Publications by authors named "Khalid Mehmood"

173 Publications

Editorial: Trematode Infection in Ruminants.

Front Vet Sci 2021 14;8:719577. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.719577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316615PMC
July 2021

Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota composition diversity in Tibetan piglets suffering from diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC).

Microb Pathog 2021 Jul 23:105106. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Animal Science College, Tibet Agriculture & Animal Husbandry University, Linzhi, China. Electronic address:

This study was ascertained to investigate the adverse effects of pathogenic E. coli on gut microbiota of Tibetan piglets with history of yellow and white dysentery. For this purpose, a total of 18 fecal samples were collected from infected and healthy Tibetan piglets for 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing of V3-V4 region. Results showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidia Fusobacteriota, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota were the predominant bacteria in Tibetan piglets at the level of phylum classification. Results on classification at family level showed that Lactobacillus, Bacteroidota, Fusobacteriota and Enterobacteriaceae were the dominant bacteria. Results on classification of bacteria at phylum level compared with normal piglets indicated that Bacteroidota, Actinobacteriota, Euryarchaota and Spirochaetota in fecal microbial community in Tibetan piglets showing yellow dysenteric and diarrhea group were significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05). Compared with the feces of healthy Tibetan piglets, the abundance of Escherichia-Shigella, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus increased significantly in feces of Tibetan piglets having yellow dysentery and white dysentery. Moreover, results exhibited that the Proteobacteria and Fusobacteriota were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) suggesting dominant microbial community. Results revealed that E. coli induced different pathological alterations in intestine including damage to intestinal epithelial cells, infiltration of inflammatory cells, presence of red blood cells in spaces of tissues, hemorrhages and necrosis of intestinal villi in piglets with history of yellow dysentery. This study for the first time reported the composition, characteristics, and differences of the fecal microflora diversity of Tibetan piglets with yellow and white dysentery in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which can provide a suitable support for effective control of diarrhoeal disease in these animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105106DOI Listing
July 2021

Global research on the air quality status in response to the electrification of vehicles.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 3;795:148861. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Prince Sultan Institute for Environmental, Water and Desert Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Department of Soil Science, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

Electric vehicles (EVs) can substantially decrease atmospheric pollutant emissions, thereby improving air quality, decreasing global warming, and improving human health. In this study, we performed a comprehensive bibliometric analysis using Web of Science to understand the research developments and future perspectives in EVs between 1974 and 2021. The analysis of indicators such as research trends, publication growth, and keywords revealed that most research in the selected timeframe was focused on applying and optimizing the existing technologies of different types of EVs to decrease air pollution and mortality. The changes in air quality owing to such electrification received special attention, with approximately 441 publications preferably in the English language. Among all the retrieved documents, research articles were most common (n = 295; 66.89% of the global output), dominated by the research domains of environmental sciences, followed by energy fuels and transportation science technology. Journal analysis revealed that Sustainability (n = 19, 4.30%) was the leading journal, followed by Journal of Cleaner Production and Science of the Total Environment. The most frequently used keywords were "electric vehicles," "air quality," and "air pollution." The most highly impactful article was published by Jacobson et al. (2005) in Science, with 620 total citations and 38.82 average annual citations. Furthermore, the United States (n = 118; 26.75% of the global output) had the highest publication rate, followed by China and the United Kingdom. The leading institutions were Tsinghua University (n = 16; 3.62% of the global research output) in China, followed by the University of Michigan and Cornell University in the United States. The current analysis warrants more focus on comprehensive analysis employing transport and chemistry modeling and using the latest technology for long life and sustainable batteries. This study provides a basis for future studies on improving air quality through innovative work in the electrification of vehicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148861DOI Listing
July 2021

Development and Characterization of Novel Biopolymer Derived from L. Extract and Its Antidiabetic Potential.

Molecules 2021 Jun 12;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Hail P.O. Box 2440, Saudi Arabia.

(Okra) is an important vegetable crop, widely cultivated around the world due to its high nutritional significance along with several health benefits. Different parts of okra including its mucilage have been currently studied for its role in various therapeutic applications. Therefore, we aimed to develop and characterize the okra mucilage biopolymer (OMB) for its physicochemical properties as well as to evaluate its in vitro antidiabetic activity. The characterization of OMB using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that okra mucilage containing polysaccharides lies in the bandwidth of 3279 and 1030 cm, which constitutes the fingerprint region of the spectrum. In addition, physicochemical parameters such as percentage yield, percentage solubility, and swelling index were found to be 2.66%, 96.9%, and 5, respectively. A mineral analysis of newly developed biopolymers showed a substantial amount of calcium (412 mg/100 g), potassium (418 mg/100 g), phosphorus (60 mg/100 g), iron (47 mg/100 g), zinc (16 mg/100 g), and sodium (9 mg/100 g). The significant antidiabetic potential of OMB was demonstrated using α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory assay. Further investigations are required to explore the newly developed biopolymer for its toxicity, efficacy, and its possible utilization in food, nutraceutical, as well as pharmaceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231194PMC
June 2021

Bicarbonate Therapy in Renally Compromised Critically Ill Patients with Metabolic Acidosis: Study of Clinical Outcomes and Mortality Rate.

