Publications by authors named "Khalid A Al-Ghanim"

40 Publications

Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for antimicrobial and vegetative growth applications: A novel approach for advancing efficient high quality health care to human wellbeing.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 19;28(3):1808-1815. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Adhiyaman Arts and Science College for Women, Uthangarai, Tamil Nadu 635207, India.

The present work aims to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles via green approaches using leaf extract of . UV-vis and FT-IR tests confirmed the existence of biomolecules, active materials, and metal oxides. The X-ray diffraction structural study exposes the ZnO nanoparticles formation with hexagonal phase structures. SEM and TEM analysis reveal surface morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles and most of them are spherical with a size range of 10 nm. ZnO nanoparticles were revealed strong antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal strains. The germination of seeds and vegetative growth of has been greatly improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938149PMC
March 2021

An assessment of level of heavy metals pollution in the water, sediment and aquatic organisms: A perspective of tackling environmental threats for food security.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Feb 2;28(2):1218-1225. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Zoology and Wildlife Biology A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai - 609305, Tamil Nadu, India.

Pollution is severely threatening the wetland habitats. Heavy metals are one among of the major pollutants in wetland habitats. The cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn), were assessed in the water, sediment, benthic species (polychaetes, mollusc and crustaceans), prawn and fishes. The assessment of heavy metals was done by using double-beam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The Hg, Cr and Co were greater in sediment, Ni and Cd were higher in polychaetes and molluscs respectively. However, the Cu and Pb greater in crabs and the Zinc was greater in fishes. The concentration of metals showed significant differences among the various sources examined (P < 0.05) except Cr (P > 0.05). The inter-correlational analysis among the metals assessed from the various sources showed that the Cr and Pb not correlated among the eight metals examined. However, the Cu and Co were correlated with Hg (r = 0.307) and (r = 0.788) respectively. The nickel was correlated with Hg (r = 0.367), Cu (r = 0.362) and Co (r = 0.432). The Zinc was correlated with the Cd (r = 0.331) and Hg (r = 0.737). However, correlation of metals among the different sources shown that the metals of polychaetes correlated with sediment r = 0.637, the metals of crabs correlated with the sediment and polychaetes r = 0.630 and r = 842 respectively, the metals of molluscs was also correlated with sediment (r = 0.636), polychaetes (r = 0.889) and crabs (r = 0.894). In addition to that the metals of prawns was correlated with the polychaetes (r = 839), crabs (r = 0.628) and molluscs (r = 0.634). The metals of fishes correlated with polychaetes (r = 0.529), crabs (r = 0.710), molluscs (r = 0.493) and prawns (r = 0.593). Indeed the multiple regression model explained that the metals of sediments influence the accumulation of metals in biotic species such as polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans, prawns and fishes with 84% (F = 21.079; p < 0.001).The order of the heavy metals in the water, sediment and biotic species was Hg > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn > Co > Cu > Cd. The study found that the level of heavy metals at various sources in the sanctuary is showing considerable warning and the sanctuary is required intensive assessment on various aspects of pollution since the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary is supporting several species of migratory and endangered shorebirds seasonally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878681PMC
February 2021

network-based analysis of drugs used against COVID-19: Human well-being study.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 21;28(3):2029-2039. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Researchers worldwide with great endeavor searching and repurpose drugs might be potentially useful in fighting newly emerged coronavirus. These drugs show inhibition but also show side effects and complications too. On December 27, 2020, 80,926,235 cases have been reported worldwide. Specifically, in Pakistan, 471,335 has been reported with inconsiderable deaths.

Problem Statement: Identification of COVID-19 drugs pathway through drug-gene and gene-gene interaction to find out the most important genes involved in the pathway to deal with the actual cause of side effects beyond the beneficent effects of the drugs.

Methodology: The medicines used to treat COVID-19 are retrieved from the Drug Bank. The drug-gene interaction was performed using the Drug Gene Interaction Database to check the relation between the genes and the drugs. The networks of genes are developed by Gene MANIA, while Cytoscape is used to check the active functional association of the targeted gene. The developed systems cross-validated using the EnrichNet tool and identify drug genes' concerned pathways using Reactome and STRING.

Results: Five drugs Azithromycin, Bevacizumab, CQ, HCQ, and Lopinavir, are retrieved. The drug-gene interaction shows several genes that are targeted by the drug. Gene MANIA interaction network shows the functional association of the genes like co-expression, physical interaction, predicted, genetic interaction, co-localization, and shared protein domains.

Conclusion: Our study suggests the pathways for each drug in which targeted genes and medicines play a crucial role, which will help experts o overcome and deal with the side effects of these drugs, as we find out the gene analysis for the COVID-19 drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825994PMC
March 2021

Facile synthesis of gold and platinum doped titanium oxide nanoparticles for antibacterial and photocatalytic activity: A photodynamic approach.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Mar 17;33:102148. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India; Unit of Natural Products and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Government College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam, 612 001, Tamil Nadu, India.

