Publications by authors named "Kevin E Klingele"

34 Publications

Outcomes of MPFL Reconstruction Utilizing a Quadriceps Turndown Technique in the Adolescent/Pediatric Population.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

Purpose: Recurrent instability following a lateral patellar dislocation is a common indication for surgical intervention. Several surgical procedures are described in the literature to address recurrent patellar instability. Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction utilizing the quadriceps turndown technique attempts to restore medial stability. Results of the quadriceps turndown technique have previously only been reported in adult populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, efficacy, and patient-reported outcomes following a quadriceps turndown MPFL reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population.

Methods: Records of all patients who underwent MPFL reconstruction using a quadriceps turndown technique between 2011 and 2018 were reviewed for demographics, risk factors, complications, mechanism of injury, and concomitant procedures. Return to activities of daily living (ADLs), return to presurgery level of sport, length of bracing, and recurrent instability were assessed with the administration of the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Score. All analyses were completed using IBM SPSS Statistics 26.

Results: Thirty-six knees [14 female (39%), 22 male (61%)] from 34 patients met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The average follow-up length was 35.9±15.2 months. The average age was 16.3±1.8 years at the time of surgery. The average time for resumption of ADLs was 8.1±6.0 weeks after surgery. Ninety-four percent of patients returned to preinjury level of sport at an average of 23.6±12.0 weeks after surgery. Mean Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Score was 90.7±10.3. Female patients (P<0.001) reported significantly lower Kujala scores. Three patients (8%) experienced recurrent instability during ADLs and an additional 4 (11%) reported subjective feelings of instability only during sport or elevated activity. One knee required a return to the operating room for irrigation and debridement due to infection.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the quadriceps turndown technique for MPFL reconstruction is a safe and effective procedure for the management of recurrent patellar instability in pediatric and adolescent patients.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001836DOI Listing
April 2021

Probability analysis of sequential SCFE (PASS score).

J Child Orthop 2020 Oct;14(5):387-396

Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Purpose: The study aimed to develop a scoring system based on clinical and radiological findings to predict the risk of a sequential slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE).

Methods: Paediatric patients with unilateral SCFE and at least two years of radiographic follow-up were screened for inclusion. Medical records were reviewed for multiple variables including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), stability of SCFE, and time to sequential presentation. Radiographic analysis included triradiate physeal status, Risser staging, superior epiphyseal extension ratio (EER), posterior epiphyseal angle (PEA), posterior sloping angle (PSA) and slip severity.

Results: In total, 163 patients (88 male, 54%, 75 female, 46%) met inclusion criteria. Of those, 65 (40%) with a mean age of 11.9 ± 1.3 years developed sequential SCFE at a mean of 9.8 ± 6.4 months after the initial slip. Eight independent variables were statistically different (p < 0.05) between unilateral and sequential groups. Following multivariate analysis, Risser stage and triradiate status were no longer significant and did not influence the strength of the final model (overall area under the curve (AUC) = 0.954) and were consequently excluded. We developed the PASS score using three radiographic parameters using chosen cut-off values that were close to their maximized value and weighted the point value assigned to each parameter based on the strength of predictor.

Conclusion: A PASS score of three or higher predicts a high probability of sequential SCFE with 95% confidence and may warrant prophylactic screw fixation. PASS score calculation can be used to predict a sequential SCFE and provide an objective method to determine the utility prophylactic screw fixation.

Level Of Evidence: II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548.14.200080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666801PMC
October 2020

Closed vs open reduction in developmental dysplasia of the hip: The short-term effect on acetabular remodeling.

J Clin Orthop Trauma 2020 Mar-Apr;11(2):213-216. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: This study aims to assess acetabular remodeling following closed vs, open hip reduction in children younger than 2 years of age.

Methods: Records of children with DDH, who underwent closed or open reduction, were reviewed. Acetabular index (AI) was measured on radiographs taken prior to reduction and on outcome radiographs taken at age 4 years. Radiographic outcomes were analyzed and residual dysplasia (outcome AI ≥ 30) degrees recorded.

Results: 42 hips had closed reduction; and 26 hips had open reduction. A higher percentage of hips treated with successful closed reduction, had outcome AI ≥ 30° (29% vs. 19% p = 0.387). Residual dysplasia was more common in IHDI-IV hips than IHDI-III hips for both groups. A higher incidence of AVN was seen in the open reduction group (13% vs. 7%; p = 0.43).

Conclusion: In children with DDH under the age of two, open reduction with capsulorrhaphy may benefit acetabular remodeling more so than closed reduction despite maintenance of reduction. Although AVN remains a risk, higher remodeling might be expected with open reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcot.2019.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026546PMC
September 2019

Treatment of Unstable Versus Stable Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Using the Modified Dunn Procedure.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Sep;39(8):411-415

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

Background: The modified Dunn procedure (open subcapital realignment via a surgical dislocation approach) has been shown to be a safe and effective way of treating acute, unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). There is a paucity of literature comparing the modified Dunn procedure in stable SCFE. The purpose of this study was to compare acute, unstable versus chronic, stable SCFE managed with the modified Dunn procedure.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 44 skeletally immature patients who underwent the modified Dunn procedure for SCFE. Patients were divided into stable or unstable based on clinical presentation and intraoperative findings. Demographics, radiographic measurements, and complications were recorded and compared. χ and t tests were used to compare variables.

Results: In total, 31 consecutive hips (29 patients) with acute, unstable slips, and 17 consecutive hips (15 patients) with chronic, stable slips were reviewed. Average age was 12.5 and 13.8 years for acute and chronic, respectively (P=0.05). Mean follow-up was 27.9 months (unstable) and 35.5 months (stable). Average postoperative Southwick angle was 14.2 degrees; (unstable) and 25.3 degrees (stable) (P=0.001). Greater trochanteric height averaged 6.2 mm below the center of the femoral head in the acute group and 6.2 mm above center in the chronic group (P<0.001). Average femoral neck length measured 34.1 mm (unstable) and 27.1 mm (stable) (P<0.001). Two patients (6%) developed avascular necrosis (AVN) in the unstable group, with 5 patients (29.4%) in the stable group (P=0.027). All patients with hip instability (N=3) developed AVN.

