Publications by authors named "Khadija A Al-Obaisi"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clonal Evolution and Timing of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 12;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide, where ~50% of patients develop metastasis, despite current improved management. Genomic characterisation of metastatic CRC, and elucidating the effects of therapy on the metastatic process, are essential to help guide precision medicine. Multi-region whole-exome sequencing was performed on 191 sampled tumour regions of patient-matched therapy-naïve and treated CRC primary tumours ( = 92 tumour regions) and metastases ( = 99 tumour regions), in 30 patients. Somatic variants were analysed to define the origin, composition, and timing of seeding in the metastatic progression of therapy-naïve and treated metastatic CRC. High concordance, with few genomic differences, was observed between primary CRC and metastases. Most cases supported a late dissemination model, via either monoclonal or polyclonal seeding. Polyclonal seeding appeared more common in therapy-naïve metastases than in treated metastases. Whereby, treatment prompted for the selection of distinct resistant clones, through monoclonal seeding to distant metastatic sites. Overall, this study reinforces the importance of early clinical detection and surgical excision of the CRC tumour, whilst further highlighting the clinical challenges for metastatic CRC with increased intratumour heterogeneity (either due to early dissemination or polyclonal metastatic spread) and the underlying risk of future therapeutic resistance in treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601934PMC
October 2020

POLE and POLD1 germline exonuclease domain pathogenic variants, a rare event in colorectal cancer from the Middle East.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 08 22;8(8):e1368. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, iyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality related to cancer. Only ~5% of all CRCs occur as a result of pathogenic variants in well-defined CRC predisposing genes. The frequency and effect of exonuclease domain pathogenic variants of POLE and POLD1 genes in Middle Eastern CRCs is still unknown.

Methods: Targeted capture sequencing and Sanger sequencing technologies were employed to investigate the germline exonuclease domain pathogenic variants of POLE and POLD1 in Middle Eastern CRCs. Immunohistochemical analysis of POLE and POLD1 was performed to look for associations between protein expression and clinico-pathological characteristics.

Results: Five damaging or possibly damaging variants (0.44%) were detected in 1,135 CRC cases, four in POLE gene (0.35%, 4/1,135) and one (0.1%, 1/1,135) in POLD1 gene. Furthermore, low POLE protein expression was identified in 38.9% (417/1071) cases and a significant association with lymph node involvement (p = .0184) and grade 3 tumors (p = .0139) was observed. Whereas, low POLD1 expression was observed in 51.9% (555/1069) of cases and was significantly associated with adenocarcinoma histology (p = .0164), larger tumor size (T3 and T4 tumors; p = .0012), and stage III tumors (p = .0341).

Conclusion: POLE and POLD1 exonuclease domain pathogenic variants frequency in CRC cases was very low and these exonuclease domain pathogenic variants might be rare causative events of CRC in the Middle East. POLE and POLD1 can be included in multi-gene panels to screen CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434734PMC
August 2020

Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in cancers derived from multiple organ sites among middle eastern population.

Genomics 2020 03 31;112(2):1746-1753. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Sanger Sequencing and immunohistochemistry was employed to investigate the TERT promoter mutations and TERT protein expression with their association to clinicopathological characteristics in over 2200 samples of Middle Eastern origin from 13 different types of cancers. The TERT promoter mutations were most frequently present in bladder cancer (68.6%), followed by central nervous system tumors (28.7%), thyroid cancer (15.4%), prostate cancer (9.3%), endometrial carcinoma (3.7%), rhabdomyosarcoma (1.4%), colorectal cancer (1%), epithelial ovarian carcinoma (0.7%) and breast cancer (0.7%). No mutations were observed in other types of cancers. In bladder cancer, we found significant inverse association with metastasis and a trend to good survival in patients with TERT mutations. In gliomas, TERT promoter mutations predicted poor prognosis. In thyroid cancer, high frequency of TERT mutation was observed in poorly differentiated carcinoma. In addition, TERT promoter mutations were associated with aggressive markers and poor outcome in follicular thyroid carcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.09.017DOI Listing
March 2020

Telomerase reverse transcriptase mutations are independent predictor of disease-free survival in Middle Eastern papillary thyroid cancer.

Int J Cancer 2018 05 29;142(10):2028-2039. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, , Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Tumor recurrence occurs in ∼20% of PTCs and some reach advanced stages. Promoter mutation in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene is identified to be a prognostic marker in PTC. However, the contribution of TERT promoter mutation to cancer progression in PTC patients is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the incidence of TERT promoter mutations and TERT protein expression and their association with clinicopathological outcomes in a large cohort of PTC samples using direct sequencing technology and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, two PTC cell lines were utilized to investigate role of TERT mutations in mediating metastasis. Two promoter hotspot mutations C228T and C250T were identified in 18.0% (167/927) of our cohort and were significantly associated with poor 5 years disease-free survival and distant metastasis of PTC. TERT protein overexpression was noted in 20.1% of our PTC cohort and was significantly associated with poor prognostic markers such as older age, extrathyroidal extension and Stage IV tumors. A significant association was also found between TERT overexpression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Functional analysis showed that TERT inhibition reduced cell growth, invasion, migration and angiogenesis in PTC via suppression of EMT in PTC cells. Our results suggest that TERT promoter mutation is an independent predictor of disease-free survival and might drive the metastasis, and downregulation of TERT could potentiate antitumor and antimetastatic activities in PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31225DOI Listing
May 2018

Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

Int J Cancer 2016 09 3;139(5):1091-7. Epub 2016 May 3.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5111783PMC
September 2016

Bortezomib inhibits proteasomal degradation of IκBα and induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis in activated B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2014 Feb 24;55(2):415-24. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

Activated B-cell type lymphoma (ABC), a subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), has a worse survival after upfront chemotherapy and is characterized by constitutive activation of the anti-apoptotic nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) pathway. The implication of NFκB inhibition in ABC has not yet been fully explored as a potential therapeutic target. Therefore, a panel of ABC cell lines was used to examine the effect of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor which blocks degradation of IκBα and consequently inhibits NFκB activity. Our data showed that bortezomib caused a dose-dependent growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in all cell lines studied. We next determined the status of the NFκB pathway following bortezomib treatment and found that there was accumulation of IκBα without affecting its phosphorylation status at an early time point. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that bortezomib treatment inhibited constitutive nuclear NFκB in ABC cell lines. Furthermore, treatment of ABC cell lines with bortezomib for 48 h also down-regulated the expression of NFκB-regulated gene products, such as IκBα, Bcl-2, Bcl-Xl, XIAP and survivin, leading to apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Altogether, these results suggest that NFκB may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in DLBCL using proteasomal inhibitors such as bortezomib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2013.806799DOI Listing
February 2014