A simple method has been needed to synthesize nanoparticles (NPs) to avoid environmental pollution, an alternative chemical and physical method. This current study deals with phytosynthesis of gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) metal doped with titanium oxide (TiO) NPs using Enterolobium saman bark extract. This extract plays a vital role in reducing and stabilizing Au and Pt doped into the TiO NPs lattices. Phytosynthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, ED-XRF, TEM, FTIR, Raman, and UV-vis-DRS analyses. The metal doping effect has decreased bandgap energy and particle size, whereas increased conductivity for TiO/M-Au and TiO/M-Pt NPs compared to pristine TiO NPs. Phytosynthesized NPs were fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and photocatalytic behaviour against methylene blue (MB) dye was studied. An obtained result demonstrates that TiO/M-Au NPs have excellent feasibility for applying DSSC and photocatalytic application due to particle size, crystallite size, absorption ability, and bandgap energy. Besides, synthesized samples were measured with cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy found that the metal doping is drifted the dielectric and increases that the metal doping is drifted the dielectric increases electro-catalytic of the TiO. Different concentrations of all NPs were tested against Escherichia coli MTCC 40 and S. aureus ATCC 6633 bacteria by a well-diffusion method. The 10 mg concentration of all NPs showed better antibacterial activity. However, we believe that the proposed simple phytosynthesized method provides an efficient way to overcome the chemical and physical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102148DOI Listing
March 2021

Probing of heavy metals in the feathers of shorebirds of Central Asian Flyway wintering grounds.

Sci Rep 2020 12 17;10(1):22118. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, 608 002, India.

The study is intended to deliver the incidence of heavy metals in the feathers of shorebirds from two important Central Asian Flyway (CAF) migratory shorebirds wintering sites such as the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary (PWLS) and Pichavaram Mangrove Forest (PMF), India. Feathers of fifteen species of shorebirds and seven different metals viz., Cu, Cr, Co, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn were analyzed. Zn was highest in Dunlin, Little-ringed Plover, Marsh Sandpiper, and Common sandpiper, Ni showed highest in Little ringed plover, and Common sandpiper, Co, Cr, and Cu were maximum in Little stint, Marsh sandpiper, and Dunlin, respectively. The Hg was higher in Black-winged stilt, Common redshank, Curlew Sandpiper, Eurasian curlew, Lesser Sand-plover, Temminck's stint, Kentish plover, Spotted redshank, and Wood sandpiper, the Pb found highest in Kentish plover, Painted stork, Spotted redshank, Wood sandpiper, Eurasian Curlew, and Lesser sand-plover. The concentration of metals showed significant variations among the species of shorebirds studied (P < 0.001). The mercury negatively correlated with the other metals than the other six metals studied in both the wetlands. The order of metal concentration in the feathers of shorebirds was Zn > Ni > Co > Cr > Cu > Pb > Hg. Nevertheless, the current study revealed that the level of metals in the shorebirds is alarming; since the PWLS and PMF are located along the CAF routes, it needs intensive studies on various pollutions to manage both the resident as well as migratory shorebirds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79029-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747699PMC
December 2020

Down-regulation of hepatic G-6-Pase expression in hyperglycemic rats: Intervention with biogenic gold nanoconjugate.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Dec 22;27(12):3334-3341. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, School of BioSciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India.

Chronic diabetes extensively complicates the glucose metabolism to onset and progress the complication. Concurrently, several contemporary medicines, especially organo-metallic formulations, are emerging to treat hyperglycemia. The current study aims to emphasize the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) potential for glucose metabolism regulation in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to detect the mRNA expression of Glucose transporters 2 (GLUT2), Glucokinase (GK) and Glucose 6 Phosphatase (G-6-Pase). The study shows remarkable results such as the prognostic effect of GNPs in reinforcing the repression of enzyme complex G-6-Pase about 13.3-fold when compared to diabetes control. Also, molecular docking studies showed significant inhibition of G-6-Pase by the terpenoid ligands with alpha and beta amyrin from leaf extract of . Thus the study explored the novel mechanism of G-6-Pase downregulated by GNPs intervention that majorly contributes to the regulation of circulatory glucose homeostasis during diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7715047PMC
December 2020

Evaluating antibody response pattern in asymptomatic virus infected pregnant females: Human well-being study.

J King Saud Univ Sci 2021 Jan 2;33(1):101255. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Obstetrics, Wuhan Maternal and Children Health Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infecting millions of people globally has given rise to serious public health threats. The need for early detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in asymptomatic pregnant women is compelling to detect vertical transmission timely. Here, 11 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic pregnant cases from Wuhan China were investigated. All the patients were initially tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR, so a chest CT scan was performed. Also, serum antibody (IgM and IgG) titers were estimated. CT scan of patients revealed typical abnormalities related to SARS-CoV-2, indicating ground-glass opacity and infection lesions suggesting viral pneumonia. Elevated IgM and IgG antibodies levels () were also noticed in infected patients. Hence, CT imaging and serum antibody response are valuable in the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic pregnant patients. These might serve as prognostic markers for healthcare professionals, in RT-PCR negative patients, to assess the effect of given treatment by chest CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2020.101255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709611PMC
January 2021

Entomofaunal survey and larvicidal activity of greener silver nanoparticles: A perspective for novel eco-friendly mosquito control.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Nov 4;27(11):2917-2928. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 608 002 Tamil Nadu, India.

