Publications by authors named "Keyang Liu"

26 Publications

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Tobacco smoking and older people amid the COVID-19 pandemic: An elephant in the room.

Age Ageing 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afab170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8344474PMC
July 2021

Modifiable Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Korea and Japan.

Korean Circ J 2021 Aug 27;51(8):643-655. Epub 2021 May 27.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and a major contributor to disability worldwide. Since the majority of cardiovascular events are preventable, identification of modifiable CVD risk factors and implementation of primordial prevention strategies should be a public health priority. In this aspect, the American Heart Association declared a strategic goal to reduce total CVD mortality in the US by 20% within 10 years via eliminating 7 major CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, and poor-quality diet) in 2010, and their strategy has been achieving. However, the applicability of similar metrics to prevent CVD among East Asians requires an in-depth investigation of the modifiable CVD risk factors based on national and regional evidence-based findings. Herein, this review article aims to discuss several modifiable risk factors for CVDs, using epidemiological evidence from cohort studies and nationally representative data of 2 East Asian countries: Korea and Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2021.0121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326218PMC
August 2021

Consumption of soy products and cardiovascular mortality in people with and without cardiovascular disease: a prospective cohort study of 0.5 million individuals.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 5650871, Japan.

Purpose: We sought to examine the association of soy product consumption with risk of cardiovascular death in Chinese individuals with and without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: The current analysis included 487,034 individuals free of CVD and 22,923 individuals with a history of CVD at study baseline. Data on consumption of soy products were collected by a food frequency questionnaire. The Cox regression was used to obtain the hazard ratios (HRs) of cardiovascular mortality associated with soy product consumption among people with and without a history of CVD at baseline.

Results: During the period of follow-up, 12,582 and 2860 cardiovascular deaths were recorded among people without and with a history of CVD. Compared with those who never or rarely ate soy products, the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) were 1.02 (0.96, 1.08) for those who ate soy products monthly, 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) for those who ate soy products 1-3 days per week, 0.95 (0.88, 1.04) for those who ate soy products ≥ 4 days per week. For cause-specific mortality, soy product consumption was inversely associated with mortality from acute myocardial infarction (HR [95% CI] = 0.75 [0.61, 0.92]). Among people with a history of CVD, higher soy product consumption was not associated with cardiovascular mortality.

Conclusions: Soy consumption ≥ 4 days per week was associated with a significantly lower risk of mortality from acute myocardial infarction in comparison with never or rarely consumption among people without a history of CVD. Among people with a history of CVD, higher soy product consumption was not associated with cardiovascular mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02602-3DOI Listing
June 2021

The Association of Hypertension With the Severity of and Mortality From the COVID-19 in the Early Stage of the Epidemic in Wuhan, China: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 12;8:623608. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Hypertension may affect the prognosis of COVID-19 illness. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics associated with the disease severity and mortality in hypertensive vs. non-hypertensive deceased COVID-19 patients. We included all the deceased patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to >200 health facilities in Wuhan between December 1 and February 24, 2020. The median survival time in COVID-19 patients with and without hypertension, the association of hypertension with the disease severity, and the risk factors associated with the COVID-19 mortality stratified by the hypertension status were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, logistic regression, and Cox proportional regression, respectively before and after the propensity score-matching (PS) for age and sex. The prevalence of hypertension in the studied 1,833 COVID-19 patients was 40.5%. Patients with hypertension were more likely to have severe COVID-19 illness than patients without hypertension; the PS-matched multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.44 (1.77-3.08). Moreover, the median survival time in the hypertension group was 3-5 days shorter than the non-hypertension group. There was a 2-fold increased risk of COVID-19 mortality in the hypertension group compared with the non-hypertension group; the PS-matched multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.04 (1.61-2.72), and the significant increased risk of COVID-19 mortality in the moderate vs. mild COVID-19 illness was confined to patients with hypertension. Additionally, the history and the number of underlying chronic diseases, occupation, and residential location showed stronger associations with the COVID-19 mortality among patients with hypertension than patients without hypertension. Hypertension was associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.623608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149896PMC
May 2021

Combined healthy lifestyle and depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

J Affect Disord 2021 06 26;289:144-150. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: To systematically summarize the association between combined lifestyle (at least three factors, including but not limited to smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index, diet) and depressive symptoms by a meta-analysis in general populations.