Conclusions: Although both acute, unstable and chronic, stable SCFE can be successfully treated with the modified Dunn procedure, the complication rate is statistically higher in patients with stable SCFE, specifically both AVN rate and postoperative instability. In addition, it is more difficult to establish normal anatomic indexes with regard to greater trochanteric height and femoral neck length. This procedure has great utility in the correction of the anatomic deformity associated with SCFE, but should be used with caution in patients with chronic, stable SCFE.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-retrospective review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000975DOI Listing
September 2019

Management of foot and ankle injuries in pediatric and adolescent athletes: a narrative review.

Orthop Res Rev 2018 4;10:19-30. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA,

In this review, we focus on the treatment of injuries to the foot and ankle in the adolescent athlete. While many injuries in the adolescent foot and ankle are similar to or overlap with their counterparts in the adult population, the anatomy of the adolescent ankle, especially the presence of growth plates, results in different injury patterns in many cases and calls for specific management approaches. We discuss the unique anatomy of the pediatric patient as well as the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of common injuries in the young athlete.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ORR.S129990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6209353PMC
April 2018

A Quality Improvement Initiative Reduces Cast Complications in a Pediatric Hospital.

J Pediatr Orthop 2018 Feb;38(2):e43-e49

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital.

Background: Casts, while frequently used as routine treatment in pediatric orthopaedic practice, are not without complications. At our large tertiary care pediatric hospital, the baseline rate of all casting complications was 5.6 complications per 1000 casts applied (0.56%). We tested the hypothesis that we could use quality improvement (QI) methodology to decrease the overall cast complication rate and improve patient care.

Methods: We initiated a QI program implementing concepts derived from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement models, including Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, to decrease our cast complication rate. A resident casting education program was developed with a competency "checklist" to ensure that casts are applied, bivalved, and removed in a safe and standardized manner to prevent patient harm. AquaCast Saw Stop Protective Strips were required to be applied with every cast application. A review of our facility's processes and procedures determined adequate measures were in place to effectively manage inventory and maintenance of cast-saw blades.

Results: With the multimodal QI intervention, our cast complication rate was reduced to 1.61 complications per 1000 applications, a >90% improvement.

Conclusions: Implementation of QI concepts to perform a QI initiative resulted in a shift toward fewer cast complications, leading to overall improved patient care at a large tertiary pediatric hospital.

Level Of Evidence: Level II-prospective cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001117DOI Listing
February 2018

A prospective, double-blinded, randomized comparison of ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block with lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block versus standard anesthetic management for pain control during and after traumatic femur fracture repair in the pediatric population.

J Pain Res 2017 4;10:2177-2182. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital.

Background: Traumatic injury of the femur resulting in femoral fracture may result in significant postoperative pain. As with other causes of acute pain, regional anesthesia may offer a benefit over conventional therapy with intravenous opioids. This study prospectively assesses the effects of femoral nerve blockade with a lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block (FN-LFCN) on intraoperative anesthetic requirements, postoperative pain scores, and opioid requirements.

Materials And Methods: Seventeen pediatric patients (age 2-18 years) undergoing surgical repair of a traumatic femur fracture fulfilled the study criteria and were randomly assigned to general anesthesia with either an FN-LFCN block (n = 10) or intravenous opioids (n = 7). All patients received a general anesthetic with isoflurane for maintenance anesthesia during the surgical repair of the femur fracture. Patients randomized to the FN-LFCN block group received ultrasound-guided nerve blockade using ropivacaine (0.2%/0.5% based on patient weight). At the conclusion of surgery, the airway device was removed once tracheal extubation criteria were achieved, and patients were transported to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) for recovery and assessment of pain by a blinded study nurse.

Results: The final study cohort included 17 patients (n = 10 for FN-LFCN block group; n = 7 for the intravenous opioid group). Although the median of the maximum postoperative pain scores in the regional group was 0, this did not reach statistical significance when compared to the median pain score of 3 in the intravenous opioid group. Likewise, no difference between the two groups was noted when comparing intraoperative anesthetic requirements, opioid requirements (intraoperative, in the post-anesthesia recovery room, and in the inpatient ward), and the time to first opioid requirement postoperatively in the inpatient ward.

Conclusion: This prospective, randomized, double-blinded study failed to demonstrate a clear benefit of regional anesthesia over intravenous opioids intraoperatively and postoperatively during repair of femoral shaft fractures in the pediatric population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S139106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590772PMC
September 2017

Epidemiological Patterns of Initial and Subsequent Injuries in Collegiate Football Athletes.

Am J Sports Med 2017 Apr 7;45(5):1171-1178. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Center for Injury Research and Policy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background: A body of epidemiological studies has examined football injuries and associated risk factors among collegiate athletes. However, few existing studies specifically analyzed injury risk in terms of initial or subsequent injuries.

Purpose: To determine athlete-exposures (AEs) and rates of initial and subsequent injury among collegiate football athletes.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study.

Methods: Injury and exposure data collected from collegiate football players from two Division I universities (2007-2011) were analyzed. Rate of initial injury was calculated as the number of initial injuries divided by the total number of AEs for initial injuries, while the rate for subsequent injury was calculated as the number of subsequent injuries divided by the total number of AEs for subsequent injury. Poisson regression was used to determine injury rate ratio (subsequent vs initial injury), with adjustment for other covariates.

Results: The total AEs during the study period were 67,564, resulting in an overall injury rate of 35.2 per 10,000 AEs. Rates for initial and subsequent injuries were 31.7 and 45.3 per 10,000 AEs, respectively, with a rate ratio (RR) of 1.4 for rate of subsequent injury vs rate of initial injury (95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Rate of injury appeared to increase with each successive injury. RR during games was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.0). The rate of subsequent injuries to the head, neck, and face was 10.9 per 10,000 AEs, nearly double the rate of initial injuries to the same sites (RR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). For wide receivers, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.2 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.3-3.8), and for defensive linemen, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.1 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.1-3.9).

Conclusion: The method used in this study allows for a more accurate determination of injury risk among football players who have already been injured at least once. Further research is warranted to better identify which specific factors contribute to this increased risk for subsequent injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546516685317DOI Listing
April 2017

Ankle Injuries in the Pediatric Athlete.

