Publications by authors named "Khalid Ali Khan"

61 Publications

A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor CabHLH113 positively regulate pepper immunity against Ralstonia solanacearum.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 5:104909. Epub 2021 May 5.

Innovative Institute for Plant Health, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, 510225, People's Republic of China; College of Agriculture and Biology, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, 510225, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Pepper's (Capsicum annum) response to bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearm inoculation (RSI) and abiotic stresses is known to be synchronized by transcriptional network; however, related molecular mechanisms need extensive experimentation. We identified and characterized functions of CabHLH113 -a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor-in pepper immunity to R. solanacearum infection. The RSI and foliar spray of phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ethylene (ETH), and absicic acid (ABA) induced transcription of CabHLH113 in pepper. Loss of function of CabHLH113 by virus-induced-gene-silencing (VIGS) compromised defense of pepper plants against RSI and suppressed relative expression levels of immunity-associated marker genes, i.e., CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, CaHIR1 and CaABR1. Pathogen growth was significantly increased after loss of function of CabHLH113 compared with un-silenced plants with remarkable increase in pepper susceptibility. Besides, transiently over-expression of CabHLH113 induced HR-like cell death, HO accumulation and up-regulation of defense-associated marker genes, e.g. CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, CaHIR1 and CaABR1. Additionally, transient over-expression of CabHLH113 enhanced the transcriptional levels of CaWRKY6, CaWRKY27 and CaWRKY40. Conversely, transient over-expression of CaWRKY6, CaWRKY27 and CaWRKY40 enhanced the transcriptional levels of CabHLH113. Collectively, our results indicate that newly characterized CabHLH113 has novel defense functions in pepper immunity against RSI via triggering HR-like cell death and cellular levels of defense linked genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104909DOI Listing
May 2021

Interference of horse purslane ( L.) and other weeds affect yield of autumn planted maize ( L.).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 20;28(4):2291-2300. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

To assess comparative losses of (HP) relative to other weeds, the experiment was set during consecutive summer seasons 2018 and 2019 at the Research Farm MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan. Experiment consisted three replications which were laid out under randomized complete block design. Experiment consisted of ten treatments viz: weeds free (whole season), HP free till 20 Days after emergence (DAE), HP free till 40 DAE, HP free till 60 DAE, all weeds free 20 DAE, all weeds free 40 DAE, all weeds free 60 DAE, weedy check (all weeds), weedy check except HP and weedy check containing only HP. During 2018 in all weeds weedy check, maximum HP relative density (33.33%) was observed while in 2019, plot where weeds were controlled from growing till 20 DAE showed (80%) relative density at 30 DAE. HP maximum frequency (66.67%, 77.78%) and relative frequency (66%, 100%) was recorded at 45 DAE in plots where HP was kept controlled till 20 DAE and all weeds kept controlled till 20 DAE, respectively. Maximum number of grains per cob (738, 700.68), 1000 grain weight (306.66, 271.51 g) and grain yield (6150, 8015 kg hec) were recorded in plots which were kept all weed free till 60 DAE. As the competition period of weeds increased over 40 DAE, it substantially reduced yield of maize. Keeping the plots HP free till 40 DAE in the maize fields with HP as the major dominating weed, likely increase in maize grain yield is up to 30% compared to the fields where HP left un attended throughout the growing season. However, if maize field is infested with a mix of weeds with more than one dominating weeds including HP, compared to weedy situation the whole season, 30% higher grain yield can be obtained if all weeds are kept controlled till 40 DAE. Hence it can be concluded that whether the farmers face heavy HP infestation only or the mix of weeds as dominating weeds, in either case farmer should control weeds within first 40 days in maize field for better grain yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071965PMC
April 2021

Queen cells acceptance rate and royal jelly production in worker honey bees of two Apis mellifera races.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0248593. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Unit of Bee Research and Honey Production, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Royal jelly (RJ) is an acidic yellowish-white secretion of worker honey bee glands, used as food material of worker bee larvae for the first three days and queen bee larvae for the entire life. It is commercially used in cosmetics and medicinal industry in various parts of the world. This study determined the queen cell acceptance rate and RJ production difference among Italian and Carniolan bee races. Furthermore, the effect of plastic cup cell priming media, diets and seasons were tested on the larval cell acceptance rate and RJ yield of both races. The results indicated that average queen cell acceptance rate was significantly (p<0.001) higher in Italian race (75.53 ± 1.41%) than Carniolan race (58.20 ± 1.30%). Similarly, mean RJ yield per colony significantly (p<0.001) differed between both bee races, which were 13.10 ± 0.42 g and 9.66 ± 0.43 g, in Italian and Carniolan races, respectively. Moreover, priming media, diets and seasons significantly (p<0.001) affected queen cell acceptance rate and RJ production of both bee races. This study would help breeders to select the bees with higher-level of queen cell acceptance rate and RJ production in the future.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248593PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043409PMC
April 2021

