unité de la Tuberculose et des Mycobactéries, Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, Morne Jolivière, BP 484, F-97165 Pointe-à-Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe France.

This report describes detailed taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of 15 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) isolated from human pathological specimens in a Caribbean setting (12 slow-growers and three rapid-growers) that were not identified by cultural and biochemical tests and drug-susceptibility results. These isolates were further studied using PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of a 441bp hsp65 fragment, as well as the sequencing of 16S rDNA and hsp65 DNA, and HPLC of the mycolic acids. Our results showed that taxonomic position of well-defined NTMs was resolved by PRA and sequencing of hsp65, nonetheless, it was not suitable to investigate rarely observed or new strains that required 16S rDNA sequencing and HPLC for a definite response. Unrooted neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were drawn based upon the 16S rDNA and hsp65 sequences of the 15 NTMs compared with those from described species (73 for 16S rDNA and 45 for hsp65). For most of the NTMs not showing an exactly matching sequence with either hsp65 or 16S rDNA in the GenBank, the phylogenetic tree was able to provide with useful indications about their relatedness to known species. In such a case, a concording HPLC pattern with the sequence data and the place of the strain within the tree could lead to a potential identification. We also identified three identical isolates that define a new mycobacterial species within the group of M. simiae-related mycobacteria. The isolation and characterization of mycobacteria from new settings may lead to identify potential pathogens that may propogate in future because of increased human migration, travels, and climatic and ecological changes of the modern world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2004.06.006DOI Listing
December 2004

Molecular characterization and drug resistance patterns of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients in an AIDS counseling center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a 1-year study.

J Clin Microbiol 2003 Feb;41(2):694-702

Unité de la Tuberculose et des Mycobactéries, Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, F97165 Pointe-à-Pitre Cédex, Guadeloupe.

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common opportunistic diseases that appear among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients in Haiti. In this context the probable emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of great epidemiological concern. However, as routine culture of M. tuberculosis and drug susceptibility testing are not performed in Haiti, it has not been possible so far to evaluate the rate of drug resistance among M. tuberculosis isolates from circulating TB cases. This report describes the first study on the molecular typing and drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates from patients with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis monitored at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti during the year 2000. Clinical, epidemiological, and drug susceptibility testing results were available for 157 patients with confirmed cases of TB, with a total of 8.9% of patients harboring MDR M. tuberculosis. A significant association between the occurrence of resistance and previous TB treatment was observed (P < 0.001), suggesting that a previous history of TB treatment was a risk factor associated with MDR TB in Haiti. The DNAs of individual isolates from 106 samples were available and were typed by spoligotyping and determination of the variable number of tandem DNA repeats. Both typing methods provided interpretable results for 96 isolates, and the clusters observed were further confirmed by ligation-mediated PCR to define potential cases of active transmission. Thirty-three (34%) of the isolates were found to be grouped into 11 clusters with two or more identical patterns. However, an assessment of risk factors (sex, HIV positivity, previous treatment, drug resistance) showed that none was significantly associated with the active transmission of TB. These observations suggest that acquired MDR TB is prevalent in Haiti and may be associated with compliance issues during TB treatment since prior TB therapy is the strongest risk factor associated with MDR TB. Prevention of TB transmission in Haiti should target active case investigation, routine detection of drug resistance, and adequate treatment of patients. The use of directly observed short-course therapy should be enforced throughout the country; and relapses, reactivations, or newly acquired infections should be discriminated by genotyping methods.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC149692PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.41.2.694-702.2003DOI Listing
February 2003

A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis study of Mycobacterium fortuitum in a Caribbean setting underlines high genetic diversity of the strains and excludes nosocomial outbreaks.

Int J Med Microbiol 2002 Jun;292(1):51-7

Unité de la Tuberculose et des Mycobactéries, Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, Pointe-à-Pitre.

Among rapidly-growing opportunistic mycobacteria, organisms of the Mycobacterium fortuitum-Mycobacterium chelonae complex (M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. abscessus and M. peregrinum) were isolated in significantly higher numbers during the period 1993-99 from clinical samples in Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana. Based on biochemical and cultural tests and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp65 gene, 51 isolates from 47 patients were unambiguously identified as M. fortuitum. A molecular epidemiological study by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using DraI and Xbal digestions of bacterial DNA revealed two clusters designated A and B; cluster A was composed of strains showing 10 bands that were isolated from 3 patients in Martinique within a 2-months period in 1999, and the cluster B was composed of 2 strains showing 9 bands from 2 patients in Martinique, also isolated within a 2-months period in 1999. The available epidemiological and clinical information neither incriminated M. fortuitum as a cause of disease in these patients, nor showed any potential epidemiolgical links between them, except for the fact that the samples were processed in the same microbiology laboratory within a short span of time. In conclusion, isolation of M. fortuitum from non-sterile sites in patients without predisposing conditions, and in absence of repeated isolation, may be caused by contaminants or colonizers that are picked up more easily due to improvement of techniques used for mycobacterial isolation and identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/1438-4221-00187DOI Listing
June 2002
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