The entomofaunal survey and its toxicity of (Asteraceae) leaf aqueous extract-mediated (-LAE) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were assessed against selected human vector mosquitoes (HVMs). A total of 1800 individuals of 29 species belongs to 7 genera were identified. Month-wise and Genus-wise abundance of HVMs larval diversity were calculated and one-way ANOVA statistically analyzed the average physico-chemical characteristics. The relationship between physicochemical characteristics and HVMs larvae in KWS was interpreted. The total larval density and container index were 23530.18 and 1961.85 examined against 10 different containers. Various spectroscopic and microscopic investigation characterized -AgNPs. The AgNPs tested against HVMs larvae, the predominant LC/LC values of 18.17/39.56, 23.45/42.49 and 21.82/40.43 μg/mL were observed on and respectively. The findings of this investigation, improperly maintained drainages, containers and unused things in study sites, are engaged to HVMs development. This will be essential for designing and implementing HVMs control. The larval toxic potentiality of AgNPs had a prompt, inexpensive and compelling synthesis of multi-disperse action against HVMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569148PMC
November 2020

Photocatalytic, antiproliferative and antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract: A photodynamic approach.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Dec 13;32:102058. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Science Block, 6th Floor, Burma Colony, Karaikudi, 630 004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract. The synthesis of the nanoparticle was primarily visualized when the colour of the reaction mixture turned into reddish-brown. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and EDX. The UV spectra showed maximum absorption at 584 nm. FT-IR studies showed stretching frequency at 592.76 cm which is the fingerprint region for Cu-O bond. The crystallinity of the synthesized copper nanoparticles (Mz-Cu NPs) was revealed through XRD analysis. The synthesized Mz-Cu NPs were spherical with an average size of 18.9-42.5 nm and it was shown by SEM analysis. EDX analysis displayed that the nano sample contains 58 % of copper. The antimicrobial property of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against fungal plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani (MTCC 12232), Sclerotium oryzae (MTCC 12230) and bacterial species, namely Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 23857), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 35084), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33845). In in-vitro haemolytic assay, the particle showed 5.73, 3.34, 0.5 % hemolysis at 100, 50, 25 μg/mL concentration respectively. In the antiproliferative assay, the IC values of MCF7 and Vero cells were found to be 53.89 and 883.69 μg/μl. The particle degraded Methyl violet, Malachite green and Coomassie brilliant blue by 92.2, 94.9 and 78.8 %, within 50, 40 and 60 min, respectively, through its photocatalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102058DOI Listing
December 2020

Design and development of porous terracotta disc: An eco-friendly novel control agent for mosquito larvae.

Exp Parasitol 2020 Nov 3;218:107988. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In the present work, we synthesized silver nanoparticles supported by rice husk by hydrothermal treatment, as-synthesized silver nanoparticles rice husk (AgNPs-RH) bio-composite mixed with potter clay thoroughly, molded, dried into a disc-shaped before firing and applying as a point of use larvicidal agent. As designed, porous terracotta disc (PTD) infused with AgNPs-RH-biocomposite were characterized by UV spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The amount of silver ions released from the PTD was also found to be within the prescribed limit of 0.1 ppm-level. Later we dropped the PTD and tested its larvicidal activity against the IV instar larva stage of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species. We found 100% larvicidal mortality in 24 h of exposure to the designed PTD and the amount of silver released from the porous disc was found to be 0.0343 ppm. Further from the histopathological studies of dead larvae revealed that the silver ions from the PTD have substantially damaged the exoskeleton of larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107988DOI Listing
November 2020

Ecotoxicity of neonicotinoids and diamides on population growth performance of Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Oct 20;203:110998. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

School of Agricultural Sciences, Sharda University, GN, Delhi, India.

Relative ecotoxicity of approved neonicotinoids (i.e. imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran) and diamides (i.e. chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and flubendiamide) was examined on population growth parameters of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on parthenium under laboratory conditions at 27 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity and 10 L : 14D photoperiod. The dose of all tested insecticides in the bioassay procedure was within a minimum range of their recommended field rate. In acute toxicity trial, imidacloprid caused highest rate of mortality in treated adults of Z. bicolorata, however, it was lowest in flubendiamide treatment followed by cyantraniliprole and chlorantraniliprole. Further, based on toxicity coefficient (E) value in acute toxicity trial, all were classified as harmful (H) and diamides were classified as moderately harmful (MH) as per IOBC classification. Moreover, chronic toxicity trials were carried out through life table response experiments (LTREs) in the F progeny of acute toxicity experienced group. Prolonged development with the highest mortality was evident in as compared to diamides. Furthermore, population growth parameters i.e. potential fecundity (Pf), natality rate (m), intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R) and finite rate of increase (λ) was greatly reduced in Z. bicolorata treated with neonicotinoids as compared with diamides. However, mean generation time (T), corrected generation time (τ) and the doubling time (DT) was prolonged in neonicotinoids followed by diamides. Furthermore, proportion of females was greatly reduced (0.43-0.48 females) in neonicotinoids as comparison to diamides (0.53-0.55 females) and control (0.67 females). On the basis of ecotoxicity trials, the tested neonicotinoids were highly toxic to Z. bicolorata than diamides. Therefore, diamide insecticides could be used with Z. bicolorata, however, for validation experimentation need to be done under natural field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110998DOI Listing
October 2020

Does Pallister really affects the growth, density and reproductive performance of L?