Immune investigation of the honeybee broods: A step toward production of a bee-derived antibiotic against the American foulbrood.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 19;28(3):1528-1538. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Keeping honeybees healthy is essential, as bees are not only important for honey production but also cross-pollination of agricultural and horticultural crops; therefore, bees have a significant economic impact worldwide. Recently, the lethal disease, the American foulbrood (AFB), caused great losses of honeybee and decline of global apiculture. Recent studies have focused on using natural insect-derived antibiotics to overcome recently emerged AFB-resistance to conventional antibiotics. In support of these studies, here we investigate the possibility of producing bee-derived anti-AFB antibiotics from an indigenous honeybee, Apis mellifera jemenitica. The immune responses of the third instar stage were first induced against the standards and compared with the indigenous (ksuPL5). Data indicated a strong immune response against , and 24 h post-injection as revealed by the detection of lysozyme-like, cecropin-like and prophenoloxidase (PO) activities in the plasma of injected third instars. Nodulation activity against injected as early as 4 h and peaking 48 h post- injection were observed. Potentially active anti- immune peptide fractions purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed significant therapeutic effects on infected first instars. Mass spectrophotometric analysis and Orbitrap measurements of injected plasma indicated the expression of PO (Mr: 80 kDa), beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (Mr: 52 kDa) and serine protease 44 isoform X1 (Mr: 46 kDa). This suggests that one or all of these immune peptides contribute to significant survivorship of -infected broods, and could be a valuable clue in the search for honeybee-derived anti-AFB natural therapeutic agents. Further molecular characterization and description of the functional roles of these predicted antimicrobial peptides from both broods and adult honeybee may enrich the arsenal of insect-derived antibiotics of therapeutic purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938142PMC
March 2021

Checklist of the tick (Acari: Argasidae, Ixodidae) species of Pakistan.

Vet Ital 2020 Dec 1;56(4):221-236. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Institute of Plant Protection, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan.

In developed and underdeveloped countries, ticks are important vectors transmitting various pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance, like babesiosis, theileriosis, Crimean‑Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and many more. Many species of ticks have been reported in scientific literature from Pakistan, which need to be listed for ready reference. For this purpose, a checklist of tick species recorded in Pakistan is presented here after comprehensive review of the available literature on the subject. Overall, nine genera and 53 species of ticks infesting animals in Pakistan are presented in this checklist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.1721.9077.1DOI Listing
December 2020

Novel Insight Into the Development and Function of Hypopharyngeal Glands in Honey Bees.

Front Physiol 2020 22;11:615830. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Institute of Apicultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Hypopharyngeal glands (HGs) are the most important organ of hymenopterans which play critical roles for the insect physiology. In honey bees, HGs are paired structures located bilaterally in the head, in front of the brain between compound eyes. Each gland is composed of thousands of secretory units connecting to secretory duct in worker bees. To better understand the recent progress made in understanding the structure and function of these glands, we here review the ontogeny of HGs, and the factors affecting the morphology, physiology, and molecular basis of the functionality of the glands. We also review the morphogenesis of HGs in the pupal and adult stages, and the secretory role of the glands across the ages for the first time. Furthermore, recent transcriptome, proteome, and phosphoproteome analyses have elucidated the potential mechanisms driving the HGs development and functionality. This adds a comprehensive novel knowledge of the development and physiology of HGs in honey bees over time, which may be helpful for future research investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.615830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862731PMC
January 2021

Saponin toxicity as key player in plant defense against pathogens.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 26;193:21-27. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresource & Eco-environmental Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518071, China. Electronic address:

Microbial pathogens attack every plant tissue, including leaves, roots, shoots, and flowers during all growth stages. Thus, they cause several diseases resulting in a plant's failure or loss of the whole crop in severe cases. To combat the pathogens attack, plants produce some biologically active toxic compounds known as saponins. The saponins are secondary metabolic compounds produced in healthy plants with potential anti-pathogenic activity and serve as potential chemical barriers against pathogens. Saponins are classified into two major groups the steroidal and terpenoid saponins. Here, we reported the significance of saponin toxins in the war against insect pests, fungal, and bacterial pathogens. Saponins are present in both cultivated (chilies, spinach, soybean, quinoa, onion, oat, tea, etc.) and wild plant species. As they are natural toxic constituents of plant defense, breeders and plant researchers aiming to boost plant imm unity should focus on transferring these compounds in cash crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2021.01.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Exploring the non-coding regions in the mtDNA of some honey bee species and subspecies.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 29;28(1):204-209. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

The sequence of the DNA contains coding and non-coding regions. The role of the non-coding regions is not known and is hypothesized to maintain the structure of the DNA. This study aimed to investigate the structure of the non-coding sequences in honey bees utilizing bioinformatics. The non-coding sequences of the mtDNA of three honey bee species , , , and ten subspecies of were investigated. Different techniques were utilized to explore the non-coding regions of these bees including sequence analysis, phylogenetic relationships, enzymatic digestion, and statistical tests. Variations in size and sequences of nucleotides were detected in the studied species and subspecies, but with the same nucleotide abundance (i.e. nucleotides A were more than T and nucleotides G were less than C). The phylogenetic tree based on the non-coding regions was partially similar to the known phylogenetic relationships between these bees. The enzymatic digestion using four restriction enzymes confirmed the results of the phylogenetic relationships. The statistical analysis based on numerical codes for nucleotides showed the absence of significant variations between the studied bees in their sequences in a similar way to results of neutrality tests. This study suggests that the non-coding regions have the same functional role in all the studied bees regardless of the number of nucleotides, and not just to maintain the structure of the DNA. This is approximately the first study to shade lights on the non-coding regions of the mtDNA of honey bees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783669PMC
January 2021