Methods: Multiple electronic databases were searched for observational studies investigating combined lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms published before September 2020. Pooled risk estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Publication bias was conducted using the Egger's and Begg's tests.

Results: A total of 12 studies with 185,899 participants were included. The pooled OR of depressive symptoms in meta-analysis of 7 cross-sectional studies was 0.53 (0.39, 0.72), I = 83.6%, P for heterogeneity <0.001 and the pooled RR was 0.33 (0.12, 0.89), I = 95.3%, P for heterogeneity <0.001 in meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies for people with the highest versus lowest score of heathy lifestyles. In sensitivity analyses, the heterogeneity was significantly reduced in cross-sectional studies (pooled OR = 0.74 [0.65, 0.85], I = 21.7%, P for heterogeneity = 0.27) and cohort studies (pooled RR = 0.53 [0.38, 0.74], I = 15.2%, P for heterogeneity = 0.32). The publication bias corrected by "trim-and-fill" analysis yielded unchanged results.

Limitations: Limitations included residual confounding in original studies, heterogeneity between studies, and potential publication bias in the analysis of cross-sectional studies.

Conclusion: The healthy lifestyle was associated with a reduced risk of depressive symptoms. Adherence to overall healthy lifestyles is essential for the primary prevention of depression in general populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.04.030DOI Listing
June 2021

Interaction between APOE ε4 and dietary protein intake on cognitive decline: A longitudinal cohort study.

Clin Nutr 2021 05 16;40(5):2716-2725. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Center for Healthy Aging and Development Studies, National School of Development, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China; Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development and Geriatrics Division, Medical School of Duke University, Durham, NC, 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To exam the association of cognitive decline with APOE ε4 allele carriage and dietary protein intake and investigate whether there is a gene-diet (GxD) interaction of APOE ε4 allele carriage and dietary protein intake on cognitive decline in a nationwide cohort of older adults.

Methods: A cohort study of participants from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey was conducted from 2008 to 2014. A total of 3029 participants (mean age of 77.0 years, SD = 9.0; 49.3% were women) was enrolled. We genotyped APOE ε4 allele for each participant and calculated the diversity of dietary protein intake (DDPI) by summing up the frequency of intake of the 6 protein-rich foods (meats, fish, eggs, nuts, dairy products, and bean products). We assessed cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used ordinal regression model to estimate the independent and joint effects of APOE ε4 carrier and dietary protein intake on cognitive decline, adjusting for potential confounders of age, sex, education, socio-economic status, lifestyles, BMI, and cardiometabolic conditions.

Results: There was significant association between carrying APOE ε4 allele and faster cognitive decline (Odds ratio: 1.19, 95% CI = 1.00-1.42), independent of potential confounders. While the associations of DDPI and the intake of 6 protein-rich foods with cognitive decline did not reach any statistical significance. We observed significant interactions of APOE ε4 with DDPI and fish intake, at multiple correction-adjusted Ps < 0.05. In those who were APOE ε4 carriers rather than non-carriers, both high DDPI (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34-0.88) and daily fish intake (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.78) were significantly associated with slower cognitive decline, respectively. We also found that frequent intake of fish benefits women more than men regarding the mitigating of cognitive decline among APOE ε4 allele carriers (P for interaction = 0.016).

Conclusions: The results of this study support the hypothesis that diversified protein food intake in addition to frequent fish intake may reduce the detrimental effect of APOE ε4 on cognitive health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.03.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Simultaneous measurement of the absolute and relative time delay of a tiled-aperture coherent beam combination via the double-humped spectral beam interferometry.

Opt Express 2020 Nov;28(24):35498-35505

Coherent beam combination (CBC) is a promising technology for achieving several hundred petawatts and even EW-level lasers. However, the measurement of the synchronization error and the time jitter of CBC is one of key technical issues, especially in the few-cycle PW-level laser facilities. In this paper, we demonstrate that the absolute time delay (ATD) and the relative time delay (RTD) for a tiled-aperture CBC can simultaneously be measured by using the double-humped spectral beam interferometry. The experimental study also was demonstrated. A root-mean-square deviation of approximately λ/38 (70 as) and a combining efficiency of 87.3% at 1 Hz closed feedback loop was obtained, respectively. Due to the wide adjustment range and a vast resisting beam energy disturbance capacity, this technique provide an effective and practical solution for measuring simultaneously the ATD and the RTD in the few-cycle PW-level laser pulses CBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.405430DOI Listing
November 2020

Epidemiological characteristics of patients with severe COVID-19 infection in Wuhan, China: evidence from a retrospective observational study.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 01;49(6):1940-1950

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: The new coronavirus (COVID-19) rapidly resulted in a pandemic. We report the characteristics of patients with severe or critical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Wuhan city, China, and the risk factors related to infection severity and death.

