Publications by authors named "Kevin Dao"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Immunotherapy-Induced Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.

Cureus 2021 May 31;13(5):e15358. Epub 2021 May 31.

Nephrology, Grand Strand Medical Center, Myrtle Beach, USA.

Due to its minimal side-effect profile, immunotherapy has become a popular choice for the treatment of advanced melanoma as compared to conventional chemotherapy. The most common side effects associated with immunotherapy include gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and dermatologic manifestations. However, there have been very few documented occurrences of nephrotoxic side effects. We present a case of a 73-year-old male with a past medical history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3A, metastatic uveal melanoma, and gastroesophageal reflux disease on pantoprazole who arrived at the intensive care unit with altered mental status and creatinine of 27 gm/dl (baseline creatinine of 3 gm/dl about one year prior), after receiving his first dose of ipilimumab and nivolumab approximately 21 days prior. Kidney biopsy demonstrated acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN). This case highlights the importance of recognizing acute tubulointerstitial nephritis as a side effect of immunotherapy for prompt diagnosis and early treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.15358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214499PMC
May 2021

Lupus Cerebritis as the Initial Presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Young Female.

Cureus 2021 Apr 2;13(4):e14259. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Internal Medicine, Grand Strand Medical Center, Myrtle Beach, USA.

The psychiatric and neurological symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are referred to as lupus cerebritis. The wide range of symptoms associated with SLE can pose a diagnostic challenge. We present a case of lupus cerebritis in a 31-year-old female presenting with psychosis. We present this case to increase awareness of the psychiatric manifestations of SLE that can be mistaken for more common etiologies of psychosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093101PMC
April 2021

Ischemic Nephropathy Following Occlusion of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Graft: A Case Report.

Cureus 2021 Mar 10;13(3):e13799. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Internal Medicine, Grand Strand Medical Center, Myrtle Beach, USA.

In this report, we present a case of a 55-year-old female with a past medical history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) graft, femoral-femoral bypass graft, questionable history of chronic kidney disease (CKD), abdominal hernia repair, alcoholic pancreatitis, chronic abdominal pain on opioids, and tobacco abuse who presented with acute on chronic abdominal pain with an unexplained rise of creatinine and anuria. The patient was found to have complete occlusion of AAA graft and was determined to have ischemic nephropathy (IN).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033647PMC
March 2021

Streptonigrin at low concentration promotes heterochromatin formation.

Sci Rep 2020 02 26;10(1):3478. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

Heterochromatin is essential for regulating global gene transcription and protecting genome stability, and may play a role in tumor suppression. Drugs promoting heterochromatin are potential cancer therapeutics but very few are known. In order to identify drugs that can promote heterochromatin, we used a cell-based method and screened NCI drug libraries consisting of oncology drugs and natural compounds. Since heterochromatin is originally defined as intensely stained chromatin in the nucleus, we estimated heterochromatin contents of cells treated with different drugs by quantifying the fluorescence intensity of nuclei stained with Hoechst DNA dye. We used HeLa cells and screened 231 FDA-approved oncology and natural substance drugs included in two NCI drug libraries representing a variety of chemical structures. Among these drugs, streptonigrin most prominently caused an increase in Hoechst-stained nuclear fluorescence intensity. We further show that streptonigrin treated cells exhibit compacted DNA foci in the nucleus that co-localize with Heterochromatin Protein 1 alpha (HP1α), and exhibit an increase in total levels of the heterochromatin mark, H3K9me3. Interestingly, we found that streptonigrin promotes heterochromatin at a concentration as low as one nanomolar, and at this concentration there were no detectable effects on cell proliferation or viability. Finally, in line with a previous report, we found that streptonigrin inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation, raising the possibility that non-canonical STAT function may contribute to the effects of streptonigrin on heterochromatin. These results suggest that, at low concentrations, streptonigrin may primarily enhance heterochromatin formation with little toxic effects on cells, and therefore might be a good candidate for epigenetic cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60469-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044429PMC
February 2020

Interrogating a hexokinase-selected small-molecule library for inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum hexokinase.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013 Aug 28;57(8):3731-7. Epub 2013 May 28.

Eukaryotic Pathogens Innovation Center, Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA.

Parasites in the genus Plasmodium cause disease throughout the tropic and subtropical regions of the world. P. falciparum, one of the deadliest species of the parasite, relies on glycolysis for the generation of ATP while it inhabits the mammalian red blood cell. The first step in glycolysis is catalyzed by hexokinase (HK). While the 55.3-kDa P. falciparum HK (PfHK) shares several biochemical characteristics with mammalian HKs, including being inhibited by its products, it has limited amino acid identity (~26%) to the human HKs, suggesting that enzyme-specific therapeutics could be generated. To that end, interrogation of a selected small-molecule library of HK inhibitors has identified a class of PfHK inhibitors, isobenzothiazolinones, some of which have 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of <1 μM. Inhibition was reversible by dilution but not by treatment with a reducing agent, suggesting that the basis for enzyme inactivation was not covalent association with the inhibitor. Lastly, six of these compounds and the related molecule ebselen inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro (50% effective concentration [EC50] of ≥ 0.6 and <6.8 μM). These findings suggest that the chemotypes identified here could represent leads for future development of therapeutics against P. falciparum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00662-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3719756PMC
August 2013
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