Publications by authors named "Khaled Kebaish"

182 Publications

The Scoli-RISK 1 results of lower extremity motor function 5 years after complex adult spinal deformity surgery.

Eur Spine J 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Introduction: Neurologic complications after complex adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery are important, yet outcomes are heterogeneously reported, and long-term follow-up of actual lower extremity motor function is unknown.

Objective: To prospectively evaluate lower extremity motor function scores (LEMS) before and at 5 years after surgical correction of complex ASD.

Design: Retrospective analysis of a prospective, multicenter, international observational study.

Methods: The Scoli-RISK-1 study enrolled 272 ASD patients undergoing surgery from 15 centers around the world. Inclusion criteria were Cobb angle of > 80°, corrective osteotomy for congenital or revision deformity and/or 3-column osteotomy. Among patients with 5-year follow-up, comparisons of LEMS to baseline and within each follow-up period were made via documented neurologic exams on each patient.

Results: Seventy-seven (28.3%) patients had 5-year follow-up. Among these 77 patients with 5-year follow-up, rates of postoperative LEMS deterioration were: 14.3% hospital discharge, 10.7% at 6 weeks, 6.5% at 6 months, 9.5% at 2 years and 9.3% at 5 years postoperative. During the 2-5 year window, while mean LEMS did not change significantly (-0.5, p = 0.442), eight (11.1%) patients deteriorated (of which 3 were ≥ 4 motor points), and six (8.3%) patients improved (of which 2 were ≥ 4 points). Of the 14 neurologic complications, four (28.6%) were surgery-related, three of which required reoperation. While mean LEMS were not impacted in patients with a major surgery-related complication, mean LEMS were significantly lower in patients with neurologic surgery-related complications at discharge (p = 0.041) and 6 months (p = 0.008) between the two groups as well as the change from baseline to 5 years (p = 0.041).

Conclusions: In 77 patients undergoing complex ASD surgery with 5-year follow-up, while mean LEMS did not change from 2 to 5 years, subtle neurologic changes occurred in approximately 1 in 5 patients (11.1% deteriorated; 8.3% improved). Major surgery-related complication did not result in decreased LEMS; however, those with neurologic surgery-related complications continued to have decreased lower extremity motor function at 5 years postoperative. These results underscore the importance of long-term follow-up to 5 years, using individual motor scores rather than group averages, and comparing outcomes to both baseline and last follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06969-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Global coronal decompensation and adult spinal deformity surgery: comparison of upper-thoracic versus lower-thoracic proximal fixation for long fusions.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Aug 27:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

18Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Deterioration of global coronal alignment (GCA) may be associated with worse outcomes after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. The impact of fusion length and upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) selection on patients with this complication is unclear. The authors' objective was to compare outcomes between long sacropelvic fusion with upper-thoracic (UT) UIV and those with lower-thoracic (LT) UIV in patients with worsening GCA ≥ 1 cm.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective multicenter database of consecutive ASD patients. Index operations involved instrumented fusion from sacropelvis to thoracic spine. Global coronal deterioration was defined as worsening GCA ≥ 1 cm from preoperation to 2-year follow-up.

Results: Of 875 potentially eligible patients, 560 (64%) had complete 2-year follow-up data, of which 144 (25.7%) demonstrated worse GCA at 2-year postoperative follow-up (35.4% of UT patients vs 64.6% of LT patients). At baseline, UT patients were younger (61.6 ± 9.9 vs 64.5 ± 8.6 years, p = 0.008), a greater percentage of UT patients had osteoporosis (35.3% vs 16.1%, p = 0.009), and UT patients had worse scoliosis (51.9° ± 22.5° vs 32.5° ± 16.3°, p < 0.001). Index operations were comparable, except UT patients had longer fusions (16.4 ± 0.9 vs 9.7 ± 1.2 levels, p < 0.001) and operative duration (8.6 ± 3.2 vs 7.6 ± 3.0 hours, p = 0.023). At 2-year follow-up, global coronal deterioration averaged 2.7 ± 1.4 cm (1.9 to 4.6 cm, p < 0.001), scoliosis improved (39.3° ± 20.8° to 18.0° ± 14.8°, p < 0.001), and sagittal spinopelvic alignment improved significantly in all patients. UT patients maintained smaller positive C7 sagittal vertical axis (2.7 ± 5.7 vs 4.7 ± 5.7 cm, p = 0.014). Postoperative 2-year health-related quality of life (HRQL) significantly improved from baseline for all patients. HRQL comparisons demonstrated that UT patients had worse Scoliosis Research Society-22r (SRS-22r) Activity (3.2 ± 1.0 vs 3.6 ± 0.8, p = 0.040) and SRS-22r Satisfaction (3.9 ± 1.1 vs 4.3 ± 0.8, p = 0.021) scores. Also, fewer UT patients improved by ≥ 1 minimal clinically important difference in numerical rating scale scores for leg pain (41.3% vs 62.7%, p = 0.020). Comparable percentages of UT and LT patients had complications (208 total, including 53 reoperations, 77 major complications, and 78 minor complications), but the percentage of reoperated patients was higher among UT patients (35.3% vs 18.3%, p = 0.023). UT patients had higher reoperation rates of rod fracture (13.7% vs 2.2%, p = 0.006) and pseudarthrosis (7.8% vs 1.1%, p = 0.006) but not proximal junctional kyphosis (9.8% vs 8.6%, p = 0.810).

Conclusions: In ASD patients with worse 2-year GCA after long sacropelvic fusion, UT UIV was associated with worse 2-year HRQL compared with LT UIV. This may suggest that residual global coronal malalignment is clinically less tolerated in ASD patients with longer fusion to the proximal thoracic spine. These results may inform operative planning and improve patient counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.2.SPINE201938DOI Listing
August 2021

COVID-19 Significantly Impacted Hospital Length of Stay and Discharge Patterns for Adult Spinal Deformity Patients.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Study Design: Retrospective review.

Objective: The primary aim was to compare length of stay (LOS) and discharge disposition of adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients undergoing surgery before and during the pandemic. Secondary aims were to compare the rates of 30-day complications, reoperations, readmissions, and unplanned emergency department (ED) visits.

Summary Of Background Data: ASD patients often require extended LOS and non-routine discharge. Given resource limitations during the COVID-19 pandemic and caution regarding hospital stays, surgeons modified standard postoperative protocols to minimize patient exposure.

Methods: We identified all patients who underwent elective thoracolumbar ASD surgery with ≥5 levels fusion at a tertiary care center during two distinct time intervals: Jul-Dec 2019 (Pre-COVID, N = 60) and Jul-Dec 2020 (During-COVID, N = 57). Outcome measures included LOS and discharge disposition (home vs. non-home), as well as 30-day major complications, reoperations, readmissions, and ED visits. Regression analyses controlled for demographic and surgical factors.

Results: Patients who underwent ASD surgery during the pandemic were younger (61 vs. 67 years) and had longer fusion constructs (9 vs. 8 levels) compared to before the pandemic (p < 0.05 for both). On bivariate analysis, patients undergoing surgery during the pandemic had shorter LOS (6 vs. 9 days) and were more likely to be discharged home (70% vs. 28%) (p < 0.05 for both). After controlling for age and levels fused on multivariable regression, patients who had surgery during the pandemic had shorter LOS (IRR = 0.83, p = 0.015) and greater odds of home discharge (OR = 7.2, p < 0.001). Notably, there were no differences in major complications, reoperations, readmissions, or ED visits between the two groups.

Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, LOS for patients undergoing thoracolumbar ASD surgery decreased, and more patients were discharged home without adversely affecting complication or readmission rates. Lessons learned during the pandemic may help improve resource utilization without negatively influencing short-term outcomes.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004204DOI Listing
August 2021

Multicenter assessment of outcomes and complications associated with transforaminal versus anterior lumbar interbody fusion for fractional curve correction.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Aug 20:1-14. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

18Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Few studies have compared fractional curve correction after long fusion between transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for adult symptomatic thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis (ASLS). The objective of this study was to compare fractional correction, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and complications associated with L4-S1 TLIF versus those of ALIF as an operative treatment of ASLS.

Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed a prospective multicenter adult spinal deformity database. Inclusion required a fractional curve ≥ 10°, a thoracolumbar/lumbar curve ≥ 30°, index TLIF or ALIF performed at L4-5 and/or L5-S1, and a minimum 2-year follow-up. TLIF and ALIF patients were propensity matched according to the number and type of interbody fusion at L4-S1.