Int J Gen Med 2021 24;14:2817-2826. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Pak Emirates Military Hospital (PEMH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Background: Metabolic acidosis is the most frequent medical condition occurring in critically ill renally compromised patients. This study was aimed to determine clinical outcomes of bicarbonate therapy in renally compromised critically ill patients having metabolic acidosis.

Methods: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was undertaken in three military hospitals in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. All patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria who were admitted to the ICU of any of the three study hospitals from July 2019 to March 2020 were studied for clinical outcomes of bicarbonate therapy using an evidence-based clinical checklist. Outcome measures include changes in blood pH, serum potassium, and sodium levels, blood pressure and weight, along with other clinically significant laboratory parameters.

Results: Eighty-one patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 55.61±19.5 years, while the mean weight was 63.43±14.19 Kg. A mortality rate of 45.7% was observed. Disease-related complications including hypoxia, cardiac failure, multiple organ failure, elevated blood pressure, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) were found to be associated with a higher mortality rate (<0.005). Whereas using Fisher's exact test, concomitant administration of sodium chloride, along with bicarbonate therapy was associated with a low mortality rate and had no significant impact on sodium loading or weight gain. Moreover, various drug-drug interactions were found to be associated with a higher mortality rate (<0.05).

Conclusion: Bicarbonate therapy was not found to affect the mortality rate in critically ill renally compromised patients with metabolic acidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S296095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238540PMC
June 2021

Arsenic and antimony co-induced nephrotoxicity via autophagy and pyroptosis through ROS-mediated pathway in vivo and in vitro.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 21;221:112442. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Key Laboratory of Animal Vaccine Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

Arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are commonly accumulated environmental pollutants that often coexist in nature and cause serious widespread biological toxicity. To investigate the nephrotoxicity induced by As and Sb in detail, we explored the mechanism by which As and Sb cotreatment induced autophagy and pyroptosis in vivo and in vitro. In this study, mice were treated with 4 mg/kg arsenic trioxide (ATO) or/and 15 mg/kg antimony trichloride (SbCl) by intragastric intubation for 60 days. TCMK-1 cells were treated with ATO (12.5 μM), SbCl (25 μM) or a combination of As and Sb for 24 h. The results of the in vivo experiment demonstrated that As or/and Sb exposure could induce histopathological changes in the kidneys, and increase the levels of biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity. In addition, As and Sb can co-induce oxidative stress, which further activate autophagy and pyroptosis. In an in vitro experiment, As and/or Sb coexposure increased ROS generation and decreased MMP. Moreover, the results of related molecular experiments further confirmed that As and Sb coactivated autophagy and pyroptosis. In conclusion, our results indicated that As and Sb co-exposure could cause autophagy and pyroptosis via the ROS pathway, and these two metals might have a synergistic effect on nephrotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112442DOI Listing
September 2021

Exposure to the herbicide butachlor activates hepatic stress signals and disturbs lipid metabolism in mice.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 15;283:131226. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Butachlor is a systemic herbicide widely applied on wheat, rice, beans, and different other crops, and is frequently detected in groundwater, surface water, and soil. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the potential adverse health risks and the underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by exposure to butachlor in invertebrates, other nontarget animals, and public health. For this reason, a total of 20 mice were obtained and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental mice in one group were exposed to butachlor (8 mg/kg) and the mice in control group received normal saline. The liver tissues were obtained from each mice at day 21 of the trial. Results indicated that exposure to butachlor induced hepatotoxicity in terms of swelling of hepatocyte, disorders in the arrangement of hepatic cells, increased concentrations of different serum enzymes such as alkaline phosphate (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The results on the mechanisms of liver toxicity indicated that butachlor induced overexpression of Apaf-1, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Cyt-c, p53, Beclin-1, ATG-5, and LC3, whereas decreases the expression of Bcl-2 and p62 suggesting abnormal processes of apoptosis and autophagy. Results on different metabolites (61 differential metabolites) revealed upregulation of PE and LysoPC, whereas downregulation of SM caused by butachlor exposure in mice led to the disruption of glycerophospholipids and lipid metabolism in the liver. The results of our experimental research indicated that butachlor induces hepatotoxic effects through disruption of lipid metabolism, abnormal mechanisms of autophagy, and apoptosis that provides new insights into the elucidation of the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity in mice induced by butachlor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131226DOI Listing
June 2021

Antibiotic-mediated expression analysis of Shiga toxin 1 and 2 in multi-drug-resistant Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Pharmacy, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Havelian, Pakistan.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogens, known to cause enteric infections especially diarrhea, mainly attributed to Shiga toxins (Stxs). The use of certain antibiotics for treating this infection is controversial, owing to an increased risk for producing Stxs (Stx 1 and Stx 2). Increased antibiotic resistance is also thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of STEC diseases. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of antibiotics on induction of Stx 1 and Stx 2 in clinical STEC isolates and to investigate the relationships between increased resistance and Stx production. Fifteen clinical isolates were treated with sub minimum inhibitory concentrations (Sub MIC) of clinically used antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin, tigecycline, and meropenem), and the changes in expression levels of stx1 and stx2 genes were estimated using qRT-PCR. The expressions of Shiga toxins were found to be increased up to 6.5- and eightfold under ciprofloxacin and tigecycline Sub MIC, respectively. Fosfomycin had weak induction effect of up to twofold, whereas meropenem had the weakest influence on such expression. Resistant isolates were found to be more prone to increased expression of toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-021-00882-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Pollution characteristics and human health risk assessments of toxic metals and particle pollutants via soil and air using geoinformation in urbanized city of Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan, China.