Methods: We extracted the demographic and clinical data of 7283 patients with severe COVID-19 infection from designated Wuhan hospitals as of 25 February 2020. Factors associated with COVID-19 critical illness and mortality were analysed using logistic- and Cox-regression analyses.

Results: We studied 6269 patients with severe COVID-19 illness and 1014 critically ill patients. The median (IQR) age was 64 (53-71) years; 51.2% were male, 38.9% were retirees and 7.4% had self-reported histories of chronic disease. Up to the end of the study, 1180 patients (16.2%) recovered and were discharged, 649 (8.9%) died and the remainder were still receiving treatment. The number of daily confirmed critical cases peaked between 23 January and 1 February 2020. Patients with advanced age [odds ratio (OR), 1.03; 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.03-1.04], male sex (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.33-1.86) and pre-existing diabetes (OR, 2.11), hypertension (OR, 2.72), cardiovascular disease (OR, 2.15) or respiratory disease (OR, 3.50) were more likely to be critically ill. Compared with those who recovered and were discharged, patients who died were older [hazard ratio (HR), 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05], more likely to be male (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.44-2.11) and more likely to have hypertension (HR, 5.58), cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.83) or diabetes (HR, 1.67).

Conclusion: Advanced age, male sex and a history of chronic disease were associated with COVID-19 critical illness and death. Identifying these risk factors could help in the clinical monitoring of susceptible populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665537PMC
January 2021

Television Viewing Time and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer Mortality among Japanese Population: The JACC Study.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 27;53(2):497-505. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Purpose: Sedentary behavior attributes to the increased risk of some cancers and all-cause mortality. The evidence is limited for the association between television (TV) viewing time, a major sedentary behavior, and risk of colorectal cancer death. We aimed to examine this association in Japanese population.

Materials And Methods: A prospective cohort study encompassed of 90,834 men and women aged 40-79 years with no prior history of colorectal cancer who completed a self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and provided their TV viewing information. The participants were followed-up from 1988-1990 to the end of 2009. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the Cox proportional hazard regression for risk of colorectal cancer mortality according to TV viewing time.

Results: During the median 19.1-year follow-up period, we documented 749 (385 men and 364 women) colorectal cancer deaths. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality from colorectal cancer were 1.11 (0.88-1.41) for 1.5 to < 3 hr/day, 1.14 (0.91-1.42) for 3 to < 4.5 hr/day and 1.33 (1.02-1.73) for ≥ 4.5 hr/day in comparison to < 1.5 hr/day TV watching; p-trend=0.038, and that for 1-hour increment in TV viewing time was 1.06 (1.01-1.11). Moreover, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95%CI) of colon cancer for 1-hour increment in TV viewing time was 1.07 (1.02-1.13). Age, body mass index, and level of leisure-physical activity did not show significant effect modifications on the observed associations.

Conclusion: TV viewing time is associated with the increased risk of colorectal cancer mortality among Japanese population, more specifically colon rather than rectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053872PMC
April 2021