Results: Of 135 potentially eligible consecutive patients, 106 (78.5%) achieved the minimum 2-year follow-up (mean ± SD age 60.6 ± 9.3 years, 85% women, 44.3% underwent TLIF, and 55.7% underwent ALIF). Index operations had mean ± SD 12.2 ± 3.6 posterior levels, 86.6% of patients underwent iliac fixation, 67.0% underwent TLIF/ALIF at L4-5, and 84.0% underwent TLIF/ALIF at L5-S1. Compared with TLIF patients, ALIF patients had greater cage height (10.9 ± 2.1 mm for TLIF patients vs 14.5 ± 3.0 mm for ALIF patients, p = 0.001) and lordosis (6.3° ± 1.6° for TLIF patients vs 17.0° ± 9.9° for ALIF patients, p = 0.001) and longer operative duration (6.7 ± 1.5 hours for TLIF patients vs 8.9 ± 2.5 hours for ALIF patients, p < 0.001). In all patients, final alignment improved significantly in terms of the fractional curve (20.2° ± 7.0° to 6.9° ± 5.2°), maximum coronal Cobb angle (55.0° ± 14.8° to 23.9° ± 14.3°), C7 sagittal vertical axis (5.1 ± 6.2 cm to 2.3 ± 5.4 cm), pelvic tilt (24.6° ± 8.1° to 22.7° ± 9.5°), and lumbar lordosis (32.3° ± 18.8° to 51.4° ± 14.1°) (all p < 0.05). Matched analysis demonstrated comparable fractional correction (-13.6° ± 6.7° for TLIF patients vs -13.6° ± 8.1° for ALIF patients, p = 0.982). In all patients, final HRQL improved significantly in terms of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score (42.4 ± 16.3 to 24.2 ± 19.9), physical component summary (PCS) score of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (32.6 ± 9.3 to 41.3 ± 11.7), and Scoliosis Research Society-22r score (2.9 ± 0.6 to 3.7 ± 0.7) (all p < 0.05). Matched analysis demonstrated worse ODI (30.9 ± 21.1 for TLIF patients vs 17.9 ± 17.1 for ALIF patients, p = 0.017) and PCS (38.3 ± 12.0 for TLIF patients vs 45.3 ± 10.1 for ALIF patients, p = 0.020) scores for TLIF patients at the last follow-up (despite no differences in these parameters at baseline). The rates of total complications were similar (76.6% for TLIF patients vs 71.2% for ALIF patients, p = 0.530), but significantly more TLIF patients had rod fracture (28.6% of TLIF patients vs 7.1% of ALIF patients, p = 0.036). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that a 1-mm increase in L4-5 TLIF cage height led to a 2.2° reduction in L4 coronal tilt (p = 0.011), and a 1° increase in L5-S1 ALIF cage lordosis led to a 0.4° increase in L5-S1 segmental lordosis (p = 0.045).

Conclusions: Operative treatment of ASLS with L4-S1 TLIF versus ALIF demonstrated comparable mean fractional curve correction (66.7% vs 64.8%), despite use of significantly larger, more lordotic ALIF cages. TLIF cage height had a significant impact on leveling L4 coronal tilt, whereas ALIF cage lordosis had a significant impact on restoration of lumbosacral lordosis. The advantages of TLIF may include reduced operative duration and hospitalization; however, associated HRQL was inferior and more rod fractures were detected in the TLIF patients included in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.11.SPINE201915DOI Listing
August 2021

Growing Racial Disparities in the Utilization of Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: An Analysis of Trends from 2004 to 2014.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Study Design: Retrospective.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess trends in utilization rates of adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, as well as perioperative surgical metrics between black and white patients undergoing operative treatment for ASD in the United States.

Summary Of Background Data: Racial disparities in access to care, complications, and surgical selection have been shown to exist in the field of spine surgery. However, there is a paucity of data concerning racial disparities in the management of ASD patients.

Methods: Adult patients undergoing ASD surgery from 2004 to 2014 were identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Utilization rates, major complications rates, and length of stay (LOS) for black patients and white patients were trended over time. Utilization rates were reported per 1,000,000 people and determined using annual census data among subpopulations stratified by race. All reported complication rates and prolonged hospital stay rates are adjusted for Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, income quartile by zip code, and insurance payer status.

Results: From 2004 to 2014, ASD utilization for black patients increased from 24.0 to 50.9 per 1,000,000 people, whereas ASD utilization for white patients increased from 29.9 to 73.1 per 1,000,000 people, indicating a significant increase in racial disparities in ASD utilization (p-trend < 0.001). There were no significant differences in complication rates or rates of prolonged hospital stay between black and white patients across the time period studied (p > 0.05 for both).

Conclusion: Although black and white patients undergoing ASD surgery do not differ significantly in terms of postoperative complications and length of hospital stay, there is a growing disparity in utilization of ASD surgery between white and black patients from 2004 to 2014 in the United States. There is need for continued focus on identifying ways to reduce racial disparities in surgical selection and perioperative management in spine deformity surgery.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004180DOI Listing
August 2021

Increasing Cost Efficiency in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Identifying Predictors of Lower Total Costs.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Division of Spinal Surgery/Departments of Orthopaedic and Neurosurgery, NYU Medical Center, NY Spine Institute, New York, NY, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, WA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baylor Scoliosis Center, Dallas, Texas, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Department of Spine Surgery, Denver International Spine Clinic, Presbyterian St. Luke's/Rocky Mountain Hospital for Children, Denver, Colorado. Department of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA.

Study Design: Retrospective study of a prospective multicenter database.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of lower total surgery costs at 3 years for Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD) patients.

Summary Of Background Data: ASD surgery involves complex deformity correction.

Methods: Inclusion criteria: surgical ASD (scoliosis≥20°, SVA≥5 cm, PT≥25°, or thoracic kyphosis ≥60°) patients >18 years. Total costs for surgery were calculated using the PearlDiver database. Cost per quality adjusted life year was assessed. A Conditional Variable Importance Table used non-replacement sampling set of 20,000 Conditional Inference trees to identify top factors associated with lower cost surgery for low (LSVA), moderate (MSVA), and high (HSVA) SRS Schwab SVA grades.

Results: 316/322 ASD patients met inclusion criteria. At 3Y follow up, the potential cost of ASD surgery ranged from $57,606.88 to $116,312.54. The average costs of surgery at 3 years was found to be $72,947.87, with no significant difference in costs between deformity groups (p > 0.05). There were 152 LSVA patients, 53 MSVA patients, and 111 HSVA patients. For all patients, the top predictors of lower costs were frailty scores <0.19, BL SRS Activity >1.5, baseline (BL) ODI <50 (all p < 0.05). For LSVA patients, no history of osteoporosis, SRS Activity scores >1.5, age <64, were the top predictors of lower costs (all p < 0.05). Among MSVA patients, ASD invasiveness scores <94.16, no past history of cancer, and frailty scores <0.3 trended towards lower total costs (p = 0.071, p = 0.210). For HSVA, no history of smoking and BMI <27.8 trended towards lower costs (both p = 0.060).

Conclusions: ASD surgery has the potential for improved cost efficiency, as costs ranged from $57,606.88 to $116,312.54. Predictors of lower costs included higher baseline SRS activity, decreased frailty, and not having depression. Additionally, predictors of lower costs were identified for different baseline deformity profiles, allowing for the optimization of cost efficiency for all patients.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004201DOI Listing
August 2021

Examination of Adult Spinal Deformity Patients Undergoing Surgery with Implanted Spinal Cord Stimulators and Intrathecal Pumps.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Orthopaedics, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI Brown University, Providence, RI Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA Department of Orthopedics, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, NY University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA Duke University, Durham, NC Washington University, St. Louis, MO University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY Scripp's Clinic, La Jolla, CA Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD University of Calgary Spine Program, University of Calgary, Alberta Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baylor Scoliosis Center, Dallas, TX University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS Denver International Spine Center, Denver, CO University of California-San Francisco, CA Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, WA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study of a prospectively collected multi-center database of adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients.

Objective: We hypothesized that patients undergoing ASD surgery with and without previous SCS/ITP would exhibit increased complication rates but comparable improvement in HRQOL.