Toxic metals and particle pollutants in urbanized cities have significantly increased over the past few decades mainly due to rapid urbanization and unplanned infrastructure. This research aimed at estimating the concentration of toxic metals and particle pollutants and the associated risks to public health across different land-use settings including commercial area (CA), urban area (UA), residential area (RA), and industrial area (IA). A total of 47 samples for both soil and air were collected from different land-use settings of Faisalabad city in Pakistan. Mean concentrations of toxic metals such as Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, and Cd in all land-use settings were 92.68, 4.06, 1.34, 0.16, 0.07, 0.03, and 0.02 mg kg, respectively. Mean values of PM, PM, and Mn in all land-use settings were found 5.14, 1.34, and 1.9 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Mn was found as the most hazardous metal in terms of pollution load index (PLI) and contamination factor (CF) in the studied area. Health risk analysis for particle pollutants using air quality index (AQI) and geoinformation was found in the range between good to very critical for all the land-use settings. The hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were higher for children in comparison to adults, suggesting that children may be susceptible to potentially higher health risks. However, the cancer risk (CR) value for Pb ingestion (1.21 × 10) in children was lower than the permissible limit (1 × 10 to 1 × 10). Nonetheless, for Cr inhalation, CR value (1.09 × 10) was close to tolerable limits. Our findings can be of valuable assistance toward advancing our understanding of soil and air pollutions concerning public health in different land-use settings of the urbanized cities of Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14436-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Structural, Functional, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Cytochrome (CYPD) Protein Family.

Biomed Res Int 2021 10;2021:5574789. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Cytochrome (CYP) enzymes catalyze the metabolic reactions of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The superfamily of enzymes is found across many organisms, regardless of type, except for plants. Information was gathered about CYP2D enzymes through protein sequences of humans and other organisms. The secondary structure was predicted using the SOPMA. The structural and functional study of human CYP2D was conducted using ProtParam, SOPMA, Predotar 1.03, SignalP, TMHMM 2.0, and ExPASy. Most animals shared five central motifs according to motif analysis results. The tertiary structure of human CYP2D, as well as other animal species, was predicted by Phyre2. Human CYP2D proteins are heavily conserved across organisms, according to the findings. This indicates that they are descended from a single ancestor. They calculate the ratio of alpha-helices to extended strands to beta sheets to random coils. Most of the enzymes are alpha-helix, but small amounts of the random coil were also found. The data were obtained to provide us with a better understanding of mammalian proteins' functions and evolutionary relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5574789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128545PMC
May 2021

De novo transcriptome analysis and identification of reproduction control genes from the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(5):e0251278. Epub 2021 May 24.

Economic Entomology Research Unit, Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Recent attacks by the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), have become a severe problem for palm species. In present work, fat body transcriptome of adult female red palm weevil was analyzed, focusing on the identification of reproduction control genes. Transcriptome study was completed by means of next-generation sequencing (NGS) using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing system. A total of 105,938,182 raw reads, 102,645,544 clean reads, and 9,238,098,960 clean nucleotides with a guanine-cytosine content of 40.31%, were produced. The processed transcriptome data resulted in 43,789 unique transcripts (with mean lengths of 1,172 bp). It was found that 20% of total unique transcripts shared up to 80%-100% sequence identity with homologous species, mainly the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae (59.9%) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (26.9%). Nearly 25 annotated genes were predicted to be involved in red palm weevil reproduction, including five vitellogenin (Vg) transcripts. Among the five Vg gene transcripts, one was highly expressed compared with the other four (FPKM values of 1.963, 1.471, 1.028, and 1.017, respectively), and the five Vg gene transcripts were designated as RfVg, RfVg-equivalent1, RfVg-equivalent2, RfVg-equivalent3, and RfVg-equivalent4, respectively. The high expression level of RfVg verified by RT-polymerase chain reaction analysis suggested that RfVg is the primary functional Vg gene in red palm weevil. A high similarity of RfVg with other Coleopterans was also reflected in a phylogenetic tree, where RfVg was placed within the clade of the order Coleoptera. Awareness of the major genes that play critical roles in reproduction and proliferation of red palm weevil is valuable to understand their reproduction mechanism at a molecular level. In addition, for future molecular studies, the NGS dataset obtained will be useful and will promote the exploration of biotech-based control strategies against red palm weevil, a primary pest of palm trees.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251278PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143396PMC
May 2021

Status of Bioinformatics Education in South Asia: Past and Present.