Dietary Behaviors in the Post-Lockdown Period and Its Effects on Dietary Diversity: The Second Stage of a Nutrition Survey in a Longitudinal Chinese Study in the COVID-19 Era.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 26;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 5620032, Japan.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has imposed enormous challenges on people's lifestyles. People in China have gradually returned to normal life; however, in the protracted pandemic, people may still follow certain dietary behaviors to cope with COVID-19. This study was the second stage of a longitudinal nutritional survey conducted in post-lockdown China that was aimed at exploring post-lockdown dietary behaviors and their effects on dietary diversity. In line with the first stage of the survey, the current dietary behaviors used to cope with COVID-19 and ways of purchasing food were determined. In addition, changes in dietary behavior compared to the same period in 2019 and those behaviors recommended to ensure food safety were also investigated. The Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) was used to assess dietary diversity; this was also used in the first stage of the survey. Linear regression was used to model the associations between the HDDS, participants' characteristics, and dietary behaviors. The data of 1994 participants were included in the analysis. The overall mean HDDS was 9.2 ± 2.0. Compared to the same period in 2019, a substantial proportion of participants self-reported that they had recently decreased eating in restaurants (61.6%) and reduced intakes of seafood (53.1%), imported frozen food (57.1%), and raw food (60.5%), while 64.8% of participants reported increased cooking at home. People with an increased consumption of seafood (adjusted OR (95%CI) = 0.56 (0.07, 1.04)) and raw food (adjusted OR (95%CI) = 0.74 (0.27, 1.21)) had a significantly higher HDDS. Participants who changed their consumption of imported frozen food (both increased and decreased) had a higher HDDS (adjusted OR (95%CI) = 0.56 (0.07, 1.04) and 0.27 (0.09, 0.44), respectively). People who depended more on purchasing food online had a significantly higher HDDS (adjusted OR (95%CI) = 0.29 (0.02, 0.55)). Compared to the data from stage 1, the proportion of people choosing healthy products to cope with COVID-19 did not greatly change and those people had a higher HDDS (adjusted OR (95%CI) = 0.31 (0.19, 0.42)). Although this study found that the proportion of people who chose to use alcohol or vinegar to prevent COVID-19 had decreased substantially compared to during lockdown, there were still 5.3% and 9.8% who followed these irrational behaviors. Regarding the dietary behavior regarding food safety, except for cooking food fully, fewer than half of participants followed the recommended dietary behaviors, including individual food servings (44.2%), using serving chopsticks and spoons (44.8%), and preparing raw and cooked food separately (43.3%). People who followed these behaviors had a better dietary diversity. In conclusion, during the post-lockdown period, people still followed certain dietary behaviors to cope with COVID-19. While some dietary behaviors were adopted to help prevent infection, irrational dietary behaviors were still followed. These behaviors were associated with the dietary diversity in Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693097PMC
October 2020

Association of tea consumption and the risk of gastric cancer in Japanese adults: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

BMJ Open 2020 10 6;10(10):e038243. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Objective: To examine the possible relationship between tea consumption and risk of gastric cancer (GC) among Japanese men and women included in a large Japanese population-based study titled the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: A population-based cohort included subjects who were recruited from 24 areas of JACC Study, in which data regarding the incidence of cancer were available.

Participants: 63 848 participants (26 025 men and 37 823 women), aged 40-79, were included in the analyses and underwent follow-up (median 13.3 years) prospectively in research on cancer incidence.

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: The primary outcome variable was the risk of GC according to the frequency intakes of total tea, green tea, black tea and oolong tea. The adjusted HRs for the risk of GC associated with tea consumption were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: 1494 cases of GC were detected (960 men and 534 women) during the follow-up period. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for the risk of GC in the highest versus lowest quintiles of total tea intake were 1.05 (0.83-1.33); p trend=0.50 in men, and 0.82 (0.60-1.12); p trend=0.45 in women. There was no association found between the consumption of green tea, black tea or oolong tea with the risk for GC in either gender.

Conclusions: In this large community-based prospective cohort study, tea consumption was not associated with the risk of GC in either gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539605PMC
October 2020

Relationship between Endothelial Dysfunction and Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease: The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS).

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Jun 2;28(6):622-629. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine.

Aims: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than the general population. Endothelial dysfunction has been suggested to play a role in both glomerular filtration rate loss and cardiovascular damage. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and the prevalence of CKD in the general Japanese population.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1042 men and women aged 30-81 years in two communities under the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study between 2013 and 2017. Endothelial function was evaluated by percent change of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) before and after the cuff inflation.

Results: Among the total 1042 participants, there were 62 cases of CKD (~6%). The multivariable odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of CKD according to quartiles of %FMD were 2.02 (0.68-5.99), 3.56 (1.27-9.94), and 3.14 (1.10-8.93) for the third to lowest quartile compared with the highest %FMD quartile; p for trend=0.02. The respective multivariable ORs (95% CIs) of CKD in subjects without antihypertensive medication use (39 cases among 886 subjects) were 1.83 (0.46-7.33), 3.41 (0.92-12.61), and 4.60 (1.22-17.31); p for trend=0.01, and that for one-point decrement in %FMD was 1.16 (1.00-1.35); p for interaction with the status of antihypertensive medication use was 0.12.

Conclusions: Our cross-sectional study suggested the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and the higher prevalence of CKD in the general Japanese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.56424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219532PMC
June 2021

Eco-Corona vs Protein Corona: Effects of Humic Substances on Corona Formation and Nanoplastic Particle Toxicity in .