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jul 30;27(7):1871-1878. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a satisfactory potential candidate for controlling L The study was conducted in order to evaluate the bio-control potential of to satisfactory reduced the density of parthenium weed in natural field conditions. Therefore, beetles were released in the twelve study sites @ 12 adults and/or larvae/m in their respective sites on 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th day after initial field releases. Observations were made on defoliation by the beetle perthenium plant height, plant biomass, leaf injury rating and soil seed reservoir. Present study showed that field releases of considerably lowering down the parthenium density at all treated sites. At larval release sites by the 60th day of observation a complete defoliation was noted, however at adult release sites it took 80 days for complete defoliation. Moreover, significantly higher number of developmental stages i.e. eggs, larvae and adults were noted in the adults released sites than to larval released sites and the controls. It was also noted that plant height and its density, flowers & leaves production biomass of parthenium plant and seed reservoir in soil was negatively affected in treated sites as compared to untreated sites. Thus, we have concluded that adults can be utilized in biocontrol program because population build-up was greater in those sites where adults were released.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.03.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296485PMC
July 2020

Evaluation of the andrographolides role and its indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitory potential and attendant molecular mechanism against STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Feb 17;27(2):713-719. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The study is to scrutinize andrographolides with Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitory potential, its molecular mechanism against streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Wistar rats. Oxidative stress markers such as Kynurenine metabolites, retinal histopathological changes have been studied. Further, IDO gene expression and docking studies have been performed. Andrographolide treated rats have been reducing the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls Kynurenine metabolites with an improvement in the level of GSH and expression of IDO as revealed by morphological changes in inner and outer nuclear layer of the retina. The current results of this study have been generated information about an activity of the andrographolide in the essential pocket of IDO. Our results explain, involving IDO and andrographolide would constitute an attempt to identify natural products with therapeutic value and further studies in this direction would be of immense significance in the administration of diabetes and its related problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997866PMC
February 2020

Evaluation of Yeast Fermented Poultry By-Product Meal in Nile Tilapia () Feed: Effects on Growth Performance, Digestive Enzymes Activity, Innate Immunity, and Antioxidant Capacity.

Front Vet Sci 2019 24;6:516. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary inclusion of fermented poultry by-product meal (FPBM) on growth performance, digestive enzymes activity, innate immunity, and antioxidant capacity in Nile tilapia (). A basal diet containing fish meal and soybean meal was considered as a control (Con), and four other diets were produced by inclusion of 10, 20, 30, or 40% FPBM (FPBM10, FPBM20, FPBM30, and FPBM40 diets). The experiment was done in triplicates (20 fish per replicate) and the fish were fed the test diets to visual satiety twice daily for 8 weeks. The groups of fish fed the FPBM10 and FPBM20 diets showed significantly ( < 0.05) higher weight gain and specific growth rate, and lower feed conversion ratio than those fed the Con and FPBM40 diets. Moreover, inclusion of 40% FPBM led to significant reduction of feed intake compared to the other treatments. FPBM at all the tested levels improved intestinal protease activity and lipase activity was enhanced at 10-30% inclusion levels. Furthermore, the FPBM10 and FPBM20 groups revealed significantly higher amylase activity than the other treatments. The FPBM10 group exhibited significantly higher phagocytic activity than the control group and phagocytic index was enhanced by dietary inclusion of 10-30% FPBM. However, inclusion of over 30% FPBM led to significant reduction of lysozyme, phagocytic, and bactericidal activities compared to the control group. Further, FPBM10 and FPBM20 diets increased the serum IgM levels, while NBT was significantly increased by feeding FPBM10 diet compared with FPBM30 and FPBM40 groups ( < 0.05). The group fed the FPBM30 diet showed significantly higher glutathione peroxidase activity than the control group. According to the analysis of the data by the polynomial regression, the inclusion of FPBM at 11.17-25.14% can be applied effectively in the diets of tilapia for better growth performance and health condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996487PMC
January 2020

A novel method to detect bovine sex pheromones using l-tyrosine-capped silver nanoparticles: Special reference to nanosensor based estrus detection.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jan 17;203:111747. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Pheromone Technology Lab, Department of Animal Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