Biomed Res Int 2021 26;2021:5568262. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Bioinformatics education has been a hot topic in South Asia, and the interest in this education peaks with the start of the 21 century. The governments of South Asian countries had a systematic effort for bioinformatics. They developed the infrastructures to provide maximum facility to the scientific community to gain maximum output in this field. This article renders bioinformatics, measures, and its importance of implementation in South Asia with proper ways of improving bioinformatics education flaws. It also addresses the problems faced in South Asia and proposes some recommendations regarding bioinformatics education. The information regarding bioinformatics education and institutes was collected from different existing research papers, databases, and surveys. The information was then confirmed by visiting each institution's website, while problems and solutions displayed in the article are mostly in line with South Asian bioinformatics conferences and institutions' objectives. Among South Asian countries, India and Pakistan have developed infrastructure and education regarding bioinformatics rapidly as compared to other countries, whereas Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal are still in a progressing phase in this field. To advance in a different sector, the bioinformatics industry has to be revolutionized, and it will contribute to strengthening the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and molecular sectors in South Asia. To advance in bioinformatics, universities' infrastructure needs to be on a par with the current international standards, which will produce well-trained professionals with skills in multiple fields like biotechnology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science. The bioinformatics industry has revolutionized and strengthened the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and molecular sectors in South Asia, and it will serve as the standard of education increases in the South Asian countries. A framework for developing a centralized database is suggested after the literature review to collect and store the information on the current status of South Asian bioinformatics education. This will be named as the South Asian Bioinformatics Education Database (SABE). This will provide comprehensive information regarding the bioinformatics in South Asian countries by the country name, the experts of this field, and the university name to explore the top-ranked outputs relevant to queries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5568262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096557PMC
June 2021

Exploring the Potential of Interferon Gamma Gene as Major Immune Responder for Bovine Tuberculosis in River Buffalo.

Biomed Res Int 2021 5;2021:5532864. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan.

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a widespread zoonotic infection targeting the livestock sector, especially in developing countries, and posing a risk to humans and animal populations. Its recent prevalence in river buffaloes has been estimated as higher as 33.7%. In emergent countries like Pakistan, there is likeliness of human-livestock interfaces extensively and lacking of effective preventive measures that illustrate the risk of spreading the infection at a remarkable rate. The river buffalo () is an upkeep host of and is responsible for disease transmission among buffaloes and other livestock species. In this study, potential molecular biomarkers in the Interferon-gamma gene (IFNg) were identified after genomic screening of river buffaloes. Unique genomic loci in river buffalo proved the novelty of the genomic structure of this phenomenal animal but also highlighted its significance in natural immunity against the . A total of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the coding region of IFNg. The SNPs in the exonic region were all transitions, i.e., the conversion of purines to purines. These SNPs were analyzed for Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, chi test, gene diversity, and protein structural conformation. Pathway analysis in tuberculosis revealed that IFNg inhibits the antigen-presenting cells (APC) through JAK and STAT pathways. Network analysis of IFNg proteins in both species showed strong associations among the immunity-related proteins (interleukins, tissue necrosis factors) and receptors of interferons. The identified polymorphic sites might be novel-potentiated markers for the selection of animals with superior immune response against bTB and can be exploited as promising genomic sites for breeding the resistant animal herds to combat infection in a long run.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5532864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046533PMC
May 2021

Long-term exposure to the fluoride blocks the development of chondrocytes in the ducks: The molecular mechanism of fluoride regulating autophagy and apoptosis.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 14;217:112225. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

Long-term exposure to excessive fluoride causes chronic damage in the body tissues and could lead to skeletal and dental fluorosis. Cartilage damage caused by excessive fluoride intake has gained wide attention, but how fluoride accumulation blocks the development of chondrocytes is still unclear. Here, we report a negative correlation between the length and growth plate width after NaF treatments via apoptosis and autophagy, with shrinkage of cells, nuclear retraction, dissolution of chondrocytes. Whereas, fluoride exposure had no significant effect on the number and distribution of the osteoclasts which were well aligned. More importantly, fluoride exposure induced apoptosis of tibial bone through CytC/Bcl-2/P53 pathways via targeting Caspase3, Caspase9, Bak1, and Bax expressions. Meanwhile, the Beclin1, mTOR, Pakin, Pink, and p62 were elevated in NaF treatment group, which indicated that long-term excessive fluoride triggered the autophagy in the tibial bone and produced the chondrocyte injury. Altogether, fluoride exposure induced the chondrocyte injury by regulating the autophagy and apoptosis in the tibial bone of ducks, which demonstrates that fluoride exposure is a risk factor for cartilage development. These findings revealed the essential role of CytC/Bcl-2/P53 pathways in long-term exposure to fluoride pollution and block the development of chondrocytes in ducks, and CytC/Bcl-2/P53 can be targeted to prevent fluoride induced chondrocyte injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112225DOI Listing
July 2021

Mosquito-borne infectious diseases in China, 2019.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 May-Jun;41:102050. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.102050DOI Listing
July 2021

Environmental fluoride exposure disrupts the intestinal structure and gut microbial composition in ducks.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 19;277:130222. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Fluorine (F) and its compounds produced from industrial production and coal combustion can cause air, water and soil contamination, which can accumulate in animals, plants and humans via food chain threatening public health. Fluoride exposure affects liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and reproductive system in humans and animals. Literature regarding fluoride influence on intestinal structure and microbiota composition in ducks is scarce. This study was designed to investigate these effects by using simple and electron microscopy and 16S rRNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated an impaired structure with reduced relative distribution of goblet cells in the fluoride exposed group. Moreover, the gut microbiota showed a significant decrease in alpha diversity. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla in both control and fluoride-exposed groups. Specifically, fluoride exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the relative abundance of 9 bacterial phyla and 15 bacterial genera. Among them, 4 phyla (Latescibacteria, Dependentiae, Zixibacteria and Fibrobacteres) and 4 genera (Thauera, Hydrogenophaga, Reyranella and Arenimonas) weren't even detectable in the gut microbiota of the ducks. In summary, higher fluoride exposure can significantly damage the intestinal structure and gut microbial composition in ducks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130222DOI Listing
August 2021

Microbiome Analysis Reveals the Attenuation Effect of From Yaks on Diarrhea Modulation of Gut Microbiota.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 16;10:610781. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Animal Science College, Tibet Agriculture & Animal Husbandry University, Linzhi, China.