Environ Sci Technol 2020 07 10;54(13):8001-8009. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Institute of Environmental and Health Sciences, China Jiliang University, 168 Xueyuan Street, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310008, People's Republic of China.

Despite many studies on the toxicity of nanoplastic particles (NPPs) to aquatic invertebrates, the effects of ecological constituents such as humic substances (HSs) are often neglected. In our study, was used to evaluate the effects of three HSs, natural organic matter (NOM), fulvic acid (FA), and humic acid (HA), on NPP toxicity and corona formation. Acute toxicities of NPPs were reduced by all HSs at environmentally relevant concentrations. NPPs elicited the upregulation of all genes related to detoxification, oxidative stress, and endocrine activity after 7 days of exposure. The presence of NOM or HA resulted in the mitigation of gene expression, whereas significantly higher upregulation of all of the genes was observed with FA. The presence of FA led to increased protein adsorption on NPPs in culture medium (eco-corona, EC) and homogenates (protein corona, PC), while there was less adsorption in the presence of HA. The highly abundant proteins identified in EC are involved in immune defense, cell maintenance, and antipredator response, while those in PC are responsible for lipid transport, antioxidant effects, and estrogen mediation. Our findings revealed the key influence of HSs on the toxicity of NPPs and provide an analytical and conceptual foundation for future study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c00615DOI Listing
July 2020

An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Stroke Mortality Attributable to Low Physical Activity in China and Japan: Data from the GBD Study 1990-2016.

Sci Rep 2020 04 16;10(1):6525. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Stroke is the first and fourth leading cause of death in China and Japan, respectively. Physical inactivity was suggested to be one of the most important risk factors for stroke mortality. Therefore, this study aimed to assess long-term trends in stroke mortality attributable to low physical activity (LPA) in China and Japan during the period 1990-2016. Mortality data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016) and were analyzed with an age-period-cohort method. The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) showed declining trends for LPA-attributable stroke mortality. The overall net drift per year was -1.3% for Chinese men, -2.9% for Chinese women, -3.9% for Japanese men, and -5.6% for Japanese women. In both countries, the local drift values were below zero in all age groups. The longitudinal age curves of LPA-attributable stroke mortality were higher in men than in women in all age groups. The period and cohort rate ratios showed similar downward patterns for both sexes, with a faster decline for women than for men. However, the physically active population is still small in both countries. Therefore, policymakers should further promote physical activity as one of the most recommended effective strategies in stroke prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63307-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162896PMC
April 2020

An SDS-PAGE based method for the quantification of carbon black in biological samples.

Authors:
Keyang Liu Bin Wan

Analyst 2020 May 1;145(9):3370-3375. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Carbon black (CB) has a wide range of industrial applications and recently has been used as the basic model for environmental health studies on airborne particulate matters (PM). Exposure characterization of CB is always the first and most important step towards a better understanding of its effects on human health. However, efforts were largely limited by the lack of valid methods capable of quantifying CB in biological samples. Here, we developed a new method based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for CB quantification in bio-samples, with a detection limit of 4.3 ng. The method is so economical and convenient that it can be performed in most biology labs. The application of the method was successfully demonstrated in three different cell models (mouse macrophage cells (Raw264.7), human epithelial cells (A549) and mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)) and the results showed that the uptake rates decrease in the order of MSC > Raw264.7 > A549. The surprisingly highest uptake rate of MSC deserves further investigation. The novel method provides a complementary quantitative tool to the use of conventional methods such as radioactive and fluorescent labeling and may facilitate related toxicological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0an00046aDOI Listing
May 2020

Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Jan 27;31(1):30-36. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine.

Background: Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for gastric cancer. However, findings from cohort studies that examined the relationship between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk among Japanese population are not conclusive.

Methods: A total of 54,682 Japanese men and women participating in the Japan Collaborative Cohort study completed a questionnaire, including alcohol consumption information. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: After a median 13.4-year follow-up, we documented 801 men and 466 women incident cases of gastric cancer. Alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among men (HRs in ex-drinkers and current alcohol consumption of <23 g, 23-<46 g, 46-<69 g, and ≥69 g/d categories versus never drinkers were 1.82; 95% CI, 1.38-2.42, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.10-1.80, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.17-1.85, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.48-2.38, and 1.85; 95% CI, 1.35-2.53, respectively, and that for 10 g increment of alcohol consumption after excluding ex-drinkers was 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10). The association in men was observed for cardia and non-cardia gastric cancer (HRs in the highest alcohol consumption category versus never drinkers were 9.96; 95% CI, 2.22-44.67 for cardia cancer and 2.40; 95% CI, 1.64-3.52 for non-cardia cancer). However, no such trend was observed in women.