Summary Of Background Data: ASD patients sometimes seek pain management with spinal cord stimulators (SCS) or intrathecal medication pumps (ITP) prior to spinal deformity correction. Few studies have examined outcomes in this patient population.

Methods: Patients undergoing ASD surgery and eligible for 2-year follow-up were included. Pre-operative radiographs were reviewed for the presence of SCS/ITP. Outcomes included complications, ODI, SF-36 MCS, and SRS-22r. Propensity score matching was utilized.

Results: In total, out of 1,034 eligible ASD patients, a propensity score-matched cohort of 60 patients (30 with SCS/ITP, 30 controls) was developed. SCS/ITP were removed intra-operatively in most patients (56.7%, n = 17). The overall complication rate was 80.0% versus 76.7% for SCS/ITP versus control (p > 0.2), with similarly non-significant differences for intraoperative and infection complications (all p > 0.2). ODI was significantly higher among patients with SCS/ITP at baseline (59.2 versus 47.6, p = 0.0057) and at 2-year follow-up (44.4 versus 27.7, p = 0.0295). The magnitude of improvement, however, did not significantly differ (p = 0.45). Similar results were observed for SRS-22r pain domain. Satisfaction did not differ between groups at either baseline or follow-up (p > 0.2). No significant difference was observed in the proportion of patients with SCS/ITP versus control reaching MCID in ODI (47.6% versus 60.9%, p = 0.38). Narcotic usage was more common among patients with SCS/ITP at both baseline and follow-up (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: ASD patients undergoing surgery with SCS/ITP exhibited worse preoperative and post-operative ODI and SRS-22r pain domain; however, the mean improvement in outcome scores was not significantly different from patients without stimulators or pumps. No significant differences in complications were observed between patients with versus without SCS/ITP.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004176DOI Listing
July 2021

Defining a Surgical Invasiveness Threshold for Increased Risk of a Major Complication Following Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jul;46(14):931-938

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Study Design: Retrospective review.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to define a surgical invasiveness threshold that predicts major complications after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery; use this threshold to categorize patients into quartiles by invasiveness; and determine the odds of major complications by quartile.

Summary Of Background Data: Understanding the relationship between surgical invasiveness and major complications is important for estimating the likelihood of major complications after ASD surgery.

Methods: Using a multicenter database, we identified 574 ASD patients (more than 5 levels fused; mean age, 60 ± 15 years) with minimum 2-year follow-up. Invasiveness was calculated as the ASD Surgical and Radiographic (ASD-SR) score. Youden index was used to identify the invasiveness score cut-off associated with optimal sensitivity and specificity for predicting major complications. Resulting high- and low-invasiveness groups were divided in half to create quartiles. Odds of developing a major complication were analyzed for each quartile using logistic regression (alpha = 0.05).

Results: The ASD-SR cutoff score that maximally predicted major complications was 90 points. ASD-SR quartiles were 0 to 65 (Q1), 66 to 89 (Q2), 90 to 119 (Q3), and ≥120 (Q4). Risk of a major complication was 17% in Q1, 21% in Q2, 35% in Q3, and 33% in Q4 (P < 0.001). Comparisons of adjacent quartiles showed an increase in the odds of a major complication from Q2 to Q3 (odds ratio [OR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-3.0), but not from Q1 to Q2 or from Q3 to Q4. Patients with ASD-SR scores ≥90 were 1.9 times as likely to have a major complication than patients with scores <90 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.9). Mean ASD-SR scores above and below 90 points were 121 ± 25 and 63 ± 17, respectively.

Conclusion: The odds of major complications after ASD surgery are significantly greater when the procedure has an ASD-SR score ≥90. ASD-SR score can be used to counsel patients regarding these increased odds.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003949DOI Listing
July 2021

The Approach to Pseudarthrosis After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Is a Multiple-Rod Construct Necessary?

Global Spine J 2021 Apr 16:21925682211001880. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 12297NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Objectives: Our goal was to evaluate the rate of rod fracture and persistent pseudarthrosis in cohorts of patients treated with a dual rod or multiple-rod construct in revision surgery for pseudarthrosis.

Methods: A dual rod construct was used in 23 patients, and a multiple rod construct in 24 patients, spanning the pseudarthrosis level. Two-year fusion grading, and rates of pseudarthrosis and implant failure, were assessed.

Results: There were no differences in patient or surgical characteristics between the groups: (2- rod construct: Age 60 ± 14, Levels 10 ± 5, 3-column osteotomy:17%; multiple-rod construct: Age: 62 ± 11, Levels 9 ± 4, 3-column osteotomy:30%). Patients in the multiple rod construct were transfused a greater volume of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) intraoperatively (2.6 ± 2.9 vs. 1.1 ± 1.5 U, p < 0.0001). At 2 year follow up there was no difference in fusion grades at the previous level of pseudarthrosis, the rate of rod fracture or pseudarthrosis between the 2 groups, or rate of reoperation for pseudarthrosis, rod fracture, wound infection, hardware prominence, or PJK/PJF.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate no difference in fusion grade, or rates of rod fracture and revision at 2 years, after utilizing a dual rod versus multiple rod construct in revision surgery for pseudarthrosis. The low complication rates seen with either configuration warrant further investigation of the optimal instrumentation configuration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21925682211001880DOI Listing
April 2021

Artificial intelligence clustering of adult spinal deformity sagittal plane morphology predicts surgical characteristics, alignment, and outcomes.

Eur Spine J 2021 Aug 15;30(8):2157-2166. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Alpert Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, 1 Kettle Point Avenue, East Providence, RI, 02914, USA.

Purpose: AI algorithms have shown promise in medical image analysis. Previous studies of ASD clusters have analyzed alignment metrics-this study sought to complement these efforts by analyzing images of sagittal anatomical spinopelvic landmarks. We hypothesized that an AI algorithm would cluster preoperative lateral radiographs into groups with distinct morphology.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of a multicenter, prospectively collected database of adult spinal deformity. A total of 915 patients with adult spinal deformity and preoperative lateral radiographs were included. A 2 × 3, self-organizing map-a form of artificial neural network frequently employed in unsupervised classification tasks-was developed. The mean spine shape was plotted for each of the six clusters. Alignment, surgical characteristics, and outcomes were compared.

Results: Qualitatively, clusters C and D exhibited only mild sagittal plane deformity. Clusters B, E, and F, however, exhibited marked positive sagittal balance and loss of lumbar lordosis. Cluster A had mixed characteristics, likely representing compensated deformity. Patients in clusters B, E, and F disproportionately underwent 3-CO. PJK and PJF were particularly prevalent among clusters A and E. Among clusters B and F, patients who experienced PJK had significantly greater positive sagittal balance than those who did not.

Conclusions: This study clustered preoperative lateral radiographs of ASD patients into groups with highly distinct overall spinal morphology and association with sagittal alignment parameters, baseline HRQOL, and surgical characteristics. The relationship between SVA and PJK differed by cluster. This study represents significant progress toward incorporation of computer vision into clinically relevant classification systems in adult spinal deformity.

Level Of Evidence Iv: Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06799-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Factors influencing upper-most instrumented vertebrae selection in adult spinal deformity patients: qualitative case-based survey of deformity surgeons.

J Spine Surg 2021 Mar;7(1):37-47

Department of Orthopedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Background: The decision upper-most instrumented vertebrae (UIV) in a multi-level fusion procedure can dramatically influence outcomes of corrective spine surgery. We aimed to create an algorithm for selection of UIV based on surgeon selection/reasoning of sample cases.

Methods: The clinical/imaging data for 11 adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients were presented to 14 spine deformity surgeons who selected the UIV and provided reasons for avoidance of adjacent levels. The UIV chosen was grouped into either upper thoracic (UT, T1-T6), lower thoracic (LT, T7-T12), lumbar or cervical. Disagreement between surgeons was defined as ≥3 not agreeing. We performed a descriptive analysis of responses and created an algorithm for choosing UIV then applied this to a large database of ASD patients.

Results: Surgeons agreed in 8/11 cases on regional choice of UIV. T10 was the most common UIV in the LT region (58%) and T3 was the most common UIV in the UT region (44%). The most common determinant of UIV in the UT region was proximal thoracic kyphosis and presence of coronal deformity. The most common determinant of UIV in the LT region was small proximal thoracic kyphosis. Within the ASD database (236 patients), when the algorithm called for UT fusion, patients fused to TL region were more likely to develop proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) at 1 year post-operatively (76.9% . 38.9%, P=0.025).