Domestic yaks () are indigenous to the Tibetan Plateau and display a high diarrhea rate due to poor habitat and husbandry conditions. has been shown to exert beneficial effects as antimicrobial, growth promotion, and gut microbiota in humans and/or murine models, but the relevant data regarding isolated from yaks was unavailable. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of from yaks on the intestinal microbial community in a mouse model and determine whether supplementation contributed in alleviating diarrhea by modulating gut microbiota. A total of 12 ileac samples from four groups were collected for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3-V4 region. Results revealed that although supplementation did not change the diversity of gut microbiota in mice, the proportion of some intestinal microbiota significantly changed. Specifically, the proportion of and in the treated-group (L-group) were increased as compared to control group (C-group), whereas , , , , , , , , , and were significantly decreased in the L-group. In contrast, () infection significantly decreased the proportion of beneficial bacteria such as , , , and , while loads of pathogenic bacteria significantly increased including and . Interestingly, administration could ameliorate the microbial community structure of -induced diarrheal mice by reducing the relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria such as , , , , , , and . Results in this study revealed that supplementation not only improved the gut microbiota but also alleviated diarrhea in mice, which may be mediated by modulating the composition and function of gut microbiota. Moreover, this study is expected to provide a new theoretical basis for the establishment of a preventive and treatment system for diarrhea in yaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.610781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920975PMC
June 2021

Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) expression is linked with thiram induced chondrocyte's apoptosis via Bcl-2/Bax/Caspase-3 signalling in tibial growth plate under chlorogenic acid repercussion.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 27;213:112059. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, PR China; College of Animals Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Tibet Agricultural and Animal Husbandry University, Linzhi, Tibet 860000, PR China. Electronic address:

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a metabolic disease of young poultry that affects bone andcartilage's growth. It mostly occurs in broilers due to thiram toxicity in the feed. In this disease, tibial cartilage is not yet ripe for ossification, but it also results in lameness, death, and moral convictions of commercial poultry due to numerous apoptotic changes on cell level. These changes serve a cardinal role in this situation. Many potential problems indicate that chlorogenic acid (CGA) performs an extensive role in controlling apoptosis's perception. However, the actual role of CGA in TD affected chondrocytes in-vitro is still unidentified. The current study investigates the imperceptible insight of CGA on chondrocyte's apoptosis via B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated x-protein (Bax), and Caspase-3 with CD147 signalling. The expression of these markers was investigated by Immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain (RT-qPCR). Chondrocytes from the growth plate of tibia were isolated, cultured, and processed. A sub-lethal thiram (2.5 μg/mL) was used to induce cytotoxicity and then treated with an optimum dose (40 μg/ mL) of CGA. According to the results, thiram distorted chondrocyte cells with enhanced apoptotic rate. But, in case of CGA, high expression of CD147 enhanced cell viability of chondrocytes, accompanied by downregulation of Bax/Caspase-3 signalling with the upregulation of Bcl-2. The first possibility has ruled out in the present study by the observation that the cells apoptosis marker, Caspase-3 showed a significant change in CD147 overexpressing cells. Conversely, immunodepletion of CD147 with enhanced cleavage of Caspase-3, indicating the activation of apoptosis in chondrocytes cells. Therefore, these findings suggest a novel insight about CD147 in thiram induced TD about the regulation of Bcl-2/Bax/Caspase-3 apoptosis-signalling axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112059DOI Listing
April 2021

Investigating connections between COVID-19 pandemic, air pollution and community interventions for Pakistan employing geoinformation technologies.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 29;272:129809. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Agronomy, University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Several major cities that witnessed heavy air pollution by particulate matter (PM) concentration and nitrogen dioxide (NO) have contributed to high rate of infection and severity of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Owing to the negative impact of COVID-19 on health and economy, it is imperative to predict the pandemic trend of the COVID-19 outbreak. Pakistan is one of the mostly affected countries by recent COVID-19 pandemic in terms of COVID-cases and economic crises. Like other several Asian countries to combat the virus impacts, Pakistan implemented non-pharmacological interventions (NPI), such as national lockdowns. The current study investigates the effect of major interventions across three out of four provinces of Pakistan for the period from the start of the COVID-19 in March 22, 2020 until June 30, 2020, when lockdowns were started to be eased. High-resolution data on NO was recorded from Sentinel-5's Precursor spacecraft with TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (Sentinel-5P TROPOMI). Similarly, PM data were collected from sampling sties to investigate possible correlation among these pollutants and COVID-19. In addition, growth and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) models utilizing time-series data of COVID-19 from February 26 to December 31, 2020, with- and without NPI that encompass the predicted number of infected cases, peak time, impact on the healthcare system and mortality in Pakistan. Maximum mean PM concentration of 108 μgm was recorded for Lahore with the range from 51 to 215 μgm during strict lockdown (L), condition. This is three times higher than Pak-EPA and US-EPA and four times for WHO guidelines, followed by Peshawar (97.2 and 58 ± 130), Islamabad (83 and 158 ± 58), and Karachi (78 and 50 ± 140). The majority of sampling sites in Lahore showed NO levels higher than 8.75E-5 (mol/m) in 2020 compared to 2019 during "L" period. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model depicted a strong correlation (r) between the predicted and reported cases for Punjab (r = 0.79), Sindh (r = 0.91), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) (r = 94) and Islamabad (r = 0.85). Findings showed that major NPI and lockdowns especially have had a large effect on minimizing transmission. Continued community intervention should be undertaken to keep transmission of SARS-CoV-2 under control in cities where higher incidence of COVID-19 cases until the vaccine is available. This study provides a methodological framework that if adopted can assist epidemiologist and policy makers to be well-prepared in advance in cities where PM concentration and NO levels are already high in order to minimize the potential risk of further spread of COVID-19 cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846247PMC
June 2021