Conclusions: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among Japanese men, regardless of anatomical subsite of the cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20190304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738647PMC
January 2021

Diabetes and Mortality From Respiratory Diseases: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

J Epidemiol 2020 Oct 14;30(10):457-463. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine.

Background: Little evidence is available about the association between diabetes and respiratory disease mortality among Japanese populations. We aimed to explore the association between diabetes and the risk of respiratory diseases mortality through a nationwide prospective study in Japan.

Methods: We followed 95,056 participants (39,925 men and 55,131 women) for a median 17.1 years. The information about diabetes status, sociodemographic characteristics, and lifestyles was collected at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality from respiratory diseases associated with baseline diabetes status.

Results: We identified 2,838 deaths from total respiratory diseases (1,759 respiratory infection, 432 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 647 other respiratory diseases). The association between diabetes and total respiratory disease mortality was statistically significant among women (HR 1.81; 95% CI, 1.39-2.37) but of borderline statistical significance in men (P for interaction <0.01). Besides, there were significant associations between diabetes and mortality from respiratory infection among both men and women (HR 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.76 and HR 2.30; 95% CI, 1.71-3.11, respectively; P for interaction <0.001). However, we failed to detect any statistically significant association between diabetes and COPD mortality. Moreover, the subgroup analysis revealed that the association between diabetes and total respiratory disease mortality was stronger in never smokers when compared with ever smokers (P for interaction = 0.02).

Conclusions: Significant association was observed between diabetes and the risk of total respiratory disease mortality, in particular from respiratory infection. Prevention and control of respiratory diseases, especially respiratory infection, should be paid more attention among people with diabetes in clinical and public health practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20190091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492709PMC
October 2020

Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Stroke Mortality Attributable to High Sodium Intake in China and Japan.

Stroke 2019 07 14;50(7):1648-1654. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

From the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, China (J.C. and C.Y.).

Background and Purpose- The aim of this study is to assess the long-term trends in stroke mortality attributable to high sodium intake in China and Japan during the period 1990 to 2016. Methods- The mortality data were obtained from the GBD study (Global Burden of Disease) 2016 and were analyzed using an age-period-cohort method. Results- The age-standardized mortality rates showed declining trends for high sodium intake-related stroke mortality. The overall net drifts per year were -3.1% for Chinese men and -5.0% for Chinese women; and -4.6% for Japanese men and -5.7% for Japanese women. The local drift values were below zero in all age groups for both sexes in both countries, and all local drift values of female participants were below their counterparts of male participants. The longitudinal age curves of high sodium intake-attributable stroke mortality increased rapidly for both sexes in China, whereas those of Japanese were slowly rising. The period and cohort rate ratios were found to have similar downward patterns for both sexes in both countries, with a quicker decline for women than for men (significantly with P<0.05 for all). Conclusions- The age-standardized mortality rates, the period effect and the cohort effect of stroke mortality attributable to high sodium intake in China and Japan have been declining in both sexes and all age groups from 1990 to 2016. Consequently, sodium-reduction strategies are of low cost and effective for the prevention of stroke. It is necessary to educate the nation with the correct knowledge on healthy diet and techniques to reduce salt consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.024617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594775PMC
July 2019

Television Viewing Time and Breast Cancer Incidence for Japanese Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women: The JACC Study.

Cancer Res Treat 2019 Oct 21;51(4):1509-1517. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Purpose: The evidence on effects of TV viewing time among premenopausal and postmenopausal women for breast cancer risk remains controversial and limited.

Materials And Methods: A prospective study encompassing 33,276 (17,568 premenopausal, and 15,708 postmenopausal) women aged 40-79 years in whom TV viewing time, menstrual, and reproductive histories were determined by a self-administered questionnaire. The follow-up was from 1988 to 2009 and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer incidence were calculated for longer TV viewing time in reference to shorter TV viewing time by Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: During 16.8-year median follow-up, we found positive associations between TV viewing time and breast cancer incidence with a borderline significant trend among total women and a significant trend among postmenopausal women. Among total women, the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for risk of breast cancer in reference to < 1.5 hr/day of TV viewing time were 0.89 (0.59-1.34) for 1.5 to < 3.0 hr/day, 1.19 (0.82-1.74) for 3.0 to < 4.5 hr/day, and 1.45 (0.91-2.32) for ≥ 4.5 hr/day (p for trend=0.053) and among postmenopausal women, the corresponding risk estimates were 1.10 (0.42-2.88), 2.54 (1.11-5.80), and 2.37 (0.92-6.10) (p for trend=0.009), respectively.