Conclusions: Our algorithm for selection of UIV emphasizes the role of proximal and regional thoracic kyphosis. Failure to follow this consensus for UT fusion was associated with twice the rate of PJK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jss-20-598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024758PMC
March 2021

Patient-related and radiographic predictors of inferior health-related quality-of-life measures in adult patients with nonoperative spinal deformity.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Apr 2:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

3Department of Orthopedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.

Objective: Patients with nonoperative (N-Op) adult spinal deformity (ASD) have inferior long-term spinopelvic alignment and clinical outcomes. Predictors of lower quality-of-life measures in N-Op populations have yet to be sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to identify patient-related factors and radiographic parameters associated with inferior health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores in N-Op ASD patients.

Methods: N-Op ASD patients with complete radiographic and outcome data at baseline and 2 years were included. N-Op patients and operative (Op) patients were propensity score matched for baseline disability and deformity. Patient-related factors and radiographic alignment parameters (pelvic tilt [PT], sagittal vertical axis [SVA], pelvic incidence [PI]-lumbar lordosis [LL] mismatch, mismatch between cervical lordosis and T1 segment slope [TS-CL], cervical-thoracic pelvic angle [PA], and others) at baseline and 2 years were analyzed as predictors for moderate to severe 2-year Oswestry Disability Index (ODI > 20) and failing to meet the minimal clinically importance difference (MCID) for 2-year Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire (SRS) scores (< 0.4 increase from baseline). Conditional inference decision trees identified predictors of each HRQOL measure and established cutoffs at which factors have a global effect. Random forest analysis (RFA) generated 5000 conditional inference trees to compute a variable importance table for top predictors of inferior HRQOL. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: Six hundred sixty-two patients with ASD (331 Op patients and 331 N-Op patients) with complete radiographic and HRQOL data at their 2-year follow-up were included. There were no differences in demographics, ODI, and Schwab deformity modifiers between groups at baseline (all p > 0.05). N-Op patients had higher 2-year ODI scores (27.9 vs 20.3, p < 0.001), higher rates of moderate to severe disability (29.3% vs 22.4%, p = 0.05), lower SRS total scores (3.47 vs 3.91, p < 0.001), and higher rates of failure to reach SRS MCID (35.3% vs 15.7%, p < 0.001) than Op patients at 2 years. RFA ranked the top overall predictors for moderate to severe ODI at 2 years for N-Op patients as follows: 1) frailty index > 2.8, 2) BMI > 35 kg/m2, T4PA > 28°, and 4) Charlson Comorbidity Index > 1. Top radiographic predictors were T4PA > 28° and C2-S1 SVA > 93 mm. RFA also ranked the top overall predictors for failure to reach 2-year SRS MCID for N-Op patients, as follows: 1) T12-S1 lordosis > 53°, 2) cervical SVA (cSVA) > 28 mm, 3) C2-S1 angle > 14.5°, 4) TS-CL > 12°, and 5) PT > 23°. The top radiographic predictors were T12-S1 Cobb angle, cSVA, C2-S1 angle, and TS-CL.

Conclusions: When controlling for baseline deformity in N-Op versus Op patients, subsequent deterioration in frailty, BMI, and radiographic progression over a 2-year follow-up were found to drive suboptimal patient-reported outcome measures in N-Op cohorts as measured by validated ODI and SRS clinical instruments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.9.SPINE20519DOI Listing
April 2021

Persistent sleep disturbance after spine surgery is associated with failure to achieve meaningful improvements in pain and health-related quality of life.

Spine J 2021 Aug 25;21(8):1325-1331. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, 601 N. Caroline Street, JHOC 5223, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Background Context: Little is known about the effects of sleep disturbance (SD) on clinical outcomes after spine surgery.

Purpose: To determine the (1) prevalence of SD among patients presenting for spine surgery at an academic medical center; (2) correlations between SD and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores; and (3) associations between postoperative SD resolution and short-term HRQoL.

Study Design: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data.

Patient Sample: We included 508 adults undergoing spine surgery at 1 academic center between December 2014 and January 2018.

Outcome Measures: Participants completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) or Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Patient Reported Outcome Measurement System (PROMIS-29) questionnaire preoperatively, during the immediate postoperative period (6-12 weeks), and at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery.

Methods: Using preoperative PROMIS SD scores, we grouped participants as having no sleep disturbance (score <55), mild disturbance (score, 55-60), moderate disturbance (score 60-70), or severe disturbance (score, 70). For the final analysis, we collapsed these categories into no/mild and moderate/severe. Pearson correlation tests were used to assess correlations between SD and HRQoL measures. Regression analysis (adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, current opioid use, and occurrence of complications) was used to estimate the effect of postoperative resolved or continuing SD on HRQoL scores and the likelihood of achieving clinically meaningful improvements in HRQoL. Alpha = 0.05.

Results: Preoperative SD was reported by 127 participants (25%). SD was significantly correlated with worse ODI and/or NDI values and worse scores in all PROMIS health domains (all, p<.001). At the immediate postoperative assessment, SD had resolved in 80 of 127 participants (63%). Compared with participants who reported no preoperative SD, those with ongoing SD were significantly less likely to achieve clinically meaningful improvements in Pain Interference (odds ratio [OR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28, 0.84), Physical Function (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.13, 0.82), and Satisfaction with Participation in Social Roles (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37, 0.80).

Conclusion: One-quarter of spine surgery patients reported preoperative SD of at least moderate severity. Poor preoperative sleep quality and ongoing postoperative sleep disturbance were significantly associated with worse scores on several HRQoL measures. These results highlight the importance of addressing patients' sleep disturbance both before and after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.03.021DOI Listing
August 2021

Appropriate Opioid Use After Spine Surgery: Psychobehavioral Barriers and Patient Knowledge.

World Neurosurg 2021 06 19;150:e600-e612. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To identify spine patients' barriers to appropriate postoperative opioid use, comfort with naloxone, knowledge of safe opioid disposal practices, and associated factors.

Methods: We preoperatively surveyed 174 spine patients about psychobehavioral barriers to appropriate opioid use, comfort with naloxone, and knowledge about opioid disposal. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with barriers and knowledge (α = 0.05).

Results: Common barriers were fear of addiction (71%) and concern about disease progression (43%). Most patients (78%) had neutral/low confidence in the ability of nonopioid medications to control pain; most (57%) felt neutral or uncomfortable with using naloxone; and most (86%) were familiar with safe disposal. Anxiety was associated with fear of distracting the physician (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-14) and with lower odds of knowing safe disposal methods (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.72). Opioid use during the preceding month was associated with comfort with naloxone (aOR, 4.9; 95% CI, 2.1-12). Patients with a higher educational level had lower odds of reporting fear of distracting the physician (aOR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.09-0.97), and those with previous postoperative opioid use had lower odds of concern about disease progression (aOR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.09-0.63) and with a belief in tolerating pain (aOR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12-0.95).

Conclusions: Many spine patients report barriers to appropriate postoperative opioid use and are neutral or uncomfortable with naloxone. Some are unfamiliar with safe disposal. Associated factors include anxiety, lack of recent opioid use, and no previous postoperative use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.03.066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187334PMC
June 2021

Caudally directed upper-instrumented vertebra pedicle screws associated with minimized risk of proximal junctional failure in patients with long posterior spinal fusion for adult spinal deformity.

Spine J 2021 07 13;21(7):1072-1079. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, 601 N. Caroline St, JHOC 5223, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background Context: It is unknown whether upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) pedicle screw trajectory and UIV screw-rod angle are associated with development of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and/or proximal junctional failure (PJF).

Purpose: To determine whether (1) the cranial-caudal trajectory of UIV pedicle screws and (2) UIV screw-vertebra angle are associated with PJK and/or PJF after long posterior spinal fusion in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD).

Study Design/setting: Retrospective review.

Patient Sample: We included 96 patients with ASD who underwent fusion from T9-T12 to the pelvis (>5 vertebrae fused) between 2008 and 2015.

Outcome Measures: Pedicle screw trajectory was measured as the UIV pedicle screw-vertebra angle (UIV-PVA), which is the mean of the two angles between the UIV superior endplate and both UIV pedicle screws. (Positive values indicate screws angled cranially; negative values indicate screws angled caudally.) We measured UIV rod-vertebra angle (UIV-RVA) between the rod at the point of screw attachment and the UIV superior endplate.