Acetyl-L-Carnitine Induces Autophagy to Promote Mouse Spermatogonia Cell Recovery after Heat Stress Damage.

Biomed Res Int 2021 18;2021:8871328. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an effective substrate for mitochondrial energy metabolism and is known to prevent neurodegeneration and attenuate heavy metal-induced injury. In this study, we investigated the function of ALC in the recovery of mouse spermatogonia cells (GC-1 cells) after heat stress (HS). The cells were randomly divided into three groups: control group, HS group (incubated at 42°C for 90 min), and HS + ALC group (treatment of 150 M ALC after incubated at 42°C for 90 min). After heat stress, all of the cells were recovered at 37°C for 6 h. In this study, the content of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the cell supernatant and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly increased in the HS group compared to the CON group. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was markedly decreased, while the apoptosis rate and the expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase3) were significantly increased in the HS group compared to the CON group. Furthermore, the number of autophagosomes and the expression of autophagy-related genes (Atg5, Beclin1, and LC3II) and protein levels of p62 were increased, but the expression of LAMP1 was decreased in the HS group compared to the CON group. However, treatment with ALC remarkably improved cell survival and decreased cell oxidative stress. It was unexpected that levels of autophagy were markedly increased in the HS + ALC group compared to the HS group. Taken together, our present study evidenced that ALC could alleviate oxidative stress and improve the level of autophagy to accelerate the recovery of GC-1 cells after heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8871328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837762PMC
May 2021

Okra () as a Potential Dietary Medicine with Nutraceutical Importance for Sustainable Health Applications.

Molecules 2021 Jan 28;26(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Hail 2440, Saudi Arabia.

Recently, there has been a paradigm shift from conventional therapies to relatively safer phytotherapies. This divergence is crucial for the management of various chronic diseases. Okra ( L.) is a popular vegetable crop with good nutritional significance, along with certain therapeutic values, which makes it a potential candidate in the use of a variety of nutraceuticals. Different parts of the okra fruit (mucilage, seed, and pods) contain certain important bioactive components, which confer its medicinal properties. The phytochemicals of okra have been studied for their potential therapeutic activities on various chronic diseases, such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular, and digestive diseases, as well as the antifatigue effect, liver detoxification, antibacterial, and chemo-preventive activities. Moreover, okra mucilage has been widely used in medicinal applications such as a plasma replacement or blood volume expanders. Overall, okra is considered to be an easily available, low-cost vegetable crop with various nutritional values and potential health benefits. Despite several reports about its therapeutic benefits and potential nutraceutical significance, there is a dearth of research on the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of okra, which has hampered its widespread use in the nutraceutical industry. This review summarizes the available literature on the bioactive composition of okra and its potential nutraceutical significance. It will also provide a platform for further research on the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of okra for its possible commercial production as a therapeutic agent against various chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865958PMC
January 2021

Novel Antibiotic Combinations of Diverse Subclasses for Effective Suppression of Extensively Drug-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant (MRSA).

Int J Microbiol 2020 29;2020:8831322. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant (MRSA), the chief etiological agent for a range of refractory infections, has rendered all -lactams ineffective against it. The treatment process is further complicated with the development of resistance to glycopeptides, primary antibiotics for treatment of MRSA. Antibiotic combination therapy with existing antimicrobial agents may provide an immediate treatment option. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 18 different commercially available antibiotics were determined along with their 90 possible pairwise combinations and 64 triple combinations to filter out 5 best combinations. Time-Kill kinetics of these combinations were then analyzed to find collateral bactericidal combinations which were then tested on other randomly selected MRSA isolates. Among the top 5 combinations including levofloxacin-ceftazidime; amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-tobramycin; amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-cephradine; amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-ofloxacin; and piperacillin/tazobactam-tobramycin, three combinations were found to be collaterally effective. Levofloxacin-ceftazidime acted synergistically in 80% of the tested clinical MRSA isolates. First-line -lactams of lower generations can be used effectively against MRSA infection when used in combination. Antibiotics other than glycopeptides may still work in combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8831322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803158PMC
October 2020

