Publications by authors named "Kevin M Enck"

2 Publications

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Detection and inhibition of IgE antibodies reactive with cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in an ELISA for allergen-specific IgE in horses.

Vet Dermatol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Montesano & Tallarico, LLP, PO Box 1396, Smithtown, NY, USA.

Background: It has been demonstrated that immunoglobulin (Ig)E specific for cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) is present in the serum of sensitized humans, dogs and cats, and that these CCD-specific antibodies might confound serological testing.

Hypothesis/objective: The objective was to determine whether or not CCD-reactive antibodies occur in horses and to investigate the prevalence of CCD-reactive IgE antibodies in equine sera using a monoclonal cocktail-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay designed to detect allergen-specific IgE in horses, and to evaluate a means for successful inhibition of these CCD.

Methods And Materials: Sera from 28 horses suspected of clinical allergy were evaluated, with and without a proprietary inhibitor which contains carbohydrates derived from bromelain (BROM-CCD), using a panel of 72 allergens that include 15 grasses, 17 trees, nine weeds, five mites, 12 fungi, 12 insects and two environmental allergens.

Results: Twenty-five samples were shown to be reactive to at least one of the allergens, and 15 were reactive to 10 allergens or more. BROM-CCD had minimal effect on the mite reactivity in any of the positive samples; however, substantial inhibition for pollen allergens (trees, grasses and weeds) was demonstrable. Reduction in signal to pollens ranged from 20% to 100% for samples that were inhibited by CCD-BROM.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: These results demonstrate that CCD-reactive IgE antibodies are evident in horses and that BROM-CCD can be effective in reducing reactions with these irrelevant carbohydrates and will likely yield a more accurate in vitro allergen reactivity profile for selection of allergens included in an immunotherapeutic regime.
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May 2021

Encapsulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 3D Ovarian Cell Constructs Promotes Stable and Long-Term Hormone Secretion with Improved Physiological Outcomes in a Syngeneic Rat Model.

Ann Biomed Eng 2020 Mar 31;48(3):1058-1070. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA.

Loss of ovarian function (e.g., due to menopause) leads to profound physiological effects in women including changes in sexual function and osteoporosis. Hormone therapies are a known solution, but their use has significantly decreased due to concerns over cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. We recently reported a tissue-engineering strategy for cell hormone therapy (cHT) in which granulosa cells and theca cells are encapsulated to mimic native ovarian follicles. cHT improved physiological outcomes and safety compared to pharmacological hormone therapies in a rat ovariectomy model. However, cHT did not achieve estrogen levels as high as ovary-intact animals. In this report, we examined if hormone secretion from cHT constructs is impacted by incorporation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) since these cells contain regulatory factors such as aromatase necessary for estrogen production. Incorporation of BMSCs led to enhanced estrogen secretion in vitro. Moreover, cHT constructs with BMSCs achieved estrogen secretion levels significantly greater than constructs without BMSCs in ovariectomized rats from 70 to 90 days after implantation, while also regulating pituitary hormones. cHT constructs with BMSC ameliorated estrogen deficiency-induced uterine atrophy without hyperplasia. The results indicate that inclusion of BMSC in cHT strategies can improve performance.
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March 2020