Methods: During ≥2-year follow-up, 38 patients developed PJK, and 28 developed PJF. Mean (± standard deviation) UIV-PVA was -0.9° ± 6.0°. Mean UIV-RVA was 87° ± 5.2°. We examined the development of PJK and PJF using a UIV-PVA/UIV-RVA cutoff of 3° identified by a receiver operating characteristic curve, while controlling for osteoporosis, age, sex, and preoperative thoracic kyphosis.

Results: Patients with UIV-PVA ≥3° had significantly greater odds of developing PJK (odds ratio 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.0-7.1) and PJF (odds ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-10) compared with patients with UIV-PVA <3°. UIV-RVA was not significantly associated with development of PJK or PJF.

Conclusions: In long thoracic fusion to the pelvis for ASD, UIV-PVA ≥3° was associated with 2.7-fold greater odds of PJK and 3.6-fold greater odds of PJF compared with UIV-PVA <3°. UIV-RVA was not associated with PJK or PJF.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.03.009DOI Listing
July 2021

Determining validity, discriminant ability, responsiveness, and minimal clinically important differences for PROMIS in adult spinal deformity.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Feb 19:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the concurrent validity, discriminant ability, and responsiveness of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) in adult spinal deformity (ASD) and to calculate minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) for PROMIS scores.

Methods: The authors used data obtained in 186 surgical patients with ASD. Concurrent validity was determined through correlations between preoperative PROMIS scores and legacy measure scores. PROMIS discriminant ability between disease severity groups was determined using the preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) value as the anchor. Responsiveness was determined through distribution- and anchor-based methods, using preoperative to postoperative changes in PROMIS scores. MCIDs were estimated on the basis of the responsiveness analysis.

Results: The authors found strong correlations between PROMIS Pain Interference and ODI and the Scoliosis Research Society 22-item questionnaire Pain component; PROMIS Physical Function and ODI; PROMIS Anxiety and Depression domains and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey version 2, Physical and Mental Components, Scoliosis Research Society 22-item questionnaire Mental Health component (anxiety only), 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire (anxiety only), and 7-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire; PROMIS Fatigue and 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire; and PROMIS Satisfaction with Participation in Social Roles (i.e., Social Satisfaction) and ODI. PROMIS discriminated between disease severity groups in all domains except between none/mild and moderate Anxiety, with mean differences ranging from 3.7 to 8.4 points. PROMIS showed strong responsiveness in Pain Interference; moderate responsiveness in Physical Function and Social Satisfaction; and low responsiveness in Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, and Sleep Disturbance. Final PROMIS MCIDs were as follows: -6.3 for Anxiety, -4.4 for Depression, -4.6 for Fatigue, -5.0 for Pain Interference, 4.2 for Physical Function, 5.7 for Social Satisfaction, and -3.5 for Sleep Disturbance.

Conclusions: PROMIS is a valid assessment of patient health, can discriminate between disease severity levels, and shows responsiveness to changes after ASD surgery. The MCIDs provided herein may help clinicians interpret postoperative changes in PROMIS scores, taking into account the fact that they are pending external validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.SPINE191551DOI Listing
February 2021

How is staging of ALIF following posterior spinal arthrodesis to the pelvis related to functional improvement in patients with adult spinal deformity?

Spine Deform 2021 Jul 19;9(4):1085-1091. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, 601 N. Caroline Street, JHOC 5241, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort.

Objectives: To compare postoperative functional improvement in patients who underwent staged versus non-staged anterior-posterior spinal arthrodesis for adult spinal deformity (ASD). In patients with ASD, spinal arthrodesis can be performed in 2 stages to avoid the physiologic insult of a lengthy surgery. The association between staged surgery and postoperative functional improvement has not been well studied.

Methods: We included 87 patients (59 women) with ASD who underwent anterior-posterior spinal arthrodesis of > 5 levels with fixation to the pelvis from 2010-2014. Primary outcomes were the frequency of achieving at least a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in the Scoliosis Research Society-22r (SRS-22r) Activity domain and the timeframe in which it was achieved. The secondary outcome was patient satisfaction (SRS-22r Patient Satisfaction domain). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to compare functional improvement over time between staged and non-staged groups. Our study was powered to detect a relative hazard ratio of 0.53, β = 0.20. α = 0.05.

Results: The frequency of achieving an MCID in SRS-22r Activity score did not differ significantly between the staged group (33/41 patients) and the non-staged group (34/46 patients) (hazard ratio 0.74; 95% confidence interval 0.41-1.36). Median times to achieving an MCID in SRS-22r Activity score were 191 days (interquartile range: 86-674) in the staged group and 181 days (interquartile range: 72-474) in the non-staged group (p = .75). The staged and non-staged groups had similar SRS-22r Patient Satisfaction scores at 3-9 months postoperatively and at final follow-up (both, p > .05).

Conclusion: Patients with ASD who underwent staged anterior-posterior spinal arthrodesis within 3 months after index surgery were similarly likely to experience functional improvement in the same timeframe as patients who underwent non-staged surgery. Patient satisfaction did not differ significantly between staged and non-staged groups.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00272-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Recurrence of proximal junctional kyphosis after revision surgery for symptomatic proximal junctional kyphosis in patients with adult spinal deformity: incidence, risk factors, and outcomes.

Eur Spine J 2021 05 15;30(5):1199-1207. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, 601 North Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Purpose: Although proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is common after long spinal fusion, the outcomes of revision surgery for symptomatic PJK are unclear. Our aim was to assess the outcomes of revision surgery for symptomatic PJK in patients with adult spinal deformity and elucidate the incidence and risk factors for recurrent PJK (rePJK).

Methods: We evaluated standing radiographs and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients who underwent revision surgery for symptomatic PJK with at least 2-year follow-up. Patients were assigned to the non-rePJK or rePJK group according to PJK recurrence.

Results: Thirty-nine consecutive patients (mean age, 63 ± 11 years; 24 women) met the inclusion criteria. RePJK occurred in 12 patients (31%). There were significant differences in the following parameters between groups (non-rePJK vs. rePJK): initial proximal junctional sagittal Cobb angle (PJA) (26.6° vs. 35.6°), thoracic kyphosis (TK) (38.6° vs. 52.8°), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (9.3 vs. 15.9 cm), and pre- to postoperative SVA decrease (6.1 vs. 12.2 cm). Significant risk factors for rePJK were initial PJA > 40°, preoperative TK > 60°, preoperative SVA > 10.0 cm, correction of TK > 15°, and correction of SVA > 5.0 cm. HRQOL scores improved significantly; however, postoperative SRS-22r activity scores were significantly worse in the rePJK group vs the non-rePJK group.

Conclusion: The incidence of rePJK was 31%. Risk factors for rePJK were large initial PJA, high preoperative TK and SVA, and greater correction of TK and SVA. HRQOL did not differ significantly between patients with vs without rePJK, except immediate postoperative SRS-22r activity scores.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06669-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Improvement in SRS-22R Self-Image Correlate Most with Patient Satisfaction after 3-Column Osteotomy.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jun;46(12):822-827

Presbyterian/St. Luke's Medical Center, Rocky Mountain Hospital for Children, Denver, CO.

Study Design: Longitudinal cohort.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between patient satisfaction, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and radiographic parameters in adult spine deformity (ASD) patients undergoing three-column osteotomies (3CO).

Summary Of Background Data: Identifying factors that influence patient satisfaction in ASD is important. Evidence suggests Scoliosis Research Society-22R (SRS-22R) Self-Image domain correlates with patient satisfaction in patients with ASD.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of ASD patients enrolled in a prospective, multicenter database undergoing a 3CO with complete SRS-22R pre-op and minimum 2-years postop. Spearman correlations were used to evaluate associations between the 2-year SRS Satisfaction score and changes in SRS-22R domain scores, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and radiographic parameters.