The hepatotoxicity of altrazine exposure in mice involves the intestinal microbiota.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 11;272:129572. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Atrazine (ATR), a bio accumulative herbicide is frequently used in agriculture to control unwanted weeds. Due to continuous application, atrazine persists in the environment and causes deleterious impacts including neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and gut microbiota disorders. Therefore, this study for the first time reports the variation in the gut microbiota, induction of process of apoptosis and autophagy in mice induced by ATR. Results indicated that TUNEL-positive hepatocytes suggestive of apoptosis were increased in livers of different experimental mice. Results on metabolic analysis in liver tissues indicated an overall change in seventy-six metabolites particularly Uridine 5'-diphosphate, Propenoylcarnitine and Chinenoside V resulting in generation of energy-related metabolic disorders and imbalance of oxidation/autoxidation status. Results on gut microbiome inquisition showed that ATR changed the richness and diversity of gut microbiota of mice and number of Firmicutes. Moreover, results also revealed that ATR induced apoptosis via disruption of apoptotic (Bax, Bcl2, and Casp3) and autophagy (LC3/Map1lc3a, Beclin 1/Becn1 and P62/Sqstm1) genes. Results of our experimental study confirmed that changes in gut microbiota play a significant role in process of gut immune regulation and inflammation via different metabolites. In conclusion, the findings of our study provide a new idea for the involvement of mechanisms of detoxification in liver and inquisition of gut microbiota plays crucial role in regulation of physiological activities through liver-gut axis to mitigate toxic effects in animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129572DOI Listing
June 2021

Spatiotemporal variability of COVID-19 pandemic in relation to air pollution, climate and socioeconomic factors in Pakistan.

Chemosphere 2021 May 10;271:129584. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops,Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China; Department of Agronomy, The University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 21120, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Information on the spatiotemporal variability of respirable suspended particulate pollutant matter concentrations, especially of particles having size of 2.5 μm and climate are the important factors in relation to emerging COVID-19 cases around the world. This study aims at examining the association between COVID-19 cases, air pollution, climatic and socioeconomic factors using geospatial techniques in three provincial capital cities and the federal capital city of Pakistan. A series of relevant data was acquired from 3 out of 4 provinces of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) including the daily numbers of COVID-19 cases, PM concentration (μgm), a climatic factors including temperature (°F), wind speed (m/s), humidity (%), dew point (%), and pressure (Hg) from June 1 2020, to July 31 2020. Further, the possible relationships between population density and COVID-19 cases was determined. The generalized linear model (GLM) was employed to quantify the effect of PM, temperature, dew point, humidity, wind speed, and pressure range on the daily COVID-19 cases. The grey relational analysis (GRA) was also implemented to examine the changes in COVID-19 cases with PM concentrations for the provincial city Lahore. About 1,92, 819 COVID-19 cases were reported in Punjab, Sindh, KPK, and Islamabad during the study period. Results indicated a significant relationship between COVID-19 cases and PM and climatic factors at p < 0.05 except for Lahore in case of humidity (r = 0.175). However, mixed correlations existed across Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, and Islamabad. The R value indicates a moderate relationship between COVID-19 and population density. Findings of this study, although are preliminary, offers the first line of evidence for epidemiologists and may assist the local community to expedient for the growth of effective COVID-19 infection and health risk management guidelines. This remains to be seen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797023PMC
May 2021

Association of hepatitis E seropositivity and altered progesterone levels in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status from capital region of Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Dec;70(12(A)):2119-2123

Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Atta ur Rehman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB), NUST, Islamabad.

Objective: To investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus infection, risk factors and its association with progesterone levels in pregnant women from low socioeconomic background.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, from January to July 2012, and comprised pregnant asymptomatic healthy females from different clinics and hospitals of the twin cities. Data was collected using a predesigned demographic questionnaire to determine socioeconomic status. Prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies and progesterone levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.

Results: Of the 90 women, 35(39%) were in the 21-25 year age group, and 55(61%) belonged to low socioeconomic background. The overall prevalence of seropositive hepatitis E virus immunoglobulin-G was 54(60%) and immunoglobulin-M was 12(13.3%). In the first trimester, the levels of progesterone were higher in patients positive for immunoglobulin-M compared to immunoglobulin-G (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Low socioeconomic status appeared to be a potential risk factor associated with high hepatitis E virus seroprevalence and alterations in the normal progesterone levels during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.03-335DOI Listing
December 2020

Immunoinformatics Driven Prediction of Multiepitopic Vaccine Against and Coinfection and Its Validation via In Silico Expression.

Int J Pept Res Ther 2020 Nov 30:1-13. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Atta ur Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

e and coinfection is one of the most lethal combinations that has been becoming frequent yet, not diagnosed and reported properly. Due to the simultaneous occurrence of both infections, diagnosis is delayed leading to inadequate treatments and mortality. With the rise of MDR and , a prophylactic and an immunotherapeutic vaccine has to be entailed for preemptive and adroit therapeutic approach. In this study, we aim to implement reverse vaccinology approach that encompasses a comprehensive evaluation of vital aspects of the pathogens to explore immunogenic epitopes against Omp A of Klebsiella and Rv1698, Rv1973 of Mtb that may help in vaccine development. The designed multi-epitopic vaccine was assessed for antigenicity, allergenicity and various physiochemical parameters. Molecular docking and simulations were executed to assess the immunogenicity and complex stability of the vaccine. The final multi-epitopic vaccine is validated to be highly immunogenic and can serve as a valuable proactive remedy for subject pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10989-020-10144-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703501PMC
November 2020

Treatment of tibial dyschondroplasia with traditional Chinese medicines: "Lesson and future directions".