Effect of constant and fluctuating temperature on the circadian foraging rhythm of the red imported fire ant, Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 27;28(1):64-72. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of High Technology for Plant Protection, Plant Protection Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 7 Jinying Rd., Tianhe District 510640, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Understanding circadian foraging rhythms activity of the red imported fire ant, Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foragers at different temperatures is an important step towards developing control measures in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. In this study, the circadian foraging rhythm activities of foragersat different temperature were investigated under laboratory and field conditions. Results indicated that the foraging activity increased after sunrise, and maximum foraging occurred at 14:00 (foraging rate was 69.22 ± 0.57 and 72.58 ± 1.15 foragers/min in the first and second year, respectively) in the tea fields of Guangzhou during autumn. Furthermore, foragers demonstrated circadian rhythms and exhibited a unimodal after 24 h. A significant correlation was found between foraging activity and temperature. colonies were active at moderate soil temperatures (approximately 26.65 °C to 29.24 °C). The preferred temperature of the colonies was 26 °C, followed by 22 °C and 18 °C in the laboratory. The individual activity was maximum at 17:00 (18.67 ± 1.66 times /10 min) and minimum at 5:00 (8.33 ± 2.51 times/10 min) at 26 °C. The fluctuating temperature had a significant impact on individual locomotor activity ( = 0.8979,  < 0.01) but did not alter the rhythm activity. Our results demonstrated that temperature might play an important role in circadian foraging rhythms activity of . These results may have implications for the development of more effective fire ant management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783663PMC
January 2021

and management of (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and (Taub.) Butler in cotton using organic's.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 19;28(1):1-9. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Root-knot nematodes (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and (Taub.) Butler, fungus, are very dangerous root damaging pathogens. Present study was planned to establish a chemical control of these root deteriorating pathogens under lab conditions as well as in field. Maximum death rate of nematode juveniles and minimum numbers of nematode eggs hatched were recorded in plates treated with Cadusafos (Rugby® 100G) @12 g/100 ml and Cartap® (4% G) @9g/100 ml. Chemical treatment of with Trifloxystrobin + Tebuconazole (Nativo®) @0.2 g/100 ml and Mancozeb + Matalaxyl (Axiom) @0.25 g/100 ml significantly controlled the mycelial growth in plates. The best treatments tested in laboratory were applied in field as protective and curative treatments. Results proved that chemical control of root-knot nematode and root rot fungi by tested chemicals at recommended time and dose is a significant management technique under field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785457PMC
January 2021

The impact of adjacent habitats on population dynamics of red cotton bugs and lint quality.

PLoS One 2020 31;15(12):e0242787. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Biology, Deanship of Educational Services, Qassim University, Buraidah, Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia.

Red cotton bugs [Dysdercus spp. (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae] are among the most destructive pests of cotton and many other crops. Red cotton bugs (RCBs hereafter) damage cotton plants by sucking sap and deteriorate lint by staining. The incidence of RCBs causes boll injury along the field margins neighboring with various peripheral areas. The adjacent habitat/crops strongly mediate the population dynamics of RCBs. However, limited is known about the impact of adjacent habitat on population dynamics of RCBs and lint quality. This two-year field study evaluated the impact of adjacent habitat (okra, unpaved road, water channel and Eucalyptus trees) on population dynamics of RCBs and lint quality of cotton. The RCBs were sampled weekly from margins to 4 meter inside the cotton field. The RCBs' populations were monitored and plucked cotton bolls were examined for internal damage. The highest incidence of RCBs was recorded for cotton field adjacent to okra and water channel. Similarly, the highest number of damaged bolls were observed for the field side neighboring with okra and water channel. Furthermore, the highest number of unopened bolls were recorded for okra and water channel sides with higher percentage of yellowish lint. Field sides bordering with Eucalyptus trees and unpaved road had lower RCBs incidence and lint staining. Nonetheless, RCBs incidence was higher at field margins compared to field center indicating that population was strongly affected by adjacent habitat. It is concluded that sowing okra and weedy water channels adjacent to cotton would support RCBs population and subsequent lint staining. Therefore, water channels must be kept weed-free and okra should not be sown adjacent to cotton. Nonetheless, detailed studies are needed to compute monetary damages caused by cotton pests to the crop. Furthermore, effective management strategies must be developed to manage RCBs in cotton to avoid lint-staining problem.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242787PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775045PMC
January 2021

Effect of harvest season on the nutritional value of bee pollen protein.

PLoS One 2020 28;15(12):e0241393. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal and Poultry Production, University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt.