Results: Of 135 patients eligible for 2-year follow-up, 98 patients (73%) had complete pre- and 2-year postop data. The cohort was mostly female (69%) with mean BMI of 29.7 kg/m2 and age of 61.0 years. Mean levels fused was 12.9 with estimated blood loss of 2695 cc and OR time of 407 minutes; 27% were revision surgeries. There was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and 2-year post-op PROMs and all radiographic parameters except Coronal Vertical Axis. The majority of patients had an SRS Satisfaction score of ≥3.0 (90%) or ≥4.0 (68%), consistent with a moderate ceiling effect. Correlations of patient satisfaction was significant for Pain (0.43, P < 0.001), Activity (0.39, P < 0.001), Mental (0.38, P = 0.001) Self-Image (0.52, P < 0.001). ODI and Short-Form-36 Physical component summary had a moderate correlation as well, with mental component summary being weak. There was no statistically significant correlation between any radiographic or operative parameters and patient satisfaction.

Conclusion: There was statistically significant improvement in all PROMs and radiographic parameters, except coronal vertical axis at 2 years in ASD patients undergoing 3CO. Improvement in SRS Self-Image domain has the strongest correlation with patient satisfaction.Level of Evidence: 3.
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June 2021

Prevalence of Osteoporosis Treatment and Its Effect on Post-Operative Complications, Revision Surgery and Costs After Multi-Level Spinal Fusion.

Global Spine J 2020 Dec 17:2192568220976560. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objective: To study the prevalence of pre-operative osteoporosis treatment, and its effect on risk of ORC, revision surgery and costs in osteoporotic patients undergoing ≥3-level spinal fusion for degenerative pathology.

Methods: Patients and procedures of interest were included using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) coding. Our outcome measures were ORC at 1-year post-operatively and included instrumentation complications, pathological fracture, and revision surgery. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards analysis was done to study the effect of osteoporosis treatment on risk of ORC.

Results: We included a total of 849 patients with documented osteoporosis undergoing ≥3-level spinal fusion. White (85.6%), female (82.7%), and 60-79 years of age (79.9%) was the most common demographic. Of entire cohort, 121(14.3%) were on osteoporosis treatment prior to spinal fusion. Of treated patients, 52/121 (43.0%) had continued prescriptions at 1 year post-operatively. Treated patients and not-treated patients had 1-year ORC incidence of 9.1% and 15.0%, respectively. The average 1-year reimbursement/patient for managing ORC was $3,053 (treated) and $21,147 (not-treated). On adjusted cox analysis, pre-operative osteoporosis treatment was associated with a lower risk of ORC (HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.28-0.99, p = 0.04).

Conclusions: Pre-operative osteoporosis treatment is associated with lower risk of ORC and revision surgery at 1-year after ≥3-level spinal fusion. There is a low incidence of osteoporosis treatment prior to spinal fusion, and subsequently a low rate of treatment continuation after surgery. These findings highlight the need for heightened awareness, patient education and management of osteoporosis before elective multi-level spinal fusion.
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December 2020

Mental Health Associated With Postoperative Satisfaction in Lumbar Degenerative Surgery Patients.

Clin Spine Surg 2020 Dec 8. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery.

Study Design: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data OBJECTIVE:: To assess the association between preoperative and postoperative mental health status with postoperative satisfaction in lumbar degenerative surgery patients.

Summary Of Background Data: Poor preoperative mental health has been shown to negatively affect postoperative satisfaction among spine surgery patients, but there is limited evidence on the impact of postoperative mental health on satisfaction.

Materials And Methods: Adult patients undergoing surgery for lumbar degenerative conditions at a single institution were included. Mental health was assessed preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Depression and Anxiety scores. Satisfaction was assessed 12 months postoperatively using North American Spine Society Patient Satisfaction Index. The authors evaluated associations between mental health and satisfaction with univariate and multivariable logistic regression to adjust for confounders. Preoperative depression/anxiety level was corrected for postoperative depression/anxiety level, and vice versa. Statistical significance was assessed at α=0.05.

Results: A total of 183 patients (47% male individuals; avg. age, 62 y) were included. Depression was present in 27% preoperatively and 29% postoperatively, and anxiety in 50% preoperatively and 31% postoperatively. Ninteen percent reported postoperative dissatisfaction using the North American Spine Society Patient Satisfaction Index. Univariate analysis identified race, family income, relationship status, current smoking status, change in pain interference, and change in physical function as potential confounders. In adjusted analysis, odds of dissatisfaction were increased in those with mild postoperative depression (adjusted odds ratio=6.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-32; P=0.03) and moderate or severe postoperative depression (adjusted odds ratio=7.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-52; P=0.03). Preoperative and postoperative anxiety and preoperative depression were not associated with postoperative satisfaction.

Conclusions: Following lumbar degenerative surgery, patients with postoperative depression, irrespective of preoperative depression status, have significantly higher odds of dissatisfaction. These results emphasize the importance of postoperative screening and treatment of depression in spine patients with dissatisfaction.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-nonrandomized cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000001106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184861PMC
December 2020

Impact of New Motor Deficit on HRQOL After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Subanalysis From Scoli Risk 1 Prospective Study.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Apr;46(7):E450-E457

Department of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Study Design: International, multicenter, prospective, longitudinal observational cohort.

Objective: To assess how new motor deficits affect patient reported quality of life scores after adult deformity surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: Adult spinal deformity surgery is associated with high morbidity, including risk of new postoperative motor deficit. It is unclear what effect new motor deficit has on Health-related Quality of Life scores (HRQOL) scores.

Methods: Adult spinal deformity patients were enrolled prospectively at 15 sites worldwide. Other inclusion criteria included major Cobb more than 80°, C7-L2 curve apex, and any patient undergoing three column osteotomy. American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scores and standard HRQOL scores were recorded pre-op, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 2 years.

Results: Two hundred seventy two complex adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients enrolled. HRQOL scores were worse for patients with lower extremity motor score (LEMS). Mean HRQOL changes at 6 weeks and 2 years compared with pre-op for patients with motor worsening were: ODI (+12.4 at 6 weeks and -4.7 at 2 years), SF-36v2 physical (-4.5 at 6 weeks and +2.3 at 2 years), SRS-22r (0.0 at 6 weeks and +0.4 at 2 years). Mean HRQOL changes for motor-neutral patients were: ODI (+0.6 at 6 weeks and -12.1 at 2 years), SF-36v2 physical (-1.6 at 6 weeks and +5.9 at 2 years), and SRS-22r (+0.4 at 6 weeks and +0.7 at 2 years). For patients with LEMS improvement, mean HRQOL changes were: ODI (-0.6 at 6 weeks and -16.3 at 2 years), SF-36v2 physical (+1.0 at 6 weeks and +7.0 at 2 years), and SRS-22r (+0.5 at 6 weeks and +0.9 at 2 years).

Conclusion: In the subgroup of deformity patients who developed a new motor deficit, total HRQOLs and HRQOL changes were negatively impacted. Patients with more than 2 points of LEMS worsening had the worst changes, but still showed overall HRQOL improvement at 6 months and 2 years compared with pre-op baseline.Level of Evidence: 3.
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April 2021

Multicenter assessment of surgical outcomes in adult spinal deformity patients with severe global coronal malalignment: determination of target coronal realignment threshold.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Dec 4:1-14. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

18Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Objective: The impact of global coronal malalignment (GCM; C7 plumb line-midsacral offset) on adult spinal deformity (ASD) treatment outcomes is unclear. Here, the authors' primary objective was to assess surgical outcomes and complications in patients with severe GCM, with a secondary aim of investigating potential surgical target coronal thresholds for optimal outcomes.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective multicenter database. Operative patients with severe GCM (≥ 1 SD above the mean) and a minimum 2-year follow-up were identified. Demographic, surgical, radiographic, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and complications data were analyzed.