Poult Sci 2020 Dec 8;99(12):6422-6433. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a metabolic tibiotarsal bone disease in rapidly growing birds throughout the world, which is characterized by gait disorders, reduced growth, and in an unrecoverable lameness in many cases. The short production cycle in chickens, long metabolism cycle in most of the drugs with the severe drug residue, and high treatment cost severely restrict the enthusiasm for the treatment of TD. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for the prevention, treatment, and cure of avian bone diseases. Previously, a couple of traditional Chinese medicines has been reported being useful in treating TD. This review will discuss the TCM used in TD and the alternative TCM to treat TD. Selecting a TCM approach and its pharmacologic effects on TD chickens mainly focused on the differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of chondrocytes, angiogenesis, matrix metabolism, oxidative damage, cytokines, and calcification of cartilage in tibia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.08.055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704743PMC
December 2020

Evaluating the Contribution of Growth, Physiological, and Ionic Components Towards Salinity and Drought Stress Tolerance in .

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 13;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 13.

National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Salinity and drought stress, singly or in combination, are major environmental menaces. L. is a biodiesel plant that can tolerate long periods of drought. However, the growth performance and stress tolerance based on physical, chemical, and physiological attributes of this plant have not yet been studied. To address this question, seedlings were grown in a completely randomized design in plastic pots filled with soil to evaluate the effects of salinity and drought stresses on growth, ionic composition, and physiological attributes. The experiment consisted of six treatments: control (without salinity and drought stress), salinity alone (7.5 dS m, 15 dS m), drought, and a combination of salinity and drought (7.5 dS m+ Drought, 15 dS m+Drought). Our results revealed that, compared with the control, both plant height (PH) and stem diameter (SD) were reduced by (83%, 80%, and 77%) and (69%, 56%, and 55%) under salinity and drought combination (15 dS m+Drought) after three, six, and nine months, respectively. There was 93% more leaf Na found in plants treated with 15 dS m+Drought compared with the control. The highest significant average membrane stability index (MSI) and relative water content (RWC) values (81% and 85%, respectively) were found in the control. The MSI and RWC were not influenced by 7.5 dS m and drought treatments and mostly contributed towards stress tolerance. Our findings imply that is moderately tolerant to salinity and drought. The Na toxicity and disturbance in K: Na ratio were the main contributing factors for limited growth and physiological attributes in this plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696781PMC
November 2020

Effect of total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae in thiram induced cytotoxicity of chondrocyte via BMP-2/Runx2 and IHH/PTHrP expressions.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Dec 28;206:111194. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, PR China; College of Animals Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Tibet Agricultural and Animal Husbandry University, Linzhi, Tibet, 860000, PR China. Electronic address:

Tibial Dyschondroplasia (TD) is a prevailing skeletal disorder that mainly affects rapidly growing avian species. It results in reduced bone strength, lameness and an increase risk of fragility fractures. Total flavonoids of Rhizoma drynariae (TFRD) have been used as an effective treatment of different bone diseases in humans. The current in vitro study was conducted to explore the therapeutic effect of TFRD on thiram-induced cytotoxicity in avian growth plate cells via bone morphogenetic protein-2/runt related transcription factor-2 (BMP-2/Runx2) and Indian hedgehog/Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (IHH/PTHrP) expressions. Chondrocytes were isolated, cultured and refined from chicken's tibial growth plates in a special medium. Then chondrocytes were treated with sublethal thiram having less concentration (2.5 μg/mL) to induce cytotoxicity of chondrocyte, and then treated with providential doses (100 μg/mL) of TFRD. Thiram caused distorted morphology of chondrocytes, nuclei appeared disintegration or lysed along with decreased expressions of BMP-2/Runx2 and IHH/PTHrP. TFRD administration not only enhanced the viability of chondrocytes by itself, but also well restored the damage caused by thiram on growth plate chondrocytes by significantly up-regulating the expressions of BMP-2/Runx2 and IHH/PTHrP. Therefore, this study provides a novel insight into the further treatment of TD and other skeletal ailments and lays the foundation for prevention and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111194DOI Listing
December 2020

Potential influence of Nagella sativa (Black cumin) in reinforcing immune system: A hope to decelerate the COVID-19 pandemic.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 10;85:153277. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

The world is witnessing a difficult time. The race of developing a new coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine is becoming more urgent. Many preliminary studies on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 patients have provided some clues to treat this pandemic. However, no suitable treatment has found yet. Various symptoms of patients infected with COVID-19 indicated the importance of immune regulation in the human body. Severe cases admitted to the intensive care unit showed high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines which enhanced the disease severity. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients is another critical factor of disease severity and mortality. So, Immune modulation is the only way of regulating immune system. Nigella sativa has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. The components of this plant are known for its intense immune-regulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant benefits in obstructive respiratory disorders. A molecular docking study also gave evidences that N. sativa decelerates COVID-19 and might give the same or better results than the FDA approved drugs. The aim of this review was to investigate the possible immune-regulatory effects of N. sativa on COVID-19 pandemic. Our review found N. sativa's Thymoquinone, Nigellidine, and α-hederin can be a potential influencer in reinforcing the immune response on molecular grounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347483PMC
May 2021
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