In the present study, a simple and a selective colorimetric method for pheromone detection to diagnose estrus in cattle was established based on the l-tyrosine functionalized silver nanoparticles (l-TyrAgNPs). The synthesized silver nanoparticles was spotted by color change (colorless to pale yellow) due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In order to confirm, Ag nanoparticles was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV- Vis spectrophotometer. It was found that the pre-colored Ag colloids could be turned from yellow to reddish-brown by the addition of the sex pheromones such as acetic acid or propionic acid, which may have potential application in the colorimetric sensor. The augmented optical nature of nanoparticles furnishes a suitable base to develop a colorimetric sensor for bovine sex pheromones detection. In addition, the computational analyses are critically required to validate residual interactions of bovine odorant-binding protein (OBP) with pheromones. The method was successfully applied to the detection of acetic acid or propionic acid using a biological molecule l-Tyr AgNPs. These results clearly indicate that the biosynthesis of l-Tyr AgNPs can be used as a promising colorimetric sensor for accurate time of estrus prediction in bovine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111747DOI Listing
January 2020

Changes in DNA methylation during epigenetic-associated sex reversal under low temperature in Takifugu rubripes.

PLoS One 2019 27;14(8):e0221641. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-resources Sustainable Utilization in Liaoning Province's University, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, China.

DNA methylation has frequently been implicated in sex determination and differentiation in teleost species. In order to detect the DNA methylation patterns established during sexual differentiation in tiger pufferfish T. rubripes, we performed comprehensive whole genome methylation sequencing and analyses of the gonads of male, female, and pseudo male. We obtained a total of 33.12, 32.44, and 31.60 Gb clean data for male, female, and pseudo male, with a sequencing depth of 66.44×, 60.47× and 54.86×, respectively. The methylation level of cytosine (C) residues in the genomic DNA from gonads was 11.016%, 10.428%, and 11.083% in male, female, and pseudo male, respectively. More than 65% of C methylation was at CpG sites, and less than 1% was at CHG and CHH sites. In each regulatory element, there were low methylation levels on both sides of the transcription start site, and higher methylation levels in exons, introns, and downstream of genes. The highest mCpG was on chromosome 8 and the lowest mCpG was on chromosome 5. Comparisons of whole-genome DNA methylation between pairs of samples revealed that there were 3,173 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between female and male, and 3,037 DMRs between male and pseudo male, corresponding to 0.232% and 0.223% of the length of the genome, respectively. There were only 1,635 DMRs between female and pseudo male, representing 0.127% of the length of the genome. A number of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) related to sex determination and differentiation were selected, such as amhr2 and pfcyp19a. After Bisulfite Sequencing PCR (BSP) verification, amhr2 was exhibited low methylation level in normal males and pseudo male, and high methylation level in normal females but pfcyp19a showed low methylation level in normal females and high methylation level in normal males and pseudo males. These results provide information about the molecular epigenetic mechanisms of DNA methylation during low-temperature induced masculinization of tiger pufferfish, and increase our understanding of the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in this important aquaculture fish species.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221641PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6711519PMC
March 2020

Cobalt Sulfide Confined in N-Doped Porous Branched Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

Nanomicro Lett 2019 Mar 29;11(1):29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered new generation of large-scale energy-storage devices. However, LIBs suffer from a lack of desirable anode materials with excellent specific capacity and cycling stability. In this work, we design a novel hierarchical structure constructed by encapsulating cobalt sulfide nanowires within nitrogen-doped porous branched carbon nanotubes (NBNTs) for LIBs. The unique hierarchical [email protected] electrode displayed a reversible specific capacity of 1310 mAh g at a current density of 0.1 A g, and was able to maintain a stable reversible discharge capacity of 1109 mAh g at a current density of 0.5 A g with coulombic efficiency reaching almost 100% for 200 cycles. The excellent rate and cycling capabilities can be ascribed to the hierarchical porosity of the one-dimensional [email protected] internetworks, the incorporation of nitrogen doping, and the carbon nanotube confinement of the active cobalt sulfide nanowires offering a proximate electron pathway for the isolated nanoparticles and shielding of the cobalt sulfide nanowires from pulverization over long cycling periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-019-0259-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770667PMC
March 2019

Seasonal succession and spatial distribution of bacterial community structure in a eutrophic freshwater Lake, Lake Taihu.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jun 8;669:29-40. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Institute for Artificial Intelligence, State Key Lab of Intelligent Technology and Systems, Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Tsinghua-Fuzhou Institute of Digital Technology, Beijing National Research Center for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

In aquatic ecosystems, both phytoplankton and bacteria play pivotal roles. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, considerable research focused on phytoplankton colony attached and free-living bacteria has revealed the close relationship between them, and indicated that the entire bacterial community mediates crucial biogeochemical processes in aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of their distribution patterns and response to environmental factors remains poor. Besides, picocyanobacteria, which were omitted from attached bacteria analysis, were reported to be important in cyanobacterial blooms. To explore the spatiotemporal variation of the entire bacterial community with their driving environmental factors and detect the relationships among them, we collected 61 water samples spanning one year and the entire Lake Taihu regions for surveying the entire bacterial community. Our results indicated: 1) seasonal variation of the bacterial community composition was stronger than spatial variation due to the clearly seasonal variation of Microcystis, Synechococcus (pico-cyanobacteria) and other bacteria (Actinomycetales, Pirellulaceae and Sphingobacteriaceae); 2) the spatial distribution of the bacterial community showed that different phyla were dominant in different regions; 3) the bacterial co-occurrence networks varied seasonally and were dominated by Microcystis, ACK-M1, Chthoniobacteraceae, Synechococcus, Pirellulaceae and Pelagibacteraceae; 4) phytoplankton density, chlorophyll a, water temperature and total nitrogen were the major factors that drove the spatiotemporal variation of bacterial community composition. This study revealed the seasonal succession and spatial distribution of the entire bacterial community in Lake Taihu, providing new insights into the relationship between water bloom-forming cyanobacterial species and other bacteria, and their response to environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.087DOI Listing
June 2019