Sports Med Arthrosc Rev 2016 Dec;24(4):170-177

Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

Foot and ankle injuries are the second most common reason for young athletes to present to a primary care physician, and account for up to 30% of visits to sports medicine clinics in this population. Heightened performance expectations placed on today's young athletes have led to intense training and competition demands. With increasing rates of sport participation among children and adolescents, it is important for treating physicians to have an understanding of the evaluation and management of ankle injuries seen in the pediatric athlete. In treating young athletes it is important to keep in mind the unique developmental and anatomic differences between the skeletally mature and skeletally immature ankle. These differences predispose young athletes to unique injuries not seen in adults. These include injuries that result from congenital or developmental variations, acute injuries, and overuse type injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSA.0000000000000125DOI Listing
December 2016

Iatrogenic Hip Instability Is a Devastating Complication After the Modified Dunn Procedure for Severe Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2017 Apr;475(4):1229-1235

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The modified Dunn procedure facilitates femoral capital realignment for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) through a surgical hip dislocation approach. Iatrogenic postoperative hip instability after this procedure has not been studied previously; however, we were concerned when we observed several instances of this serious complication, and we wished to study it further.

Questions/purposes: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, timing, and clinical presentation (including complications) associated with iatrogenic instability after the modified Dunn procedure for SCFE.

Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, eight international institutions performed the modified Dunn procedure through a surgical dislocation approach in 406 patients. During the period in question, indications varied at those sites, but the procedure was used only in a minority of their patients treated surgically for SCFE (31% [406 of 1331]) with the majority treated with in situ fixation. It generally was performed for patients with severe deformity with a slip angle greater than 40°. Institutional databases were searched for all patients with SCFE who developed postoperative hip instability defined as hip subluxation or dislocation of the involved hip during the postoperative period. We reviewed in detail the clinical notes and operative records of those who presented with instability. We obtained demographic information, time from slip to surgery, type of fixation, operative details, and clinical course including the incidence of complications. Followup on those patients with instability was at a mean of 2 years (range, 1-5 years) after the index procedure. Complications were graded according to the modified Dindo-Clavien classification. Radiographic images were reviewed to measure the preoperative slip angle and the presence of osteonecrosis.

Results: A total of 4% of patients treated with the modified Dunn procedure developed postoperative hip instability (17 of 406). Mean age of the patients was 13 years (range, 9-16 years). Instability presented as persistent hip pain in the postoperative period or was incidentally identified radiographically during the postoperative visit and occurred at a median of 3 weeks (range, 1 day to 2 months) after the modified Dunn procedure. Eight patients underwent revision surgery to address the postoperative instability. Fourteen of 17 patients developed femoral head avascular necrosis and three of 17 patients underwent THA during this short-term followup.

Conclusions: Anterolateral hip instability after the modified Dunn procedure for severe, chronic SCFE is an uncommon yet potentially devastating complication. Future studies might evaluate the effectiveness of maintaining anterior hip precautions for several weeks postoperatively in an abduction brace or broomstick cast to prevent this complication.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-016-5094-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5339129PMC
April 2017

Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures: Submuscular Plating Compared With Intramedullary Nailing.

Orthopedics 2016 Nov 27;39(6):353-358. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

This study compared the radiographic and clinical outcomes of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures treated by submuscular plating, flexible retrograde intramedullary nailing, or rigid antegrade intramedullary nailing with a trochanteric entry point in skeletally immature patients who were 8 years and older. A retrospective review was conducted of skeletally immature patients 8 years and older who were treated for femur fracture with submuscular plating, flexible intramedullary nailing, or rigid intramedullary nailing from 2001 to 2014 with a minimum 12-week follow-up. Treatment outcomes were compared for statistical significance, including time to union, malunion, nonunion, heterotopic ossification, avascular necrosis, time to full weight bearing, limb length discrepancy, residual limp, painful hardware, and infection. The study identified 198 femur fractures in 196 patients (mean age, 11.9 years). Each femur fracture was treated with submuscular plating (35), flexible intramedullary nailing (61), or rigid intramedullary nailing (102). Mean follow-up across the cohort was 48 weeks, ranging from 12 to 225 weeks. Flexible nailing was associated with an increased incidence of malunion (P<.0001) and hardware irritation (P=.0204) and longer time to full weight bearing (P=.0018). Rigid nailing was associated with an increased incidence of limp at 12-week followup (P=.0412). Additionally, 23.5% of patients who were treated with rigid nailing had heterotopic ossification. Of all surgical methods, submuscular plating allowed for the most rapid return to full weight bearing (mean, 7 weeks) and offered the fastest healing rate (mean, 6 weeks). Submuscular plating resulted in faster times to union and full weight bearing, with minimal complication rates. Rigid intramedullary nailing with trochanteric entry resulted in a lower incidence of malunion and hardware-related complications; however, these patients had an increased incidence of heterotopic ossification and residual limp postoperatively. Flexible retrograde intramedullary nailing resulted in the highest rates of malunion and hardware irritation and the longest time to full weight bearing. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):353-358.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20160719-03DOI Listing
November 2016

Bridge Plating Length-Unstable Pediatric Femoral Shaft Fractures.

J Pediatr Orthop 2016 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S29-34

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

The treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures, particularly length-unstable fractures, continues to be an area of controversy in patients from age 6 to skeletal maturity. Submuscular bridge plating is an alternative that allows for stable internal fixation while minimizing soft tissue disruption. We describe a surgical technique that has simplified both implantation and removal. This technique provides a stable construct in comminuted and unstable fracture patterns allowing for early mobilization with minimal complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000761DOI Listing
June 2016

Treatment of Unstable Slipped Capital Epiphysis Via the Modified Dunn Procedure.

J Pediatr Orthop 2018 Jan;38(1):3-8

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

Background: The modified Dunn procedure has been shown to be safe and effective in treating unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). We present a consecutive series of unstable SCFE managed by a single surgeon with a focus on timing of surgical intervention, postoperative complications, and radiographic results.

Methods: Thirty-one consecutive unstable SCFEs were treated. Demographics, presentation time to time of operation, surgical times, and complications were recorded. Bilateral hip radiographs at latest follow-up were utilized to record slip angle, α angle, greater trochanteric height, and femoral neck length.