Results: Of 691 potentially eligible operative patients (mean GCM 4 ± 3 cm), 80 met the criteria for severe GCM ≥ 7 cm. Of these, 62 (78%; mean age 63.7 ± 10.7 years, 81% women) had a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean follow-up 3.3 ± 1.1 years). The mean ASD-Frailty Index was 3.9 ± 1.5 (frail), 50% had undergone prior fusion, and 81% had concurrent severe sagittal spinopelvic deformity with GCM and C7-S1 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) positively correlated (r = 0.313, p = 0.015). Surgical characteristics included posterior-only (58%) versus anterior-posterior (42%) approach, mean fusion of 13.2 ± 3.8 levels, iliac fixation (90%), 3-column osteotomy (36%), operative duration of 8.3 ± 3.0 hours, and estimated blood loss of 2.3 ± 1.7 L. Final alignment and HRQOL significantly improved (p < 0.01): GCM, 11 to 4 cm; maximum coronal Cobb angle, 43° to 20°; SVA, 13 to 4 cm; pelvic tilt, 29° to 23°; pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch, 31° to 5°; Oswestry Disability Index, 51 to 37; physical component summary of SF-36 (PCS), 29 to 37; 22-Item Scoliosis Research Society Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22r) Total, 2.6 to 3.5; and numeric rating scale score for back and leg pain, 7 to 4 and 5 to 3, respectively. Residual GCM ≥ 3 cm was associated with worse SRS-22r Appearance (p = 0.04) and SRS-22r Satisfaction (p = 0.02). The minimal clinically important difference and/or substantial clinical benefit (MCID/SCB) was met in 43%-83% (highest for SRS-22r Appearance [MCID 83%] and PCS [SCB 53%]). The severity of baseline GCM (≥ 2 SD above the mean) significantly impacted postoperative SRS-22r Satisfaction and MCID/SCB improvement for PCS. No significant partial correlations were demonstrated between GCM or SVA correction and HRQOL improvement. There were 89 total complications (34 minor and 55 major), 45 (73%) patients with ≥ 1 complication (most commonly rod fracture [19%] and proximal junctional kyphosis [PJK; 18%]), and 34 reoperations in 22 (35%) patients (most commonly for rod fracture and PJK).

Conclusions: Study results demonstrated that ASD surgery in patients with substantial GCM was associated with significant radiographic and HRQOL improvement despite high complication rates. MCID improvement was highest for SRS-22r Appearance/Self-Image. A residual GCM ≥ 3 cm was associated with a worse outcome, suggesting a potential coronal realignment target threshold to assist surgical planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.7.SPINE20606DOI Listing
December 2020

Are Higher Global Alignment and Proportion Scores Associated With Increased Risks of Mechanical Complications After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery? An External Validation.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 02;479(2):312-320

K. M. C. Cheung, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

Background: The Global Alignment and Proportion (GAP) score, based on pelvic incidence-based proportional parameters, was recently developed to predict mechanical complications after surgery for spinal deformities in adults. However, this score has not been validated in an independent external dataset.

Questions/purposes: After adult spinal deformity surgery, is a higher GAP score associated with (1) an increased risk of mechanical complications, defined as rod fractures, implant-related complications, proximal or distal junctional kyphosis or failure; (2) a higher likelihood of undergoing revision surgery to treat a mechanical complication; and (3) is a lower (more proportioned) GAP score category associated with better validated outcomes scores using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) and the Short Form-36 questionnaires?

Methods: A total of 272 patients who had undergone corrective surgeries for complex spinal deformities were enrolled in the Scoli-RISK-1 prospective trial. Patients were included in this secondary analysis if they fulfilled the original inclusion criteria by Yilgor et al. From the original 272 patients, 14% (39) did not satisfy the radiographic inclusion criteria, the GAP score could not be calculated in 14% (37), and 24% (64) did not have radiographic assessment at postoperative 2 years, leaving 59% (159) for analysis in this review of data from the original trial. A total of 159 patients were included in this study,with a mean age of 58 ± 14 years at the time of surgery. Most patients were female (72%, 115 of 159), the mean number of levels involved in surgery was 12 ± 4, and three-column osteotomy was performed in 76% (120 of 159) of patients. The GAP score was calculated using parameters from early postoperative radiographs (between 3 and 12 weeks) including pelvic incidence, sacral slope, lumbar lordosis, lower arc lordosis and global tilt, which were independently obtained from a computer software based on centralized patient radiographs. The GAP score was categorized as proportional (scores of 0 to 2), moderately disproportional (scores of 3 to 6), or severely disproportional (scores higher than 7 to 13). Receiver operating characteristic area under curve (AUC) was used to assess associations between GAP score and risk of mechanical complications and risk of revision surgery. An AUC of 0.5 to 0.7 was classified as "no or low associative power", 0.7 to 0.9 as "moderate" and greater than 0.9 as "high". We analyzed differences in validated outcome scores between the GAP categories using Wilcoxon rank sum test.

Results: At a minimum of 2 years' follow-up, a higher GAP score was not associated with increased risks of mechanical complications (AUC = 0.60 [95% CI 0.50 to 0.70]). A higher GAP score was not associated with a higher likelihood of undergoing a revision surgery to treat a mechanical complication (AUC = 0.66 [95% 0.53 to 0.78]). However, a moderately disproportioned GAP score category was associated with better SF-36 physical component summary score (36 ± 10 versus 40 ± 11; p = 0.047), better SF-36 mental component summary score (46 ± 13 versus 51 ± 12; p = 0.01), better SRS-22 total score (3.4 ± 0.8 versus 3.7 ± 0.7, p = 0.02) and better ODI score (35 ± 21 versus 25 ± 20; p = 0.003) than severely disproportioned GAP score category.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of this external validation study, we found that alignment targets based on the GAP score alone were not associated with increased risks of mechanical complications and mechanical revisions in patients with complex adult spinal disorders. Parameters not included in the original GAP score needed to be considered to reduce the likelihood of mechanical complications.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899533PMC
February 2021

Practical answers to frequently asked questions for shared decision-making in adult spinal deformity surgery.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Oct 16:1-10. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

1Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, Kentucky.

Objective: The shared decision-making (SDM) process provides an opportunity to answer frequently asked questions (FAQs). The authors aimed to present a concise list of answers to FAQs to aid in SDM for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery.

Methods: From a prospective, multicenter ASD database, patients enrolled between 2008 and 2016 who underwent fusions of 5 or more levels with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included. All deformity types were included to provide general applicability. The authors compiled a list of FAQs from patients undergoing ASD surgery and used a retrospective analysis to provide answers. All responses are reported as either the means or the proportions reaching the minimal clinically important difference at the 2-year follow-up interval.

Results: Of 689 patients with ASD who were eligible for 2-year follow-up, 521 (76%) had health-related quality-of-life scores available at the time of that follow-up. The mean age at the initial surgery was 58.2 years, and 78% of patients were female. The majority (73%) underwent surgery with a posterior-only approach. The mean number of fused levels was 12.2. Revision surgery accounted for 48% of patients. The authors answered 12 FAQs as follows:1. Will my pain improve? Back and leg pain will both be reduced by approximately 50%.2. Will my activity level improve? Approximately 65% of patients feel improvement in their activity level.3. Will I feel better about myself? More than 70% of patients feel improvement in their appearance.4. Is there a chance I will get worse? 4.1% feel worse at 2 years postoperatively.5. What is the likelihood I will have a complication? 67.8% will have a major or minor complication, with 47.8% having a major complication.6. Will I need another surgery? 25.0% will have a reoperation within 2 years.7. Will I regret having surgery? 6.5% would not choose the same treatment.8. Will I get a blood transfusion? 73.7% require a blood transfusion.9. How long will I stay in the hospital? You need to stay 8.1 days on average.10. Will I have to go to the ICU? 76.0% will have to go to the ICU.11. Will I be able to return to work? More than 70% will be working at 1 year postoperatively.12. Will I be taller after surgery? You will be 1.1 cm taller on average.

Conclusions: The above list provides concise, practical answers to FAQs encountered in the SDM process while counseling patients for ASD surgery.
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October 2020

Comprehensive classification system for multirod constructs across three-column osteotomies: a reliability study.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Oct 9:1-7. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri; and.

Objective: In this study, the authors' goal was to determine the intra- and interobserver reliability of a new classification system that allows the description of all possible constructs used across three-column osteotomies (3COs) in terms of rod configuration and density.

Methods: Thirty-five patients with multirod constructs (MRCs) across a 3CO were classified by two spinal surgery fellows according to the new system, and then were reclassified 2 weeks later. Constructs were classified as follows: the number of rods across the osteotomy site followed by a letter corresponding to the type of rod configuration: "M" is for a main rod configuration, defined as a single rod spanning the osteotomy. "L" is for linked rod configurations, defined as 2 rods directly connected to each other at the osteotomy site. "S" is for satellite rod configurations, which were defined as a short rod independent of the main rod with anchors above and below the 3CO. "A" is for accessory rods, defined as an additional rod across the 3CO attached to main rods but not attached to any anchors across the osteotomy site. "I" is for intercalary rod configurations, defined as a rod connecting 2 separate constructs across the 3CO, without the intercalary rod itself attached to any anchors across the osteotomy site. The intra- and interobserver reliability of this classification system was determined.