Bee pollen is a natural product that has valuable nutritional and medicinal characteristics and has recently garnered increasing attention in the food industry due to its nutritive value. Here, we harvested pollen loads from the Al-Ahsa oasis in eastern Saudi Arabia during spring, summer, autumn, and winter in 2018/2019 to compare the nutritional value of bee pollen protein with the amino acid requirements of honeybees and adult humans. Based on the nutritional value of bee pollen protein, the optimal season for harvesting bee pollen was determined. The composition of the bee pollen showed the highest contents of crude protein, total amino acids, leucine, glutamic acid, valine, isoleucine, threonine, and glycine in samples collected in spring. The highest contents of lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, tyrosine, and cysteine were observed in samples collected in winter. The highest contents of histidine, methionine, and serine were in samples collected in autumn. Moreover, the highest levels of aspartic acid, proline, and alanine were in samples collected in summer. Leucine, valine, lysine, histidine, threonine, and phenylalanine (except in autumn bee pollen) contents in pollen from all four seasons were above the requirements of honeybees. Leucine, valine, histidine, isoleucine (except in autumn bee pollen), lysine (except in spring and summer bee pollen), and threonine (except in winter and spring bee pollen) in all tested samples were above the requirements of adult humans. In comparison with the minimal amino acid requirements of adult humans and honeybees, the 1st limiting amino acid in bee pollen collected during the different seasons was methionine. Bee pollen collected during spring (March-May) and winter (December-February) can be considered a nutritive food source for adult humans and honeybees.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241393PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769433PMC
January 2021

Development of DNA barcodes for selected species by using and DNA markers.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Dec 19;27(12):3735-3742. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

species are very important tree species in tropical and subtropical countries of the World for their economic and medicinal benefits. Precise identification of is very important to distinguish the invasive species from rare species however, it is difficult to differentiate species based on morphological charcters. In addition, precise identification is also important for wood charcterization in the forest industry as these species are declining due to illegal logging and deforestation. To overcome thsese limitations of morphological identification, DNA barcoding is being used as an efficient and quick approach for precise identification of tree species. In this study, we selected two chloroplast and plastid base DNA markers ( and ) for the identification of five selected tree species of . The genomic DNA of the selected species was extracted, amplified through PCR using specific primers and subsequently sequenced through Sanger sequencing. In DNA marker the average AT nucleotide contents were higher (59.46%) and GC contents were lower (40.44%) as compared to the AT (55.40%) and GC content (44.54%) in marker. The means genetic distance K2P between the species was higher in (0.704%) as compared to (0.230%). All species could be identified based on unique SNPs profile. Based on SNP data profiles, DNA sequence based scannable QR codes were developed for accurate identification of species. The phylogenetic analysis based on both markers ( and ) showed that both and were closely related with each other and clustered in the same group while other two species and were grouped together. The specie remained ungrouped distantly, compared with other four species. These finding highlights the potential of DNA barcoding for efficient and reproducible identification of species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7715041PMC
December 2020

Impact of artificial light intensity on nocturnal insect diversity in urban and rural areas of the Asir province, Saudi Arabia.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(12):e0242315. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Continuous urban developments have resulted in increased demand for street furniture, one of which is street light columns. Artificial light at night (ALAN) pose significant impacts on insect diversity in urban and rural areas. The ALAN is a significant driver of decline in insect diversity. This study evaluated the impact of light intensity and sky quality at night on insect diversity in rural and urban areas of the Asir province, Saudi Arabia. Insect traps were installed in both areas during night. Light intensity of nearby road lamps was measured using light meter, while sky quality was measured using sky quality meter. Rural areas exhibited low light intensity (10.33 flux/f.candle) and good sky quality (18.80 magnitude/arcsec2). Urban areas exhibited intense light (89.33 flux/f.candle) and poor sky quality (15.49 magnitude/arcsec2). Higher insect diversity was recorded for rural areas where insects belonging to seven orders (i.e., Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, and Dermaptera) were collected. However, insects of four orders (i.e., Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, and Neuroptera) were found in urban areas indicating low diversity. Lepidopteran insects were frequently recorded from rural areas indicating they are attracted to artificial light. It is concluded that excessive ALAN and poor sky quality at night disrupt insect biodiversity. Therefore, ALAN and sky quality must be considered responsible for decline in insect biodiversity along with other known factors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242315PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707546PMC
January 2021

Characterization of mycotoxins from entomopathogenic fungi (Cordyceps fumosorosea) and their toxic effects to the development of asian citrus psyllid reared on healthy and diseased citrus plants.

Toxicon 2020 Dec 12;188:39-47. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, PR China. Electronic address:

Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) produce multiple mycotoxins, which play an essential role in improving fungal pathogenesis and virulence. To characterize various mycotoxins from the crude methanol extract of Cordyceps fumosorosea, a major EPF against various insect pests, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF MS) technique, and all compounds were identified through molecular mass and formulae. Bassianolide was assessed against the nymphs and adults of Diaphorina citri reared on healthy and Huánglóngbìng (HLB)-diseased Citrus spp. Plants under laboratory conditions. Overall, 17 compounds were identified from the fungal extract and categorized into three groups, i.e. (1) alkaloids (Isariotins A-C), (2) peptides (Bassianolide, Beauverolides, Beauvericin A, Isaridins and Destruxin E) and (3) polyketide (Tenuipyrone). The detected beauverolides (B, C, F, I, Ja) from C. fumosorosea were novel mycotoxins, and their detection intensity was the highest in the fungal extract. Furthermore, bassianolide caused more than 70% and 80% mortality of D. citri nymphs and adults after two days of application, respectively. After three days of chemical application, all nymphal and adult populations of D. citri were killed by bassianolide. However, the mortality rates of both populations, nymphs and adults, were higher on HLB-diseased plants as compared to healthy plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.10.012DOI Listing
December 2020

Physico-chemical, antioxidant and anti-microbial properties of some Ethiopian mono-floral honeys.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Sep 22;27(9):2366-2372. Epub 2020 May 22.

Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan, P.O. Box: 126, Madani, Sudan.

Honey has been widely used to treat several human pathogens. However, all honeys may not have equal potencies against different human pathogens. The purpose of the current work was to investigate the physico-chemical and antimicrobial qualities of some mono-floral honeys from Ethiopia against some human pathogen bacteria and fungi. In the study, seven different botanical origin honeys were used of which some were from plants known for their medicinal properties. The samples were tested for their major physico-chemical properties (sugar profiles, total free acids, pH, color, electric conductivity and total soluble substances) and their medicinal values as total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial properties as minimum inhibitory concentration against some human pathogens, following standard protocols. Generally, the average values of the physico-chemical properties of the samples were within the acceptable ranges of world honey quality values. The average total antioxidant value of the samples was 320.3 ± 15.1 with range of 225.4 ± 12.8-465.7 ± 21.8 μM Fe(II)/100g. Relatively higher values 421.5 ± 23.4 and 465.7 ± 21.8μM Fe(II)/100g recorded for Croton macrostachyus and Vernonia amygalina honeys respectively. The average phenolic contents of the samples varied from 233.3 ± 24.0 to 693.3 ± 26.8 mgGAE/kg and relatively higher values recorded for C. macrostachys and V. amygdalina honeys. The significant proportion of the tested samples showed strong antimicrobial qualities inhibiting the growth of tested pathogens at concentration of 10.5%-28.6% of MIC (% v/v). Honeys from medicinal plants (C. macrostachys and V. amygdalina) relatively showed more antimicrobial properties which could be due to the presence of plant specific phytochemicals which require further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.05.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7451694PMC
September 2020

Silver Nanoparticle Production by and Testing Its Safety, Bioactivity, Immune Modulation, Anticancer, and Insecticidal Potentials.

Bioinorg Chem Appl 2020 24;2020:5626382. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Bisha, Bisha, 511, Saudi Arabia.

a plant belonging to the family Rutaceae, is traditionally used as a medicinal plant and a flavoring agent in food. This work aimed to prepare silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the ethanol extract from leaves and test different biological activities as well as insecticidal potentials in the extract and extract prepared AgNPs. Dried and powdered leaves were subjected to extraction using ethanol, and this extract was used to synthesize AgNPs. AgNP synthesis was monitored by the change in color, UV spectrophotometry, and electron microscopy (scanning). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the functional groups in the extracts. Immunological, physiological, anticancer, antibacterial, and insecticidal potentials of the extract and its prepared AgNPs were tested. Results showed the ability of the leaf extract to synthesize. SEM examination revealed a spherical shape of AgNPs with a size of 40-45 nm. The extract contained many functional groups as indicated by FT-IR. The extract alone inhibited the growth of normal rat splenic cells, while the extract containing AgNPs stimulated its growth. Extract alone stimulated HeLa cell proliferation and inhibited HepG2 growth, while both cell line growth was inhibited by the extract containing AgNPs. Both the extract and extract with AgNPs were safe on RBCs and did not cause any severe elevation in liver enzymes. The extract alone and with AgNPs showed insecticidal activity against . Our findings suggest that the leaf extract, alone or with AgNPs, is biologically safe on animal cells and has antibacterial, insecticidal, and immunomodulation potentials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5626382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396051PMC
July 2020

Quality evaluation of Saudi honey harvested from the Asir province by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Aug 13;27(8):2097-2105. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad, Moradabad 244001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Sugar profile and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) of Saudi honey were examined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with refractive index and diode array detectors. The work was designed to assess the quality of various types of blossom honey i.e. Sider (), Dhuhyana (), Sumra (), Qatada (), Dhurum (), multiflora with majra (), multiflora with herbs, Keena ( spp.) produced in the southwestern areas of the kingdom. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal cluster analysis (PCA), and similarity and difference indices (SDI) were also applied to examine the possible grouping based on the studied quality parameters. Four main sugars (two monosaccharides i.e. fructose and glucose, two disaccharides i.e. sucrose and maltose) and HMF were investigated . The average values of fructose and glucose were in the range 33.10%-44.77% and 26.68%-37.91%, respectively. The maltose was present in all types of honey and its mean values were in the range of 0.37%-2.97%, while sucrose was absent in six types of honey, 0.25% in one unifloral honey, and 3.25% in one multi-floral honey. HMF was not detected in seven types of honey but was below the limit of quantification (0.13 mg/kg) in one type of honey. PCA displayed the accumulative variance of 79.96% for the initial two PCs suggesting that honey samples were not well distinguished by their sugar profile. Based on the sucrose and HMF contents, it was concluded that all types of blossom honey from the Asir province were of the best quality in the kingdom and met the international quality parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376132PMC
August 2020