Conclusion: Prolonged TV viewing time was associated with increased risk of breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2018.705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790859PMC
October 2019

Sleep duration and risk of breast cancer: The JACC Study.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2019 Feb 20;174(1):219-225. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Purpose: The evidence on beneficial or adverse effects of sleep duration on risk of breast cancer remains controversial and limited, especially in Asia.

Methods: A prospective study of 34,350 women aged 40-79 years in whom sleep duration, and menstrual and reproductive histories were determined by a self-administered questionnaire. The follow-up period was from 1988 to 2009, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer incidence were calculated for shorter sleep duration in reference to sleep duration of ≥ 8 h/day by Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: During 19.2-year median follow-up (236 cases), we found a significant inverse association between sleep duration and risk of breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and women with low parity (nulliparous and women with < 3 children); the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) among postmenopausal women who reported 7 h/day and ≤ 6 h/day of sleep in reference to ≥ 8 h/day were 1.49 (0.81-2.76) and 1.98 (1.08-3.70) (P for trend = 0.028), respectively, and the corresponding values among women with low parity were 1.50 (0.96-2.35) and 1.76 (1.01-2.79) (P for trend = 0.018).

Conclusions: Short sleep duration was associated with increased risk of incident breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and women with low parity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-018-4995-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Associations of Tobacco Smoking with Impaired Endothelial Function: The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS).

J Atheroscler Thromb 2018 Sep 8;25(9):836-845. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine.

Aims: Smoking impairs endothelial function as an acute effect. However, few population-based studies have examined the association between smoking status and endothelial function or the dose-response and duration-response association of smoking with endothelial function. We examined whether smoking habits were associated with impaired endothelial function depending on smoking dose and duration.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 910 men and women aged 30-79 years from 2013 to 2016. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted between 2016 and 2017. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurement. Low FMD was defined in two ways as the cutoff point based on the lowest quartile of %FMD (<5.1%) and median of %FMD (<6.8%), regarding as impaired endothelial function. We investigated the smoking status in terms of cigarettes consumed per day and the duration of smoking.

Results: Heavy and chronic smokers were associated with a high prevalence of impaired endothelial function. Those associations did not change substantially after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. Among all participants, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of low FMD (<5.1%) with reference to never smokers were 2.23 (1.00-5.14) for current heavy smokers of ≥ 30 cigarettes per day, 1.83 (1.04-3.20) for heavy smokers of ≥ 40 pack-years, and 2.16 (1.15-4.06) for chronic smokers of ≥ 40 years. For low FMD (<6.8%) those values was 2.17 (1.01-5.05), 1.70 (1.01-2.86), and 1.98 (1.07-3.69), respectively.

Conclusions: Similar associations were observed among only men. Heavy or long-term tobacco smoking may induce impaired endothelial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.42150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143782PMC
September 2018

Associations of central aortic pressure and brachial blood pressure with flow mediated dilatation in apparently healthy Japanese men: The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS).

Atherosclerosis 2017 04 27;259:46-50. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Endothelial dysfunction is considered the first stage in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a measure of endothelial function. It is uncertain which of central systolic aortic pressure (CAP) or brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) is more strongly associated with FMD. Therefore, we examined the correlations of CAP and SBP with FMD in Japanese men.

Methods: The study subjects comprised 507 male volunteers aged 30-79 years that were residents in two communities under the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS) between 2013 and 2015. The low percent change of FMD (%FMD) ≤5.0%, after 5 min of reactive hyperemia evaluated by the brachial artery diameter, was used to assess endothelial dysfunction. Values of CAP and SBP were divided into tertiles, with the lowest tertile used as a reference.

Results: After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, the multivariable odds ratio (95% CI) of low FMD for the highest versus lowest tertile of CAP was 1.5 (0.9-2.6) for total subjects and 1.4 (0.5-3.8) for those with, and 2.4 (1.2-4.8) for those without antihypertensive medication use. The corresponding odd ratios for the highest versus lowest tertile of SBP were 0.9 (0.5-1.5), 0.8 (0.3-2.2), and 1.3 (0.7-2.5), respectively.

