Publications by authors named "Kesmanee Praianantathavorn"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparative genome characterization of Leptospira interrogans from mild and severe leptospirosis patients.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e31. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. In Thailand, Leptospira interrogans is a major cause of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis patients present with a wide range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, mild infections to severe illness involving organ failure. For better understanding the difference between Leptospira isolates causing mild and severe leptospirosis, illumina sequencing was used to sequence genomic DNA in both serotypes. DNA of Leptospira isolated from two patients, one with mild and another with severe symptoms, were included in this study. The paired-end reads were removed adapters and trimmed with Q30 score using Trimmomatic. Trimmed reads were constructed to contigs and scaffolds using SPAdes. Cross-contamination of scaffolds was evaluated by ContEst16s. Prokka tool for bacterial annotation was used to annotate sequences from both Leptospira isolates. Predicted amino acid sequences from Prokka were searched in EggNOG and David gene ontology database to characterize gene ontology. In addition, Leptospira from mild and severe patients, that passed the criteria e-value < 10e-5 from blastP against virulence factor database, were used to analyze with Venn diagram. From this study, we found 13 and 12 genes that were unique in the isolates from mild and severe patients, respectively. The 12 genes in the severe isolate might be virulence factor genes that affect disease severity. However, these genes should be validated in further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5808/gi.21037DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparative analysis of oral-gut microbiota between captive and wild long-tailed macaque in Thailand.

Sci Rep 2021 07 12;11(1):14280. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Research Unit of Systems Microbiology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), distributed in Southeast Asia, are generally used in biomedical research. At present, the expansion of human communities overlapping of macaques' natural habitat causes human-macaque conflicts. To mitigate this problem in Thailand, the National Primate Research Center of Thailand, Chulalongkorn University (NPRCT-CU), was granted the permit to catch the surplus wild-born macaques and transfer them to the center. Based on the fact that the diets provided and the captive environments were different, their oral-gut microbiota should be altered. Thus, we investigated and compared the oral and fecal microbiome between wild-born macaques that lived in the natural habitats and those transferred to and reared in the NPRCT-CU for 1 year. The results from 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing showed that the captive macaques had distinct oral-gut microbiota profiles and lower bacterial richness compared to those in wild macaques. The gut of wild macaques was dominated by Firmicutes which is probably associated with lipid absorption and storage. These results implicated the effects of captivity conditions on the microbiome that might contribute to crucial metabolic functions. Our study should be applied to the animal health care program, with respect to microbial functions, for non-human primates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93779-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275770PMC
July 2021

Oral-fecal mycobiome in wild and captive cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

Fungal Genet Biol 2020 11 24;144:103468. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand; Research Unit of Systems Microbiology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Electronic address:

Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is currently a common animal model for biomedical research. The National Primate Research Center of Thailand, Chulalongkorn University (NPRCT-CU) translocated wild-borne macaques to reared colony for research purposes. At present, no studies focus on fungal microbiome (Mycobiome) of this macaque. The functional roles of mycobiome and fungal pathogens have not been elucidated. Thus, this study aimed to investigate and compare oral and fecal mycobiome between wild and captive macaques by using high-throughput sequencing on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA. The results showed that the mycobiome of wild macaque has greater alpha diversity. The fecal mycobiome has more limited alpha diversity than those in oral cavity. The community is mainly dominated by saprophytic yeast in Kasachstania genus which is related to aiding metabolic function in gut. The oral microbiome of most captive macaques presented the Cutaneotrichosporon suggesting the fungal transmission through skin-oral contact within the colony. The potential pathogens that would cause harmful transmission in reared colonies were not found in either group of macaques but the pathogen prevention and animal care is still important to be concerned. In conclusion, the results of gut mycobiome analysis in Thai cynomolgus macaques provide us with the basic information of oral and fecal fungi and for monitoring macaque's health status for animal care of research use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2020.103468DOI Listing
November 2020

High-Throughput MicroRNA Profiles of Permissive Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cell Line Infected with Influenza B Viruses.