Results: Thirty-one consecutive hips in 30 patients were reviewed: 15 males (50%) and 15 females (50%), average age 12.37 years (range, 8.75 to 14.8 y), 20 left hips (65%) and 11 right hips (35%). Mean follow-up was 27.9 months (range, 1 to 82 mo). Time from presentation to intervention averaged 13.9 hours (range, 2.17 to 23.4 h). Two patients (6%) developed avascular necrosis at average 19 weeks postoperative. Three patients (10%) developed mild heterotopic ossification requiring no treatment. Two patients (6%) required removal of symptomatic hardware. One patient had hardware failure and in no patients was nonunion, delayed union, or postoperative hip subluxation/dislocation seen. Three patients (10%) presented with bilateral, stable SCFE requiring contralateral in situ pinning. Five patients (16%) had sequential SCFE requiring treatment with 1 patient having an acute, unstable SCFE 10 months after the previous realignment. Mean postoperative slip angle measured 2.5 degrees (range, +19 to -9.4 degrees) (SD, 7.2), α angle 47.43 degrees (range, 34 to 64 degrees) (SD, 7.49), greater trochanteric height averaged 3.5 mm below the center of femoral head (-17.5 to +25 mm), and mean femoral neck length difference measured -7.75 mm (range, -1.8 to -18.6 mm).

Conclusions: A single surgeon series of unstable SCFEs treated by a modified Dunn procedure showed a 6% incidence of avascular necrosis and low complication rates at latest follow-up. Radiographs showed restoration of the slip angle, α angle, femoral neck length, and greater trochanteric height. This series reveals the safety and effectiveness of the modified Dunn procedure for unstable SCFE.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-retrospective review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000737DOI Listing
January 2018

Utilization of Orthopaedic Trauma Surgical Time: An Evaluation of Three Different Models at a Level I Pediatric Trauma Center.

Orthop Surg 2015 Nov;7(4):333-7

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Objective: Over the past decade, our institution has instituted three different scheduling models in an attempt to care for pediatric trauma at our Level I Trauma Center. This has been in response to a number of factors, including a limited number of physicians covering the call schedule, increasing competition for operating room (OR) time after hours (pediatric surgery, urology, neurosurgery), an attempt to fully utilize OR time during the daytime, fully staffed hours, and optimizing patients' timeliness to surgery. We examined the three on-call systems in place at our institution to determine whether a more flexible approach to pediatric trauma call resulted in delays in treatment.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patient records for three distinct 1-year periods with three different surgical call schedules: (i) a traditional call schedule in which the call physician was responsible for patients who presented to our emergency room; (ii) a half-day trauma block OR reserved the morning following call; and (iii) a full-day trauma block. Variables included date of injury, time of admission, admission diagnosis, cause of injury, and OR procedure and start time.

Results: We reviewed 951 cases over the entire study, 268 during the traditional call schedule, 282 during the half-call block and 401 over the time period of the full-day block. Mechanisms of injury were similar among the three groups, with falls and motor vehicle accidents being the leading causes. The average delay time was 17:40 for the traditional call group, 15:10 for the half-block call group, and 15:09 for the full-day block group. Our findings suggest that there was a high incidence of cases performed on weekdays after peak staffing hours with a traditional call model (59%). In contrast, half-day and full-day block models saw only 4% and 1% of the cases performed after peak staffing hours, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of patients admitted to the OR among the three groups (χ(2) = 488.8449, P < 0.0001). The number of patients seen during Monday through Friday was also statistically significant among the three groups (χ(2) = 382.0576, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: The institution of more flexible and physician-directed half-call and full-day blocks did result in delays in treatment. However, it also has demonstrated benefits to patients in reducing the number of operative cases performed after weekday peak staffing hours; helped our institution better manage its staffing and financial resources; and provided the treating surgeon flexibility in determining the timing of operative care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6583733PMC
November 2015

Standardization of patellofemoral morphology in the pediatric knee.

Pediatr Radiol 2016 Feb 17;46(2):255-62. Epub 2015 Sep 17.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive Suite A2630, Columbus, OH, 43205-2696, USA.

Background: Our understanding of osseous morphology and pathology of the patellofemoral joint continues to improve with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but a paucity of data currently exists in the pediatric population.

Objective: We aim to formulate a reproducible means of quantitative assessment of patellofemoral morphology in children using MRI and to describe morphological changes based on sex and age.

Materials And Methods: We identified 414 children presenting between 2002 and 2014 who obtained a knee MRI to evaluate for knee pain or clinically suspected knee pathology. After application of inclusion criteria, 144 "normal" MRIs in 131 children (71 boys, 60 girls) were included in the analysis. The following MRI measurements were recorded: lateral trochlear inclination, trochlear facet asymmetry, trochlear depth, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, sulcus angle and patellar height ratio. To assess intraobserver reliability, measurements in 30 randomly selected children were repeated. Differences between patient age and sex were assessed using independent t-tests and adjusted regression analysis.

Results: All recorded measurements had strong to very strong inter- and intraobserver reliability: lateral trochlear inclination (0.91/0.82), trochlear facet asymmetry (0.81/0.83), trochlear depth (0.83/0.90), tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (0.97/0.87), sulcus angle (0.84/0.78) and patellar height ratio (0.96/0.83). When age and sex were mutually adjusted, statistically significant differences between males and females were observed in trochlear depth (P = 0.0084) and patellar height ratio (P = 0.0035). However, statistically significant age differences were found on all measurements except for lateral trochlear inclination. As expected, mean measurement values approached adult norms throughout skeletal maturation suggestive of age-dependent patellofemoral maturation.

Conclusion: Our data verify the development of patellofemoral morphology with advancing age. We found that six of the most commonly used patellofemoral measurements in adults can be accurately reproduced regardless of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-015-3459-9DOI Listing
February 2016

Septic Arthritis in Infants Younger Than 3 Months: A Retrospective Review.