A Molecular Docking Approach to Evaluate the Pharmacological Properties of Natural and Synthetic Treatment Candidates for Use against Hypertension.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 03 14;16(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Computer Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become the leading cause of disability and death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Hypertension, a major cause of CVD progression, is widely attributable to genetic, behavioral, and environmental risk factors. Among the genetic reasons, angiotensin II enzyme, produced as a result of abnormal functioning of the renin⁻angiotensin system, is reported as the foremost cause of hypertension. A cascade of genes, including those encoding for WNK kinases (WNK1 and WNK4), Bp1, Bp2, angiotensinogen, and other enzymes, is involved in the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. However, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a crucial role in this pathway. Therefore, ACE could be a potential therapeutic target in regulating the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and eventually controlling hypertension. In this study, a molecular docking-based approach was utilized for identifying and evaluating potential inhibitors of ACE present in herbs, other natural sources, and synthetic sources, on the basis of these compounds' binding affinities and other physicochemical features. In addition, the suitability of these inhibitors as drugs for biological systems, considering their adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME), was predicted using Lipinski's rule. In conclusion, our study provides a novel and clearer insight into the interaction properties of known putative inhibitors of ACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466102PMC
March 2019

Phylogenetic analysis of Infectious Bursal Disease viruses according to newly proposed model of classification into geno-groups.

J Infect Public Health 2019 May - Jun;12(3):410-418. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD), the disease causes immunosuppression which leads to secondary infections among rearing poultry flocks. Characterization of the virus is important for its control and eradication. The circulating IBDVs are classified on the basis of their antigenic and pathogenic properties. The virus is categorised as classical, variant and very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). IBDV is a non-envelop, icosahedral double stranded virus. Viral protein 2 (VP2) is the major structural protein of capsid that determines the host-pathogen relationship. The aim of this study was to characterise the IBD virus of Pak-Asian region.

Methodology: IBDV suspected flocks were examined in Punjab, Pakistan from 2014-2018. Two hundred and fifty samples were collected with complete history of the disease. The suspected samples were collected from broiler, layer and rural poultry farms. RNA was extracted and hyper-variable region of VP2 gene was amplified using specific primers. Nucleotide sequence of the VP2 gene was determined and its Amino Acid sequence was deduced. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was also performed.

Results: The current classifications based in a hyper-variable region of the capsid protein VP2 (hvVP2), classification of IBDVs is split into newly proposed geno-groups according to Jackwood group. Among these prevailing, some IBDVs are limited geographically whereas, others are reported cosmopolitan. Genetic alterations are continuously playing role in evolution of new strains of the virus.

Conclusion: During this study it was found that isolates of IBDV fall in first three geno-groups. Most of the geno-groups are prevalent around the world, whereas the mutated and re-assorted ones are confined in particular areas of the globe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2018.12.012DOI Listing
June 2019

Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Coriandrum sativum L.

J Infect Public Health 2019 Mar - Apr;12(2):275-281. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Nanoparticles (NPs) have become very important owing to their various uses. In this research, an environmentally friendly biological technique was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles with Coriandrum sativum L. The objective of this research to use the source for the fabrication of silver NPs from C. sativum L., and to check the activity of the fabricated silver NPs was determined versus a couple of gram negative and a couple of gram positive bacteria in the presence of antibiotic viz. gentamicin to judge their impact.

Methodology: A silver nitrate solution, which served as the reducing and capping agent, was mingled with coriander leaf extract. The solution's temperature and pH were maintained at 75°C and 8.6, respectively. The observed mean particle size (z-average) and polydispersity index were 390.2nm and 0.452, respectively. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized using different techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) analysis. The globular shape of the silver nanoparticles was depicted in SEM illustrations.

Results: XRD data revealed the mean size of the particles was 11.9nm. The FTIR analysis showed the existence of various functional groups, including CO and OH. When their antibacterial ability was tested, it was found that the fabricated Ag NPs inhibited Bacillus subtilis, Pasteurella multocida, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, with a greater effect against B. subtilis and P. multocida compared to E. aerogenes and S. aureus.