Viruses 2019 10 25;11(11). Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Victoria and Yamagata lineages of influenza B viruses are globally circulating in seasonal epidemics. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells are permissive for viral isolation and vaccine manufacture. Nevertheless, the interplay between influenza B viruses and host microRNAs has not been investigated in this cell line. Therefore, the present study aims at high-throughput analysis of canine microRNA profile upon infection of influenza B viruses. Briefly, MDCK cells were infected with Victoria or Yamagata lineage at MOI of 0.01. After being harvested at 6, 12 and 24 h post infection, microRNAs were subjected to high-throughput sequencing based on MiSeq platform (Illumina). The results demonstrated that five microRNAs including cfa-miR-197, cfa-miR-215, cfa-miR361, cfa-miR-1841, and cfa-miR-1842 were overexpressed in both Victoria and Yamagata lineage infections. Interestingly, computational prediction showed that karyopherin alpha 6 (KPNA6) was targeted by cfa-miR-197 and cfa-miR-215. Moreover, the binding sites of both microRNAs were assessed by 3'-UTR reporter assay. The results showed that only cfa-miR-197 could bind to the target sites of KPNA6, leading to suppressing luciferase activity. Additionally, silencing of KPNA6 was confirmed by overexpression of cfa-miR-197. This study provides canine microRNA responses to seasonal influenza B viruses, suggesting that virus-mediated microRNAs might play crucial roles in host gene regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11110986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893747PMC
October 2019

Human MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Influenza B Virus-Infected Cells based on Illumina MiSeq Platform.

Microrna 2018 ;7(3):204-214

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Influenza B virus causes influenza-like illness in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression. MiRNAs have evolved to regulate many cellular processes including the viral infection response.

Objective: This study aims to investigate the miRNA profiles of human cells infected with influenza B virus.

Methods: A549 cells were infected with influenza B viruses (MOI = 0.5). MiRNAs were extracted at 24 and 48 hours post-infection. MiRNAs were used to construct four DNA libraries: influenza Binfected and an uninfected control for both time points. Then high-throughput sequencing was performed using the Miseq platform (Illumina). Sequencing data were analyzed by Miseq reporter software. The miRNAs were categorized and counted based on the frequency of reads. All filtered contigs were aligned with data from miRbase. The relative expression of each miRNA between uninfected and influenza B-infected cells was calculated.

Results: There were 13 down-regulated miRNAs and 21 up-regulated miRNAs observed in influenza B infected cells at 24 hours post infection. At 48 hours post infection, 14 miRNAs were downregulated, whereas 8 miRNAs were up-regulated.

Conclusion: This study suggested that miRNAs may play important roles in host gene regulation in response to viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2211536607666180515111048DOI Listing
December 2018

Comparison of Four Human Papillomavirus Genotyping Methods: Next-generation Sequencing, INNO-LiPA, Electrochemical DNA Chip, and Nested-PCR.

Ann Lab Med 2018 Mar;38(2):139-146

Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer, thus necessitating early detection by screening. Rapid and accurate HPV genotyping is crucial both for the assessment of patients with HPV infection and for surveillance studies.

Methods: Fifty-eight cervicovaginal samples were tested for HPV genotypes using four methods in parallel: nested-PCR followed by conventional sequencing, INNO-LiPA, electrochemical DNA chip, and next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Results: Seven HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 56, and 58) were identified by all four methods. Nineteen HPV genotypes were detected by NGS, but not by nested-PCR, INNO-LiPA, or electrochemical DNA chip.

Conclusions: Although NGS is relatively expensive and complex, it may serve as a sensitive HPV genotyping method. Because of its highly sensitive detection of multiple HPV genotypes, NGS may serve as an alternative for diagnostic HPV genotyping in certain situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3343/alm.2018.38.2.139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5736673PMC
March 2018

Kinetics of serum HBsAg and intrahepatic cccDNA during pegylated interferon therapy in patients with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B.

J Med Virol 2017 01 21;89(1):130-138. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Research Unit of Hepatitis and Liver Cancer, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

This study was aimed at comparing clinical applicability of serum HBsAg quantification in relation to intrahepatic covalently closed-circular DNA (cccDNA) in patients with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) monotherapy for 48 weeks. Overall, 32 and 36 patients with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB, respectively were recruited. Paired liver biopsies at baseline and end of therapy were analyzed for cccDNA. Virological response (VR) at 48 weeks post-treatment was defined as HBeAg clearance (for HBeAg-positive CHB) and HBV DNA <2,000 IU/ml (for both groups). The results demonstrated that baseline levels of all viral markers were higher in the HBeAg-positive group than the HBeAg-negative group. Baseline HBsAg correlated with cccDNA in the HBeAg-positive group (r = 0.452, P = 0.009) but not in the HBeAg-negative group (r = 0.018, P = 0.919). However, the magnitude of cccDNA and HBsAg decline at end of treatment was not different between groups. The reduction of HBsAg showed a positive correlation with cccDNA decline in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB (r = 0.544, P = 0.001 and r = 0.364, P = 0.029, respectively). Overall, responders had more decline in cccDNA and HBsAg levels compared with non-responders. Patients with serum HBsAg decline of >1.0 log IU/ml during treatment archived VR and HBsAg clearance of 80% and 30%, respectively. In conclusion, serum HBsAg represented a better surrogate marker of intrahepatic cccDNA in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB compared to those with HBeAg-negative CHB. On-treatment, HBsAg reduction of 1.0 log IU/mL was associated with a high probability of subsequent VR and HBsAg clearance in patients receiving PEG-IFN therapy. J. Med. Virol. 89:130-138, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24601DOI Listing
January 2017

Original Research: Analysis of hepatic microRNA alterations in response to hepatitis B virus infection and pegylated interferon alpha-2a treatment.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2016 10 4;241(16):1803-10. Epub 2016 May 4.