Results: A sample estimation for validation assuming two readers and 35 subjects results in a two-sided 95% confidence interval with a width of 0.19 and a kappa value of 0.8 (SD 0.3). The Fleiss kappa coefficient (κ) was used to calculate the degree of agreement between interrater and intraobserver reliability. The interrater kappa coefficient was 0.3, and the intrarater kappa coefficient was 0.63 (good reliability). This scenario represents a high degree of agreement despite a low kappa coefficient. Correct observations by both observers were 34 of 35 and 33 of 35 at both time points. Misclassification was related to difficulty in determining connectors versus anchors.

Conclusions: MRCs across 3COs have variable rod configurations. Currently, no classification system or agreement on nomenclature exists to define the configuration of rods across 3COs. The authors present a new, comprehensive MRC classification system with good inter- and intraobserver reliability and a high degree of agreement that allows for a standardized description of MRCs across 3COs.
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October 2020

Development of a Preoperative Adult Spinal Deformity Comorbidity Score That Correlates With Common Quality and Value Metrics: Length of Stay, Major Complications, and Patient-Reported Outcomes.

Global Spine J 2021 Mar 26;11(2):146-153. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective review of a multicenter prospective registry.

Objectives: Our goal was to develop a method to risk-stratify adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients on the basis of their accumulated health deficits. We developed a novel comorbidity score (CS) specific to patients with ASD based on their preoperative health state and investigated whether it was associated with major complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), and self-reported outcomes after ASD surgery.

Methods: We identified 273 operatively treated ASD patients with 2-year follow-up. We assessed associations between major complications and age, comorbidities, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and Oswestry Disability Index score. Significant factors were used to construct the ASD-CS. Associations of ASD-CS with major complications, LOS, and patient-reported outcomes were analyzed.

Results: Major complications increased significantly with ASD-CS ( < .01). Compared with patients with ASD-CS of 0, the odds of major complications were 2.8-fold higher ( = .068) in patients with ASD-CS of 1 through 3; 4.5-fold higher ( < .01) in patients with ASD-CS of 4 through 6; and 7.5-fold higher ( < .01) in patients with ASD-CS of 7 or 8. Patients with ASD-CS of 7 or 8 had the longest mean LOS (10.7 days) and worst mean Scoliosis Research Society-22r total score at baseline; however, they experienced the greatest mean improvement (0.98 points) over 2 years.

Conclusions: The ASD-CS is significantly associated with major complications, LOS, and patient-reported outcomes in operatively treated ASD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568219894951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882823PMC
March 2021

Changes in racial and ethnic disparities in lumbar spinal surgery associated with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, 2006-2014.

Spine J 2021 01 5;21(1):64-70. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 N. Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 N. Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Background Context: Since implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010, more Americans have health insurance, and many racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare have improved. We previously reported that Black and Hispanic patients undergo surgery for spinal stenosis at lower rates than do white patients.

Purpose: To assess changes in racial/ethnic disparities in rates of lumbar spinal surgery after passage of the ACA.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis.

Patient Sample: Approximately 3.2 million adults who underwent lumbar spinal surgery in the US from 2006 through 2014.

Outcome Measures: Racial disparities in discharge rates before versus after ACA passage.

Methods: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the U.S. Census Bureau Current Population Survey Supplement, and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, criteria for definite lumbar spinal surgery, we calculated rates of lumbar spinal surgery as the number of hospital discharges divided by population estimates and stratified patients by race/ethnicity after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Calendar years were stratified as before ACA passage (2006-2010) or after ACA passage (2011-2014). Poisson regression was used to model hospital discharge rates as a function of race/ethnicity before and after ACA passage after adjustment for potential confounders.

Results: All rates are expressed per 1,000 persons. The overall median discharge rate decreased from 1.9 before ACA passage to 1.6 after ACA passage (p < .001). After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, the Black:White disparity in discharge rates decreased from 0.40:1 before ACA to 0.44:1 after ACA (p < .001). A similar decrease in the Hispanic:White disparity occurred, from 0.35:1 before ACA to 0.38:1 after ACA (p < .001).

Conclusion: Small but significant decreases occurred in racial/ethnic disparities in hospital discharge rates for lumbar spinal surgery after ACA passage.
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January 2021

Counseling Guidelines for Anticipated Postsurgical Improvements in Pain, Function, Mental Health, and Self-image for Different Types of Adult Spinal Deformity.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Aug;45(16):1118-1127

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of a multicenter prospective adult spinal deformity (ASD) database.

Objective: Quantify postoperative improvements in pain, function, mental health, and self-image for different ASD types.

Summary Of Background Data: Medical providers are commonly requested to counsel patients on anticipated improvements in specific health domains including pain, function, and self-image following surgery. ASD is a heterogeneous condition; therefore, health domain improvements may vary according to deformity type. Few studies have quantified outcomes for specific ASD types.

Methods: Surgically treated ASD patients (≥4 levels fused) prospectively enrolled into a multicenter database, minimum 2-year follow-up, were categorized into ASD types according to Scoliosis Research Society-Schwab ASD classification (THORACIC, LUMBAR, DOUBLE, SAGITTAL, MIXED). Demographic, radiographic, operative, and patient reported outcome measures (NRS back and leg pain, SRS-22r, SF-36) data were evaluated. Preoperative and last postoperative values for pain, physical and social function, mental health, and self-image were evaluated, improvements in each domain were quantified, and domain scores compared to generational normative values. Postoperative improvements were also calculated for three age cohorts (<45 yr, 45-65 yr, and >65 yr) within each deformity type.

Results: 359 of 564 patients eligible for study (mean age 57.9 yr, mean scoliosis 43.4°, mean SVA 63.3 mm, mean 11.7 levels fused) had ≥2 yr follow-up. Domain improvements for the entire ASD population were 45.1% for back pain, 41.3% for leg pain, 27.1% for physical function, 35.9% for social function, 62.0% for self-image, and 22.6% for mental health (P < 0.05). LUMBAR, SAGITTAL, and MIXED had greatest improvements in pain and function, while THORACIC and DOUBLE had greatest improvements in self-image. Self-image was the most impacted preoperative domain and demonstrated the greatest postoperative improvement for all ASD types.

Conclusion: ASD patients demonstrated quantifiable postoperative improvements in pain, self-image, physical and social function, and mental health; however, improvements differed between ASD types. Further research is needed to understand specific patient expectations for ASD treatment.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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August 2020

Preoperative patient expectations and pain improvement after adult spinal deformity surgery.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Jun 12:1-6. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Objective: Patients' expectations for pain relief are associated with patient-reported outcomes after treatment, although this has not been examined in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD). The aim of this study was to identify associations between patients' preoperative expectations for pain relief after ASD surgery and patient-reported pain at the 2-year follow-up.

Methods: The authors analyzed surgically treated ASD patients at a single institution who completed a survey question about expectations for back pain relief. Five ordinal answer choices to "I expect my back pain to improve" were used to categorize patients as having low or high expectations. Back pain was measured using the 10-point numeric rating scale (NRS) and Scoliosis Research Society-22r (SRS-22r) patient survey. Preoperative and postoperative pain were compared using analysis of covariance.

Results: Of 140 ASD patients eligible for 2-year follow-up, 105 patients (77 women) had pre- and postoperative data on patient expectations, 85 of whom had high expectations. The mean patient age was 59 ± 12 years, and 46 patients (44%) had undergone previous spine surgery. The high-expectations and low-expectations groups had similar baseline demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.05), except for lower SRS-22r mental health scores in those with low expectations. After controlling for baseline characteristics and mental health, the mean postoperative NRS score was significantly better (lower) in the high-expectations group (3.5 ± 3.5) than in the low-expectations group (5.4 ± 3.7) (p = 0.049). The mean postoperative SRS-22r pain score was significantly better (higher) in the high-expectations group (3.3 ± 1.1) than in the low-expectations group (2.6 ± 0.94) (p = 0.019).

Conclusions: Despite similar baseline characteristics, patients with high preoperative expectations for back pain relief reported less pain 2 years after ASD surgery than patients with low preoperative expectations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.3.SPINE191311DOI Listing
June 2020
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