Orthopedics 2015 Sep;38(9):e787-93

Septic arthritis in infants is rare and can be difficult to diagnose. This study reviewed a series of patients younger than 3 months to identify factors that may assist in early diagnosis and treatment. A query of records at a large Midwestern pediatric hospital (1994-2010) was performed to identify all patients younger than 3 months at the time of diagnosis. Analysis included birth history, joint involvement, physical examination findings, laboratory results, imaging results, method of treatment, and outcome. In 14 cases (11 boys, 3 girls; mean age at diagnosis, 42.2 days), complete records were available for review. Involved joints included the knee, hip, and shoulder. The most common findings on physical examination were decreased range of motion (100%), tenderness (100%), and swelling (71.4%). Mean temperature was 38.5°C. Mean white blood cell count was 18.5 K/µL, mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 48.9 mm/h, and mean C-reactive protein level was 6.1 mg/dL. More than half (57.1%) of joint aspirates grew positive cultures, and 41.7% of blood cultures had positive results. Causative organisms were group B streptococcus, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, and Candida albicans. The most common physical examination findings in infants younger than 3 months with septic arthritis include tenderness, decreased range of motion, and swelling. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are likely to be elevated, but these findings should be used in combination with findings on physical examination and radiographic studies to aid in diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20150902-56DOI Listing
September 2015

Acute, unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis with associated congenital coxa vara.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2015 Nov;24(6):511-4

aDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital bDepartment of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis in patients younger than 10 years is rare and is often associated with some identifiable metabolic or endocrinologic abnormality. We present a case of a 5-year-old girl with an acute, unstable, severe slipped capital femoral epiphysis associated with congenital coxa vara and its surgical management. This association has not been described in previous literature. Surgical treatment is proposed and described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPB.0000000000000209DOI Listing
November 2015

Incidence of Hip Dysplasia Associated With Bladder Exstrophy.

J Pediatr Orthop 2016 Dec;36(8):860-864

Departments of *Orthopedic Surgery †Urology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

Background: Exstrophy of the bladder is a rare congenital defect seen in 2.15 children out of every 100,000 live births, with the most severe variant, cloacal exstrophy (CE), only occurring in 1 in 200,000. Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) describes a spectrum of disease ranging from mild hip instability to frank dislocation. Underlying malformations, such as myelomeningocele and arthrogryposis, are often associated with the most severe variant of hip dysplasia, teratologic hip dislocation. The varying degrees of severity in DDH have been encountered in classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) patients, but the exact incidence is unknown. We sought to determine the incidence of DDH in CBE and CE patients.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all children with CBE or CE presenting to a single pediatric center between 1994 and 2014. Each chart was reviewed for correct diagnosis of CBE or CE, patient age and demographics, associated medical conditions, pertinent surgeries performed, and the age at operation. Patient imaging was reviewed to determine whether bilateral hip imaging was available.

Results: In a 20-year retrospective review, we identified 66 patients who were diagnosed with either CBE or CE and had available hip imaging (38 males and 28 females). Of these, 11 patients were found to have radiographic evidence of DDH, for an incidence of 16.7% (11/66). Five of these patients had CE, whereas 6 presented with CBE. The first radiographic evidence of DDH was noted at a mean age of 5.75 years (range, birth to 22 y).

Conclusions: We advocate the use of routine hip screening ultrasound in all infants born with either CBE or CE. Early identification of DDH in these patients may allow additional treatment options to coincide with frequently used osteotomy and orthopaedic interventions.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-retrospective study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000571DOI Listing
December 2016

Traumatic, Posterior Pediatric Hip Dislocations With Associated Posterior Labrum Osteochondral Avulsion: Recognizing the Acetabular "Fleck" Sign.

J Pediatr Orthop 2016 Sep;36(6):602-7

*Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital †Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Background: Traumatic dislocation of the hip is uncommon in the pediatric population. Concentric reduction is usually achieved by closed means. Open reduction may be needed if there is femoral head fracture, incarcerated fragment, or incomplete reduction due to soft tissue entrapment. We present a series of 10 patients who sustained a posterior hip dislocation or subluxation with associated osteochondral avulsion of the posterior labrum. During surgery they were noted to have a labral injury pattern not previously recognized. Such treatment was dictated by postreduction advanced imaging, which revealed a consistent acetabular "fleck" sign indicative of this labral injury, which has not been previously described in literature.

Methods: We performed a retrospective case review of patients with traumatic posterior hip dislocation/subluxation, treated operatively for a suspected associated labral tear and fractures.

Results: Ten patients (2 girls and 8 boys) were identified. Average age was 12.7 years. Eight patients had postreduction computed tomography scans, which revealed a posterior acetabular wall "fleck" sign, suggestive of osteochondral injury. The small bony fragment was consistently displaced at least 2 to 3 mm in all patients with majority of the posterior wall remaining intact. Closed reduction was felt to be congruent in 7 of the 10 patients. All patients were treated operatively for exploration and stabilization of the suspected posterior labrum pathology and associated injuries using a surgical hip dislocation. A consistent pattern of labral pathology was seen in all patients, with disruption of the posterior labrum from the superior 12 o'clock attachment to detachment at the inferior 6 o'clock location. Reattachment of the osteochondral labral avulsion was performed with suture anchors along the posterior rim, and the associated femoral head fractures were also addressed with internal fixation. Two patients had inadequate follow-up and were excluded, the average follow-up for the remaining 8 patients was 9.8 months (range, 6 to 26 mo). There were no findings of avascular necrosis in any of the 8 patients.

Conclusions: Posterior hip dislocation in children may produce an acetabular "fleck" sign on advanced imaging, which in a stable, concentrically reduced hip has been treated without surgery in the past. Acetabular fleck sign may represent a near-complete avulsion of the posterior labrum as seen in our series. We recommend a high suspicion for this type of labral pathology and surgical repair when acetabular "fleck" sign is identified with hip subluxation or dislocation. Traumatic, posterior hip dislocations in young patients may be associated with significant labral pathology. Acetabular "fleck" sign on advanced imaging may predict such pathology.

Level Of Evidence: IV, retrospective study.
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September 2016

Prevalence of Bilateral JOCD of the Knee and Associated Risk Factors.