Conclusions: Higher CAP levels were associated with low FMD for men without antihypertensive medication, but such an association was not found for SBP levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.02.024DOI Listing
April 2017

Heavy Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Impaired Endothelial Function.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2016 Sep 29;23(9):1047-54. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine.

Aim: Previous studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease, but heavy alcohol consumption increases its risk. Endothelial dysfunction is hypothesized to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, few population-based studies have examined a potential effect of alcohol consumption on endothelial function.

Methods: This study included 404 men aged 30-79 years who were recruited from residents in 2 communities under the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study in 2013 and 2014. We asked the individuals about the frequency and volume of alcohol beverages and converted the data into grams of ethanol per day. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements during reactive hyperemia. We performed cross-sectional analysis of alcohol consumption and %FMD by logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, baseline brachial artery diameter, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HbA1c, smoking, antihypertensive medication use, and community.

Results: Individuals who drank ≥ 46 g/day ethanol had a lower age-adjusted mean %FMD than non-drinkers (p<0.01). Compared with non-drinkers, the age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of low %FMD (<5.3%) for former, light (<23.0 g/day ethanol), moderate (23.0-45.9 g/day ethanol), and heavy (≥ 46.0 g/day ethanol) drinkers were 1.61 (0.67-3.89), 0.84 (0.43-1.66), 1.09 (0.52-2.25), and 2.99 (1.56-5.70), respectively. The corresponding multivariable-adjusted ORs were 1.76 (0.69-4.50), 0.86 (0.42-1.76), 0.98 (0.45-2.12), and 2.39 (1.15-4.95), respectively.

Conclusions: Heavy alcohol consumption may be an independent risk factor of endothelial dysfunction in Japanese men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.31641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5090811PMC
September 2016

Purification and concentration of mycobacteriophage D29 using monolithic chromatographic columns.

J Virol Methods 2012 Dec 20;186(1-2):7-13. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

State Research Center for Bio protective Equipment & Engineering Technology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Bacteriophages are used widely in many fields, and phages with high purity and infectivity are required. Convective interaction media (CIM) methacrylate monoliths were used for the purification of mycobacteriophage D29. The lytic phages D29 from bacterial lysate were purified primarily by polyethylene glycol 8000 or ammonium sulphate, and then the resulting phages were passed through the CIM monolithic columns for further purification. After the whole purification process, more than 99% of the total proteins were removed irrespective which primary purification method was used. The total recovery rates of viable phages were around 10-30%. Comparable results were obtained when the purification method was scaled-up from a 0.34 mL CIM DEAE (diethylamine) monolithic disk to an 8 mL CIM DEAE monolithic column.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.07.016DOI Listing
December 2012

Impact of relative humidity and collection media on mycobacteriophage D29 aerosol.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2012 Mar 22;78(5):1466-72. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Beijing Institute of Microbiology andEpidemiology, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aerosol generation, methods of sampling, storage conditions, and relative humidity on the culturability of the mycobacteriophage D29. The lytic phage D29 can kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the phage aerosol can be treated as a potential tool for tuberculosis treatment. The culturability of D29 was tested using a test chamber designed for the bioaerosols research against three spray liquids (deionized water, phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], and normal saline), four collection media (suspension medium [SM], nutrient broth, PBS, and deionized water), two sampling systems (the all-glass impinger AGI-30 and the Biosampler) and across a range of humidities (20 to 90%). The effect of storage conditions on the culturability of collected sample was also evaluated for the AGI-30 impinger. The results proved that viable phage D29 particles generated by deionized water were approximately 30- and 300-fold higher than PBS and normal saline, respectively. As collection media, SM buffer and nutrient broth were observed to yield a higher number of plaques compared to PBS and deionized water. No difference was observed in collection efficiency between AGI-30 and Biosampler with two detection methods (culture-based technique and real-time PCR). The culturability of collected D29 in SM buffer or nutrient broth can be maintained up to 12 h irrespective of storage temperature. Relative humidity was found to strongly influence airborne D29 culturability which is 2- to 20-fold higher in low humidity (25%) than medium (55%) or high (85%) humidity. This research will help identify the optimal means for the application of D29 aerosol in animal inhalation experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.06610-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3294485PMC
March 2012
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