Pest susceptibility, yield and fiber traits of transgenic cotton cultivars in Multan, Pakistan.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(7):e0236340. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), being a cash and fiber crop is of high significance in Pakistan. Numerous insect pests and viral diseases in Pakistan and around the world attack cotton crop. Genetically modified cotton (transgenic, resistant to lepidopteran insects), hereafter written as 'Bt-cotton' has been introduced in many regions of the world to combat bollworms. However, cultivars differ in their pest susceptibility, yield response and fiber quality traits. Nonetheless, recent studies have indicated that lepidopteran pests are evolving resistance against 'Bt-cotton'. Several 'Bt-cotton' cultivars have been developed in Pakistan in the past decade; however, limited is known about their pest susceptibility, seed-cotton yield and fiber quality traits. This two-year field study evaluated pest susceptibility, yield and fiber quality traits of thirteen newly developed 'Bt-cotton' cultivars in Pakistan. The cultivars differed in their susceptibility to sucking insects during both years of study. The cultivars 'FH-647', 'SLH-8', 'FH-Lalazar' and 'IUB-013' were more susceptible to jassid, whereas 'BS-52' exhibited higher susceptibility to whitefly during both years of study. Similarly, cultivars 'AGC-999' and 'MNH-992' proved highly susceptible to thrips during each study year. Although 'Bt-cotton' is resistant to bollworms, cultivars 'SLAH-8', 'VH-305' and 'BH-184' were susceptible to spotted bollworm, while 'SLAH-8', 'RH-647' and 'VH-305' were infested by American bollworm. The most susceptible cultivars to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) attack were 'RH-647', 'IR-NIBGE-7' and 'VH-305'. The highest seed-cotton yield was recorded for 'FH-Lalazar' during both years of study. Similarly, the highest ginning out turn was recorded for cultivars 'BS-52', 'VH-305', 'RH-647', 'IUB' and 'AA-919'. The cultivar 'FH-Lalazar' exhibited low pest susceptibility and CLCuV infestation compared to the rest of cultivars. The highest and the lowest gross and net incomes and benefit:cost ratio were noted for 'FH-Lalazar' and 'RH-647, respectively. Keeping in view the low pest susceptibility and high seed-cotton yield, 'FH-Lalazar' could be recommended for higher yield and economic returns in Multan, Pakistan. Nonetheless, regional trials should be conducted for site-specific or region-specific recommendations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236340PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373299PMC
September 2020

Assessment of grain yield indices in response to drought stress in wheat ( L.).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jul 17;27(7):1818-1823. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Drought stress constricts crop production in the world. Increasing human population and predicted temperature increase owing to global warming will lead ruthless problems for agricultural production in near future. Hence, use of high yielding genotypes having drought tolerance and scrutinize of drought sensitive local cultivars for making them tolerant may be the proficient approaches to cope its detrimental outcomes. The current study was executed during 20015-2016 and 2016-2017 in field using randomized complete block design under factorial arrangements on 50 wheat genotypes for exploring their sensitivity and tolerance against drought. Some of the attributes of grain yield and drought tolerance indices were recorded. Grain yield showed negative correlations with tolerance index (TOL), drought index (DI) and stress susceptibility index (SSI) while positive correlation with mean productivity (MP) and geometric mean productivity (GMP) under drought condition. These findings depicted that tolerant genotypes could be chosen by high MP and GMP values and low SSI and TOL values. Based on the results, genotypes GA-02, Faisalabad-83, 9444, Sehar-06, Pirsabak-04 and Kohistan-97 were more tolerant and recognized as suitable for both normal and drought conditions. Genotypes of Chenab-00, Kohsar-95, Parwaz-94 and Kohenoor-83 confirmed more sensitive due to high grain yield loss under drought stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296489PMC
July 2020

Integration of entomopathogenic fungi and eco-friendly insecticides for management of red palm weevil, (Olivier).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jul 19;27(7):1811-1817. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Red palm weevil () is a voracious pest of date palm worldwide. Pakistan ranks sixth in date palm production globally. Losses to date palm plantations in Pakistan sometimes surpass 10%-20%. Most of the traditional management strategies used by farmers have been found insignificant to combat this voracious pest. The entomopathogenic fungi, [QA-3(L) and QA-3(H)] and insecticides, Nitenpyram (Active 10% SL) [NIT (L) and NIT (H)] were applied to larval (2nd, 4th, and 6th), pupal and adult stages of . Integration or alone application of fungi with insecticides at different concentration under laboratory conditions. Combined application was depicted additive and synergistic interactions. Contrarily, highest cumulative mortality (100%) was recorded in 2nd instar larvae as compared to later instar larvae at combined application. The maximum pupal and adult mortality remained 89% and 66% respectively after treatment with [QA-3 (H) + NIT (L)]. The combination of at higher concentration whereas Nitenpyram at lower dose was found more lethal to larvae, pupae and adults of . This signifies the need of combining and bio-rational insecticides that can reduce the cost of management with least harm to environment and natural enemies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296496PMC
July 2020

Manifold passages in an assorted infection in a host could improve virulence of Nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 10;27(6):1419-1422. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Institute of Plant Protection, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan (60000), Pakistan.

Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is serious pests of cotton and several other crops. (HaNPV) can be important alternative to synthetic insecticides for the management of . However, the efficacy of HaNPV can vary in horizontal and vertical transmission. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of HaNPV of a virulent strain (vertically transmitted up to six generations) and wild strains (used after isolation from the field infected larvae). Both strains were applied to the 2nd instar larvae of @ 1 × 10 polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB)/ml. There were six replications of each strain (strains). The results indicated higher mortalities in larvae exposed to virulent strains (68.33 ± 6.07%) as compared to wild strain (45 ± 2.24%). Virulent strains killed the larvae quite faster than wild strain. The lethal time (LT) to kill 50% of the larvae by virulent strain was 7.15 days and for wild strain it was 19.47 days. The results showed that multiple passage of HaNPV through several generations enhances its efficacy to kill larvae faster. The results of this study will be helpful to manage and other related lepidopoterous pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.02.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253915PMC
June 2020

First record and taxonomic description of the genus (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae) from Pakistan.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 May 13;27(5):1375-1379. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Species belonging to genus, Fabricius of the subfamily Plusiinae which are polyphagous in nature and pest of vegetables, foods, legumes, fodder, fruits, ornamental plants and cotton crops. Samples were collected from different localities of district Bahawalpur. For collection, comprehensive and comparative surveys were carried out during 2017-18 on taxonomic account of species of the genus Fabricius and resulted identified one species (Fabricius) first time from Pakistan. Morphological characters viz., vertex, frons, labial palpi, antennae, compound eyes, ocelli, proboscis, wing venation, male and female genital characteristics were used for the identification and classification. Dichotomous keys and photographs are also provided. There is hardly any substantial research work on taxonomic studies of subfamily Plusiinae Pakistan. So to fill this gap the present proposal was designed to study the diversity of Noctuid moths from Pakistan and very fruitful results have been obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182779PMC
May 2020

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of anopheline (Anophelinae: Culicidae) mosquitoes of the Oriental and Afrotropical Zoogeographic zones in Saudi Arabia.

Acta Trop 2020 Jul 21;207:105494. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a diverse fauna due to its peculiar position bordering the Afrotropical, Oriental and Palaearctic zoogeographic zones. The present study reports the phylogenetics of five mosquito species belonging to five series of Anopheles (Cellia) . We collected mosquito larvae from eastern, western and southwestern regions of KSA. The sampled mosquitoes were morphologically identified using the pictorial keys of mosquitoes and characterized by using single and multi-locus analysis of -internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI). Based on the morphological and molecular data, five species were recognized, like An. stephensi (Neocellia) (Oriental), An. arabiensis (Pyretophorus) (Afrotropical), An. dthali (Myzomyia) (Oriental and Palaearctic), An. cinereus (Paramyzomyia) and An. rhodesiensis rupicola (Neomyzomyia) (Oriental and Palaearctic). The phylogenetic analysis showed that An. stephensi is a monophyletic species with different ecotypes found in different geographic regions. Comprehensive phylogenetics and population genetics studies are crucial for a better understanding of the role of these five mosquito species in malarial transmission across various zoogeographic zones of different ecological and demographic characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105494DOI Listing
July 2020

Assessing indigenous and local knowledge of farmers about pollination services in cucurbit agro-ecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 3;27(1):189-194. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Being the ultimate beneficiary of ecosystem services provided by on-farm agricultural biodiversity, the participation of farmers in its sustainable utilization and conservation is crucial. How much aware they are with the significance and conservation of agricultural biodiversity in order to improve their crop yield remains unclear, especially from the developing courtiers. Pollination is one of such ecosystem services, enormously contributed by the wild bees. In the present study, we have investigated the knowledge of farmers about bees and pollination in general in three districts i.e. Multan, Bahawalpur and Khanewal of southern Punjab, Pakistan. Some 300 farmers (100 cucurbit growers in each district using convenient sampling method) were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Respondents were first presented with a box of insect specimens and then were asked to identify bees among those. Those who identified correctly were asked to state about their nesting sites. Only 11% of the respondents could correctly identify the bees and half of them could report something about nesting sites. A majority (63%) of the farmers was unable to tell fertilization requirements in cucurbits, 59% could not distinguish female flower from the male flower and 64% could not state any benefit of bees. However, upon briefing about the significance of bee pollinators, 58% of the farmers showed eagerness to conserve bees at their farms. Keeping in view the inadequacies of farmers' knowledge about wild bees and pollination in general, the present study also gives some policy recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933282PMC
January 2020