J Pediatr Orthop 2015 Jul-Aug;35(5):507-10

Department of Orthopedics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

Purpose: Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) of the knee affects cartilage and subchondral bone surface. Multifocal JOCD is described as multiple lesions within the knee or presence of lesions in other joints. The true prevalence of bilaterality of JOCD is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of bilateral JOCD and to identify potential risk factors for bilateral disease.

Methods: We evaluated 108 consecutive patients presenting for JOCD at a single pediatric hospital system. If an OCD lesion of the knee was found, contralateral knee x-rays were performed. Lesion location was documented according to Cahill and Berg, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading documented according to Dipaola, and if surgical treatment was undertaken, intraoperative grading performed according to Guhl. Patients with unilateral JOCD were compared with those with bilateral disease. Statistical analysis of categorical data was performed utilizing likelihood ratio χ test or Fisher exact test and continuous data compared using nonparametric Wilcoxon 2-sample test.

Results: There were 85 male (79%) and 23 females (21%) with an average age of 12.3 years (range, 6 to 18 y). Sixty-three percent of lesions were located on the medial femoral condyle and 33% on the lateral femoral condyle. Ninety percent of all lesions were considered weight-bearing lesions. Eighty percent were considered stable on MRI evaluation. Of those lesions that underwent surgical intervention, 61% were either grade I or II lesions. Seventy-three of 108 patients (68%) underwent some form of surgical intervention. Thirty-one patients (29%) were found to have contralateral JOCD lesions. Thirty-nine percent of contralateral lesions found on contralateral radiographs were asymptomatic at presentation and nearly all of those evaluated with MRI (16 of 18) were stable. Sixty-nine percent of contralateral lesions were located on the medial femoral condyle, 27% on the lateral femoral condyle, and 94% were considered weight-bearing lesions. Twelve of 31 contralateral lesions (39%) underwent surgical intervention. Comparing patients with unilateral and bilateral disease, female patients (P<0.05) and younger age at presentation (P<0.009) were risk factors for bilateral JOCD. No statistical difference among other variables was seen with regard to location, MRI or operative stability of lesion, or presence of symptoms.

Conclusions: In our consecutive series of 108 patients with JOCD, we found a 29% incidence of bilateral disease. Almost 40% of contralateral lesions were asymptomatic upon presentation. Female sex and younger age at presentation were significant risk factors for bilateral disease. Lesion location, stability, and pain were not statistically significant variables. The authors recommend bilateral radiographic knee evaluation for all patients found to have JOCD.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV-retrospective case series.
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December 2015

Multifocal juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the knee: a case series.

J Pediatr Orthop 2014 Jun;34(4):453-8

*Mount Carmel Medical Center †Nationwide Children's Hospital ‡Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Background: This retrospective case series reports on a group of patients with multifocal juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (MJOCD) of the knee and discusses demographic data, lesion location, stage, and treatment results.

Methods: Records of patients identified with MJOCD of the knee at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, radiographic, and surgical results were recorded. Lesions were descriptively classified and lesions undergoing surgical treatment were staged. Results of operative and nonoperative treatment were recorded.

Results: Fifty-nine lesions were identified in 28 patients who met the inclusion criteria. There were 22 males (78%) and 6 females (21%). Average age was 11.8 years (males, 6 to 17; females, 10 to 14). Thirty-six (61%) lesions were on the medial femoral condyle (MFC), 19 (32%) on the lateral femoral condyle, 2 (3%) on the trochlea, 1 (2%) on the patella, and 1 (2%) on the anteromedial tibial plateau. Forty-four (74%) lesions required operative treatment. Of the 32 stable lesions managed surgically, 25 (78%) achieved healing with operative treatment. All 12 unstable lesions identified were managed surgically with 5 (41%) healed after the initial operation. Lesions located on the MFC had a significantly higher rate of healing (89%) compared with lateral femoral condyle lesions (37%) (P<0.0001).

Conclusions: MJOCD of the knee defines a subset of patients with >1 identified lesion occurring in the same or the contralateral knee. Prevalence of MJOCD of the knee is unknown. A high percentage of these patients require surgical intervention with only one quarter of stable lesions healing with conservative treatment. Healing rates of stable lesions after surgery was nearly twice that of unstable lesions undergoing surgical intervention. Lesions located on the MFC healed at a statistically significant greater rate than other locations within the knee. Sex, age, and associated discoid menisci had no effect on healing prognosis.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV-case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000121DOI Listing
June 2014

Is there still a place for cast wedging in pediatric forearm fractures?

J Pediatr Orthop 2014 Apr-May;34(3):246-52

*Nationwide Children's Hospital †Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Background: Forearm fractures are common skeletal injuries in childhood and can usually be treated nonoperatively with closed reduction and casting. Trends toward increasing operative treatment of these fractures have emerged. We aim to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of cast wedging for treatment of pediatric forearm fractures.

Methods: We performed a prospective chart review of patients with forearm fractures, including distal radius (DR) fractures, treated with cast wedging at a single large pediatric hospital from June 2011 to September 2012. Inclusion criteria specified open distal radial physis, closed injury, loss of acceptable reduction, and availability of clinical and radiographic data from injury to cast removal. Exclusion criteria included pathologic fractures, neurovascular injury, fracture dislocations, open fractures, and closed DR physis. Reductions were performed and patients followed according to standard protocol at our institution, including placement into long-arm casts, initial follow-up visit within 5 to 10 days postinjury, and weekly visits for 2 weeks thereafter. If alignment were deemed unacceptable within 3 weeks of injury, cast wedging was utilized. Radiographic measurements of alignment included both radius and ulna on the injury film, postreduction, prewedge, postwedge, and final films. Radiographic technique was standardized, with repeatability testing demonstrating a precision of ±2 degrees.

Results: Over 15 months, our hospital treated 2124 forearm or DR fractures with closed reduction and casting. There were 60 fractures treated either with percutaneous fixation (36) or open treatment (24). A total of 79 forearm or DR fractures were treated with cast wedging secondary to loss of reduction, of which 70 patients had complete clinical and radiographic data. Average age was 8.4 years (range, 3 to 14 y), with 25 females and 45 males. Significant improvement in angulation for both-bone forearm fracture from prewedge to final films was seen in 69 children, with no major complications. One patient failed wedging and required surgical reduction and fixation.