Conclusion: It has been concluded small silver NPs benefited from a higher surface area ratio, as shown by the results of experiments where smaller particles had a better bactericidal proficiency than large silver-based NPs. Silver-based NPs infiltrate bacterial cells, as well as interfere with their exterior membrane. Silver ions also have the potential to interact with bacterial DNA, inhibiting the reproductive system of the cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2018.11.002DOI Listing
April 2019

Engineering Ligninolytic Consortium for Bioconversion of Lignocelluloses to Ethanol and Chemicals.

Protein Pept Lett 2018 ;25(2):108-119

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Background: Rising environmental concerns and recent global scenario of cleaner production and consumption are leading to the design of green industrial processes to produce alternative fuels and chemicals. Although bioethanol is one of the most promising and eco-friendly alternatives to fossil fuels yet its production from food and feed has received much negative criticism.

Objective: The main objective of this study was to present the noteworthy potentialities of lignocellulosic biomass as an enormous and renewable biological resource. The particular focus was also given on engineering ligninolytic consortium for bioconversion of lignocelluloses to ethanol and chemicals on sustainable and environmentally basis.

Methods: Herein, an effort has been made to extensively review, analyze and compile salient information related to the topic of interest. Several authentic bibliographic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Springer, Bentham Science and other scientific databases were searched with utmost care, and inclusion/ exclusion criterion was adopted to appraise the quality of retrieved peer-reviewed research literature.

Results: Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can largely satisfy the possible inconsistency of first-generation ethanol since it utilizes inedible lignocellulosic feedstocks, primarily sourced from agriculture and forestry wastes. Two major polysaccharides in lignocellulosic biomass namely, cellulose and hemicellulose constitute a complex lignocellulosic network by connecting with lignin, which is highly recalcitrant to depolymerization. Several attempts have been made to reduce the cost involved in the process through improving the pretreatment process. While, the ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi (WRF) including laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP) have appeared as versatile biocatalysts for delignification of several lignocellulosic residues. The first part of the review is mainly focused on engineering ligninolytic consortium. In the second part, WRF and its unique ligninolytic enzyme-based bio-delignification of lignocellulosic biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation of hydrolyzed feedstock are discussed. The metabolic engineering, enzymatic engineering, synthetic biology aspects for ethanol production and platform chemicals production are comprehensively reviewed in the third part. Towards the end information is also given on futuristic viewpoints.

Conclusion: In conclusion, given the present unpredicted scenario of energy and fuel crisis accompanied by global warming, lignocellulosic bioethanol holds great promise as an alternative to petroleum. Apart from bioethanol, the simultaneous production of other value-added products may improve the economics of lignocellulosic bioethanol bioconversion process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929866525666180122105835DOI Listing
March 2019

Omics Technologies for Microalgae-based Fuels and Chemicals: Challenges and Opportunities.

Protein Pept Lett 2018 ;25(2):99-107

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Background: Microalgae have been suggested as promising feedstocks of significant biotechnological interest due to their enormous potential for the sustainable production of industrially valuable compounds such as lipids/fatty acids, proteins, metabolites, pigments, and biofuels. However, exploitation of algal biomass for commercial purposes is still in its infancy due to the dearth of the knowledge regarding state-of-the-art sophisticated technologies.

Objectives: The main objective of the study was to review the explosions of innovative strategies that biological sciences have witnessed over the past several years, enabling the scientific community and research-based organizations to scrutinize entire classes of biomolecules from a cell type or whole organism, collectively titled as 'Omics, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and lipidomics.

Methods: An effort has been made to analyze the relative advantages and drawbacks of these technologies by reviewing and consulting the available literature.

Results: Nevertheless, these 'Omics strategies have played a key role in the better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of specific gene products, regulatory constraints, metabolic pathways and potential genes and protein targets which might be employed in tailoring microalgae for enhanced productivity. In this critical review, an understanding of recent omics technologies, their potential applications, and limitations for microalgae-based fuel and other commodity chemicals are comprehensively discussed.

Conclusion: In the scenario of uncertain petro-based reserves, global warming and energy insecurity, the exploration of metabolic potentialities of microalgae using "Omics" are believed to be a green and environmentally-responsive approach that will further expand its industrial and environmental scope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929866525666180122100722DOI Listing
March 2019

The genetic map of goldfish (Carassius auratus) provided insights to the divergent genome evolutions in the Cyprinidae family.

Sci Rep 2016 10 6;6:34849. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Harbin 150070, China.

A high-density linkage map of goldfish (Carassius auratus) was constructed using RNA-sequencing. This map consists of 50 linkage groups with 8,521 SNP markers and an average resolution of 0.62 cM. Approximately 84% of markers are in protein-coding genes orthologous to zebrafish proteins. We performed comparative genome analysis between zebrafish and medaka, common carp, grass carp, and goldfish to study the genome evolution events in the Cyprinidae family. The comparison revealed large synteny blocks among Cyprinidae fish and we hypothesized that the Cyprinidae ancestor undergone many inter-chromosome rearrangements after speciation from teleost ancestor. The study also showed that goldfish genome had one more round of whole genome duplication (WGD) than zebrafish. Our results illustrated that most goldfish markers were orthologous to genes in common carp, which had four rounds of WGD. Growth-related regions and genes were identified by QTL analysis and association study. Function annotations of the associated genes suggested that they might regulate development and growth in goldfish. This first genetic map enables us to study the goldfish genome evolution and provides an important resource for selective breeding of goldfish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep34849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5052598PMC
October 2016

Ethanol Extract of Cissus quadrangularis Enhances Osteoblast Differentiation and Mineralization of Murine Pre-Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells.