Expression and functional analysis of P450 gene induced tolerance/resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in quercetin fed larvae of beet armyworm (Hübner).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 22;27(1):77-87. Epub 2019 May 22.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Beet armyworm, (Hübner) is an agronomical important and most devastating polyphagous pest that damages a variety of crops around the globe including China. Quercetin is one of the abundant dietary flavonoids and the important defense allelochemicals in plants. Therefore, the changes in insect detoxification enzymes activities in response to plants allelochemicals may result increased the sensitivity to insecticides. In this study, we examined the induced effect of quercetin on larval tolerance to lambda-cyhalothrin in Application of cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) significantly synergized the lambda-cyhalothrin toxicity in quercetin-fed larvae. Moreover, larval weight significantly reduced in quercetin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and quercetin + lambda-cyhalothrin treatment. Furthermore, our results showed that the P450 detoxification enzyme effectively increased in all treatments as compared to the control. Quantitative Real-time PCR analysis revealed that expression level of significantly upregulated in larvae treated with quercetin, lambda-cyhalothrin and quercetin + lambda-cyhalothrin in the midgut and fat body respectively. In addition, RNAi mediated knockdown of in larvae significantly decreased the transcription level of target cytochrome P450 gene followed by the exposure with quercetin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and quercetin + lambda-cyhalothrin. Similarly, the knockdown of by the injection of dsRNA led to increased mortality after the treatment with respective chemicals. Overall, these data showed that P450s might possibly play an important role in the metabolic adaptation of larvae to its host plant defense allelochemicals as well as insecticides. In conclusion, can take benefit from its host plant's secondary metabolites to elaborate its defense against synthetic insecticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933212PMC
January 2020

Efficacy assessment of soft and hard acaricides against mite infesting honey bee () colonies, through sugar roll method.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 3;27(1):53-59. Epub 2019 May 3.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

The parasitic mite is amongst the most serious problems of honey bees, (Hymenoptera: Apidae) around the world including Pakistan. The present study estimates the mite density through powdered sugar roll method and evaluates the effectiveness of five miticides (fluvalinate, flumethrin, amitraz, formic acid, and oxalic acid) on colonies in German modified beehives. The results indicated that by treating the bees with one strip and two strips of fluvalinate per colony; the mite population remained below the economic threshold level (ETL) for 14 days and 25 days, respectively. Treatment of flumthrin @1 strip and @ 2 strips per colony resulted in mite population suppressed for 14 days and 39 days, respectively below ETL. Application of Amitraz @ 2 mL per 1.5 L water after every three days interval on sealed brood effectively controlled mites below ETL for 21 days. Formic acid @10 mL per colony applied through plastic applicator proved effective (below 3 mites per bee sample) for 24 days and oxalic acid applied through shop towel method resulted in mite population control for fifteen days. Use of powdered sugar roll method for easy sampling of mites and application of acaricides on precise economic threshold level during different seasons of the year for integrated management of mite is hereby advocated by current studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933247PMC
January 2020

Effects of temperature on baseline susceptibility and stability of insecticide resistance against (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in the absence of selection pressure.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 15;27(1):1-5. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is an important pest causing significant losses to vegetables worldwide. Insecticides resistance in is a serious issue for scientists since last 30 years. However, deltamethrin and are commonly used insecticides against but studies involving development of resistance in against these two insecticides at different temperatures are lacking. The current study was aimed to find out the toxicity of deltamethrin and , and resistance development in . Results showed that the positive correlation between the temperature and toxicities of deltamethrin and . The results indicated -0.051, -0.049, -0.047, and -0.046 folds of deltamethrin resistance at 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C temperatures, respectively from 1 to 12 generations. The toxicity of after 24 h was 2.2 and 4.8 folds on 1 generation at 20 °C and 25 °C temperatures, respectively compared to the toxicity recorded at 15 °C (non-overlapping of 95% confidence limits). Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the temperature has a positive correlation with the toxicity of deltamethrin and against the larvae of This study suggests that deltamethrin and can be included in the management program of on many vegetable crops The baseline susceptibility data might be helpful to understand the resistance mechanisms in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933245PMC
January 2020

Insect pollinator diversity in four forested ecosystems of southern Punjab, Pakistan.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 13;26(7):1835-1842. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad, 244001, India.

This study investigated pollinator assemblage diversity and richness in four forested ecosystems of southern Punjab, Pakistan, with different landscape types. Pirowal is situated in the plains of irrigated Punjab, Lal Suhanra is part of a sandy desert ecosystem, Ghazi Ghat is part of the Indus River delta, and Fort Munro is located in dry hilly mountains. A yearlong survey of pollinator populations was carried out in these four forested ecosystems from January to December of 2010. Fortnightly hand netting was performed for collecting flower-visiting insects whereas, pan traps of three colors (white, blue, and yellow) were deployed for collecting the data. A total of 8,812 individuals from two orders (Lepidoptera and Diptera) were observed, including 22 families and 154 species. Bees were the most abundant, with 4,502 individuals, and the most species-rich taxa, with 70 species in five families, followed by flies having 2,509 individuals and 51species in 10 families. Wasps were the least abundant with 1,801 individuals and 33 species in seven families. The assemblage structure of pollinator communities as visualized through rank abundance curves showed that there were many species with low abundance and only a few species with a much higher abundance. The most abundant species among the bees, in order, were sp.3, and sp.3; among flies, sp.2, sp.1, and sp.4; and among wasps, sp.1, sp.2, and sp.1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.02.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864159PMC
November 2019