Conclusions: Cast wedging is a simple, safe, noninvasive, and effective method for treatment of excessive angulation in pediatric forearm fractures.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000091DOI Listing
May 2015

Submuscular bridge plating for length-unstable, pediatric femur fractures.

J Pediatr Orthop 2013 Dec;33(8):797-802

*Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital †Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Background: Submuscular bridge plating has become an acceptable method of treatment for pediatric femur fractures. The purpose of our study was to describe a technique for submuscular bridge plating and review a series of consecutive, length-unstable, pediatric femur fractures treated at a single institution with this technique.

Methods: We performed a query of hospital records from January 4, 2006, to May 10, 2011, to identify length-unstable femur fractures treated with submuscular bridge plating by 5 pediatric surgeons. Included were patients treated with submuscular bridge plating for a femur fracture. Excluded were patients with incomplete medical records, inadequate radiographs, or follow-up <6 months duration. Fifty-one patients met diagnostic criteria; 19 patients were excluded due to incomplete medical records and/or radiographs.

Results: The study cohort included 32 patients with 33 femur fractures. There were 15 left femurs and 18 right femurs, including 1 bilateral fracture patient. Fracture pattern was composed of 13 comminuted, 5 spiral, 9 long oblique, and 6 short oblique. Mechanisms of injury included: fall from height (8), recreation (23), and MVA (2). Mean time for full weightbearing was 8.1 weeks (range, 3 to 17.6 wk). All patients were radiographically healed by their 12-week assessment. There were no intraoperative complications. Implant removal occurred in 26 patients. There were 2 cases of a broken screw discovered upon implant removal. The remnant screw was not removed in either case. The mean follow-up time for those with implant removal was 43.6 weeks (range, 27 to 83 wk). The 11 patients without implant removal had a mean follow-up time of 38.6 weeks (range, 31.6 to 50 wk). There were no cases of varus or valgus malalignment >10 degrees. One patient experienced implant irritation. There were no cases of wound infections.

Conclusions: Our technique of surgical intervention has simplified both implantation and removal, and produced comparable and excellent healing rates, low complication rates, and early return to full weightbearing.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
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December 2013

Factors predictive of early radiographic failure after closed reduction of Gartland type II supracondylar humeral fractures.

J Orthop Trauma 2013 Aug;27(8):457-61

Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.

Objectives: Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common elbow fractures seen in the pediatric population. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Board of Directors recently published clinical practice guidelines recommending surgical treatment for all displaced fractures. We sought to identify predictive factors to assist the orthopedic surgeon in identifying which type II fractures are more likely to fail closed reduction and immobilization without pinning.

Design: This was a retrospective cohort study.

Setting: This study was conducted at a pediatric medical center in the Midwestern United States.

Patients: This study analyzed 29 patients who underwent closed reduction and immobilization for significantly displaced, type II supracondylar humerus fractures.

Main Outcome Measurements: We compared the lateral capitellar humeral angle, Baumann angle, and anterior humeral line index at the time of presentation, postreduction, and at final follow-up.

Results: Two statistically similar groups were identified based on the amount of initial displacement. Variables were examined between the 2 groups including age, gender, initial displacement, quality of initial reduction, treatment in cast or splint, and position of immobilization. Forty-eight percent of the patients failed closed reduction and immobilization, with an average 71% loss of initial reduction at final follow-up. None of the examined variables were statistically significant or had any predictive value for failure.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that type II fractures should be viewed as a spectrum of injury. Our data show that a significantly displaced type II fracture that requires a reduction to obtain satisfactory alignment has a 48% chance of losing that reduction without percutaneous pinning.
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August 2013

Management of ACL elongation in the surgical treatment of congenital knee dislocation.

Orthopedics 2012 Jul;35(7):e1094-8

Department of Orthopaedics, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 700 Children’s Dr, Columbus, OH 43205, USA. [email protected] childrens.org

Congenital knee dislocation is a rare anomaly associated with a variety of neuromuscular diseases and deformities. The etiology of this condition remains unclear, but it is usually associated with a variety of disorders, such as Larsen's syndrome, arthrogryposis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Down syndrome, and Streeter's dysplasia. It is rarely an isolated entity, and 60% of patients with congenital knee dislocation had additional congenital anomalies, most commonly hip dysplasia. The ideal method of treatment is debated. No current treatment algorithms address anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) elongation and its role in recurrent deformity or hyperextension. This article describes 2 patients who underwent open reduction of the knee for recurrent and neglected congenital knee dislocations. An ACL shortening and reinforcement technique is described. Both patients' treatment consisted of V-Y advancement of the extensor mechanism, soft tissue release, anterior capsulotomy, and posterior capsulorrhaphy. Anterior cruciate ligament shortening and reinforcement using an iliotibial band physeal-sparing technique was performed. The technique improved maintenance of reduction and prevented hyperextension of the knee. Anterior cruciate ligament elongation is an underemphasized anatomical feature associated with congenital knee dislocation. Due to its role in the prevention of anterior subluxation of the tibia and its effect on knee stability, incompetence should be addressed at the time of open reduction. The presence of an intact ACL with a congenital knee dislocation does not preclude management of anterior instability. Competence of the intact ACL should be addressed following reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20120621-29DOI Listing
July 2012

Weight-bearing osteochondral lesions of the lateral femoral condyle following patellar dislocation in adolescent athletes.

Orthopedics 2012 Jul;35(7):e1033-7

Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University, Ohio, USA.

In patients with patellar dislocation, osteochondral injury is often an indication for early surgical intervention. However, no studies have identified a relationship between injury to the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle following a patellar dislocation and the eventual need for surgical treatment. The authors hypothesized that a significant number of patients sustain injury to the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle following an acute patellar dislocation.Radiographs and magnetic resonance images were retrospectively reviewed and the patterns of injury were evaluated for 80 patients with a diagnosis of acute patellar dislocation, including the presence of osteochondral damage, the location of the medial patellofemoral ligament injury, and concomitant meniscal pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a 27.5% incidence of osteochondral injury involving the articular, weight-bearing region of the lateral femoral condyle following an acute lateral patellar dislocation. Surgical intervention was performed in more than 60% of these injuries, and most were not identified with plain radiographs. Injury to the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle following patellar dislocation was 3.6 times more common in boys in the current study population.Osteochondral injury to the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle may occur in a high percentage of patients following a lateral patellar dislocation and in a higher percentage of boys than girls. Patients with tenderness over the lateral femoral condyle following an acute lateral patellar dislocation should undergo magnetic resonance imaging.
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July 2012

Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the knee: predictors of lesion stability.