J Cell Physiol 2017 Mar 15;232(3):540-547. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

Traditional medicinal literature and previous studies have reported the possible role of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) as an anti-osteoporotic agent. This study examines the effectiveness of CQ in promoting osteoblast differentiation of the murine pre-osteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. Ethanolic extract of CQ (CQ-E) was found to affect growth kinetics of MC3T3-E1 cells in a dosage-dependent manner. High concentrations of CQ-E (more than 10 μg/ml) have particularly adverse effects, while lower concentrations of 0.1 and 1 µg/ml were non-toxic and did not affect cell viability. Notably, cell proliferation was significantly increased at the lower concentrations of CQ-E. CQ-E treatment also augmented osteoblast differentiation, as reflected by a substantial increase in expression of the early osteoblast marker ALP activity, and at later stage, by mineralization of extracellular matrix compared to the control group. These findings suggest dose-dependent effect of CQ-E with lower concentrations exhibiting anabolic and osteogenic properties. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 540-547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.25449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5115982PMC
March 2017

Complete mitochondrial genome of the Triplophysa bombifrons and Triplophysa strauchii.

Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2016 11 8;27(6):4710-4711. Epub 2016 Mar 8.

b Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute , Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences , Harbin , China.

China is very rich in mud fish and some detailed studies were classified and biological studies have been carried out. But many, such as genetics and evolutionary aspects, require further investigation. Here, we sequenced the complete mitogenome sequence of Triplophysa bombifrons and Triplophysa strauchii. They are circular molecule of 16 571 and 16 568 bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2015.1106513DOI Listing
November 2016

An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine.

Sensors (Basel) 2016 Apr 13;16(4). Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083, China.

A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%-104.7% and 102.2%-103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s16040535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851049PMC
April 2016

Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

PLoS One 2016 8;11(4):e0153246. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

CAFS Key Laboratory of Aquatic Genomics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Fishery Biotechnology, Centre for Applied Aquatic Genomics, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing, China.

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0153246PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825979PMC
August 2016

A Crosstalk Between K ras (Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homologue) and Adherence Molecular Complex Leads to Disassociation of Cells-A Possible Contribution Towards Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer.

J Cell Biochem 2016 10 5;117(10):2340-5. Epub 2016 May 5.

School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan.

Constitutive activation of mutant K ras (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue) and disassembly of E-cadherin-catenin complex (E-cadherin, α-catenin, β-catenin, and γ-catenin) play an important role in apoptosis, differentiation, and cell proliferation. In this study, the expression pattern of K ras and E-cadherin-catenin complex has been evaluated in normal and mutant colorectal cancer cell lines with an object to determine its impact on disassociation of cells from one another. We addressed the expression analysis of K ras with reference to its association with adherence molecules in two colorectal cancer cell lines, that is, Caco-2 (wild type K ras served as a control) and DLD1 (heterozygous mutation at codon 13) at message level by qRT-PCR and translational level by western blotting. Compared to the control Caco-2 cell lines, the K ras in DLD1 cell lines showed slightly higher values while α-catenin showed a slight lower (1.3-folds), β-catenin and E-cadherin showed significantly lower expression (4.2-fold decrease). It can be inferred that a possible cross talk exists between K ras and adherent junction mediated signalling. Mutation at codon 13 (G to D) leads to the overexpression of K ras and reduced expression of adherent junction complex resulting in metastasis. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2340-2345, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.25531DOI Listing
October 2016

Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression of fibroblast growth genes in common carp.

Gene 2016 Mar 12;578(2):225-31. Epub 2015 Dec 12.

CAFS Key Laboratory of Aquatic Genomics, Centre for Applied Aquatic Genomics, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing 100141, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Fishery Biotechnology, Centre for Applied Aquatic Genomics, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing 100141, China. Electronic address:

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a large family of polypeptide growth factors, which are found in organisms ranging from nematodes to humans. In vertebrates, a number of FGFs have been shown to play important roles in developing embryos and adult organisms. Among the vertebrate species, FGFs are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino-acid sequence. However, studies on teleost FGFs are mainly limited to model species, hence we investigated FGFs in the common carp genome. We identified 35 FGFs in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the FGFs are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. By examining the copy number of FGFs in several vertebrate genomes, we found that eight FGFs in common carp have undergone gene duplications, including FGF6a, FGF6b, FGF7, FGF8b, FGF10a, FGF11b, FGF13a, and FGF18b. The expression patterns of all FGFs were examined in various tissues, including the blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, showing that most of the FGFs were ubiquitously expressed, indicating their critical role in common carp. To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis verified the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. Gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp FGF gene family provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic studies on FGFs in teleosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.12.027DOI Listing
March 2016
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