J Pediatr Orthop 2012 Jan-Feb;32(1):1-4

Department of Orthopaedics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Recent data suggest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best method to analyze the status of the cartilage and subchondral bone in patients with juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD).

Methods: MRI analysis of 122 knees and 132 JOCD lesions in 109 patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the knee between March 2003 and January 2011.

Results: Agreement between MRI and arthroscopic grading was 62.1%. MRI sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 55%. Positive predictive value of MRI was 33% and negative predictive value of MRI was 97%. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the odds of a unstable lesion on the lateral femoral condyle nonweight-bearing location were 15.7 times greater than the odds of an unstable lesion on the medial femoral condyle weight-bearing area (95% confidence interval: 2.6-95.7, P=0.003.) The odds of the lateral femoral condyle weight-bearing lesion having an unstable grade were also greater than for a medial femoral condyle weight-bearing lesion, but the results were not statistically significant (odds ratio, 1.70, P=0.349).

Conclusions: A high T2 signal retrograde to the lesion may commonly appear with an early, stable arthroscopic grade lesion. MRI continues to be reliably sensitive to JOCD lesions and a good predictor of low-grade, stable lesions. However, MRI predictability of high-grade, unstable JOCD lesions is less reliable. Lesions in atypical locations, such as the nonweight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle, more commonly present as higher, arthroscopic grade lesions.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
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April 2012

Meniscal pathology associated with acute anterior cruciate ligament tears in patients with open physes.

J Pediatr Orthop 2011 Apr-May;31(3):272-6

Department of Orthopaedics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205-2696, USA.

Background: The purpose of this study is to characterize meniscal pathology associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in skeletally immature patients. We also evaluate the accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting ACL and meniscus pathology.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 124 skeletally immature patients who underwent arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction within 3 months of injury. Operative reports and arthroscopic images were reviewed to determine patterns of meniscal injury. The accuracy of preoperative MRI in predicting ACL rupture and meniscus pathology was also compared.

Results: One hundred twenty-four patients, including 80 males with an average age of 14.3 years, and 44 females with an average age of 14.1 years were included. The lateral meniscus was torn in 51 patients, the medial meniscus in 17 patients, and both menisci in 19. The prevalence of meniscus tear was 69.3%. Location of the tear occurred in the posterior horn in 69 tears (65.0%), the middle and posterior horn in 31 tears (29.2%), the middle horn in 4 tears (3.7%), and the anterior horn and posterior horn in 2 tears (1.8%). MRI showed 95.6% sensitivity in detecting complete ACL rupture. Further, MRI had a sensitivity of 58.6% and a specificity of 91.3% in characterizing meniscus tears.

Conclusions: There are many studies that evaluate ACL rupture in the skeletally immature population, but few studies focus on the meniscus pathology that is associated with these injuries. We reinforce the fact that meniscal injury is commonly associated with ACL rupture in patients with open physes (prevalence of 69.3%). We were able to conclude that lateral meniscus tears are more common than medial meniscus tears, which were equally as common as combined tears in our patient population. The posterior horn is injured in most of patients, and is usually in a repairable configuration and vascular zone. These findings will help to guide surgeons in their clinical evaluation and treatment of skeletally immature patients with ACL rupture.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
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July 2011

Valgus slipped capital femoral epiphysis: prevalence, presentation, and treatment options.

J Pediatr Orthop 2010 Mar;30(2):140-6

Mount Carmel Health, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Valgus slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), defined as posterolateral slippage of the proximal femoral epiphysis on the metaphysis, is an uncommon occurrence. The purpose of this study was to review our institution's experience with valgus SCFE to better describe its prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment.

Methods: Radiographs of patients undergoing treatment of SCFE between 1996 and 2008 were reviewed. Valgus SCFE was identified by increased prominence of the lateral femoral epiphysis relative to the lateral femoral neck and an increased anteroposterior physis shaft angle. We identified 12 patients (16 hips) with valgus SCFE and compared them with 123 cases identified as classic posteromedial SCFE.

Results: The prevalence of valgus SCFE at our institution was 4.7% (12 of 258 patients). Significant differences between patients with valgus SCFE and those with classic SCFE were found for age at presentation (mean 1.1 y younger, P=0.033), sex (58% female vs. 28% male, P=0.044), and classification as atypical SCFE (42% vs. 3%, P<0.001), respectively. Four patients in the valgus group had pituitary and growth hormone dysfunction, and 1 was diagnosed with Stickler syndrome. Hips of valgus patients had a significantly higher mean femoral neck shaft angle (154.3 degrees) as compared with classic SCFE patients (140.5 degrees) (P<0.001). Difficulty placing hardware for in situ fixation was noted in 5 of 11 valgus cases, with 1 case complicated by articular surface penetration and chondrolysis.

Conclusions: Valgus displacement often presents with a relatively normal appearance on anteroposterior radiographs. Valgus SCFE may be associated with obesity, coxa valga, hypopituitarism, and Stickler syndrome. Posterolateral displacement of the femoral epiphysis makes in situ fixation of valgus SCFE more difficult, due to the necessity of a more medial starting point.

Level Of Evidence: Case series, Level IV.
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March 2010

Chronic Bilateral Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis as an Unusual Presentation of Congenital Panhypopituitarism due to Pituitary Hypoplasia in a 17-Year-Old Female.

Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2009 11;2009:609131. Epub 2010 Jan 11.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.

We report an interesting case of a 17-year-old normal-statured female who was diagnosed with congenital panhypopituitarism due to pituitary hypoplasia at the presentation of bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis. We emphasized the importance of endocrinologic evaluation in patients with atypical slipped capital femoral epiphysis to prevent potential complication of adrenal crisis during surgery. This case also demonstrates growth without growth hormone which resulted in a delay in diagnosis of congenital hypopituitarism in this patient.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2814228PMC
July 2011
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