Systems Biology Center, Research Affairs, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand Research Unit of Hepatitis and Liver Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Interferons play important roles in defense mechanisms against viral infection, and thus interferon therapy has been a standard treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients. Interferons signaling pathways promote interferon-inducible genes including microRNAs. In this research, we aimed to determine microRNAs expression profiles in vitro and in vivo For in vitro model, Huh7 cells were transfected with or without hepatitis B virus plasmid for 6 h, and then treated with 100 ng of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a for 24 h. In vivo, we defined microRNAs expression profiles in pair-liver tissues of chronic hepatitis B patients in comparison between before and after treatment of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a for 48 weeks. Cellular small RNAs were extracted followed by library preparation. To determine microRNAs expression profiles, the next-generation sequencing was carried out on MiSeq platform (Illumina®). In vitro analysis demonstrated that microRNAs can be classified into up-regulated and down-regulated microRNAs in response to hepatitis B virus, interferon, and combination of hepatitis B virus and interferon. Moreover, in vivo analysis revealed microRNAs profiles in non-responders, responders without hepatitis B surface antigen clearance, and responders with hepatitis B surface antigen clearance. The target genes of the candidate microRNAs were determined in terms of roles in cellular pathways and immune response, which might be related to treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients. Results revealed that two down-regulated microRNAs including miR-185-5p and miR-186-5p were correlated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. These two microRNAs might be represented as specific hepatic microRNAs responding to hepatitis B virus and pegylated-interferon alpha-2a treatment, which may remarkable and attractive for further study involving in the association of their target genes and prediction of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a response. Interestingly, microRNAs expression patterns might be useful for understanding the response mechanism and serve as biomarkers for prediction of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535370216647184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5027934PMC
October 2016

Genetic Variations in XRCC4 (rs1805377) and ATF6 (rs2070150) are not Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thai Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(2):591-5

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand E-mail :

The liver is one of the most common sites of cancer in the world, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) predominating. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) is considered as an important potential risk factors for HCC. Different people have diverse responses to HBV infection regarding the likelihood of HCC development, and host factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might account for this. The present study was conducted to evaluate any association between SNP frequencies in two genes, XRCC4 (rs1805377) and ATF6 (rs2070150), and the risk of CHB and HCC development in Thai patients. The study covered 369 subjects including 121 HCC patients, 141 with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) and 107 healthy controls. With TaqMan real-time PCR, the results showed that no significant association between XRCC4 (rs1805377) and ATF6 (rs2070150) and risk of HCC in the Thai population. From this first study of the 2 polymorphisms and HCC in Thailand it can concluded that rs1805377 and rs2070150 polymorphisms may not be applicable as genetic markers in the Thai population for HCC assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.2.591DOI Listing
January 2017

Human microRNAs profiling in response to influenza A viruses (subtypes pH1N1, H3N2, and H5N1).

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2016 Feb 29;241(4):409-20. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 Thailand Systems Biology Center, Research Affairs, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330 Thailand

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulation of gene silencing and are involved in many cellular processes including inhibition of infected viral replication. This study investigated cellular miRNA expression profiles operating in response to influenza virus in early stage of infection which might be useful for understanding and control of viral infection. A549 cells were infected with different subtypes of influenza virus (pH1N1, H3N2 and H5N1). After 24 h post-infection, miRNAs were extracted and then used for DNA library construction. All DNA libraries with different indexes were pooled together with equal concentration, followed by high-throughput sequencing based on MiSeq platform. The miRNAs were identified and counted from sequencing data by using MiSeq reporter software. The miRNAs expressions were classified into up and downregulated miRNAs compared to those found in non-infected cells. Mostly, each subtype of influenza A virus triggered the upregulated responses in miRNA expression profiles. Hsa-miR-101, hsa-miR-193b, hsa-miR-23b, and hsa-miR-30e* were upregulated when infected with all three subtypes of influenza A virus. Target prediction results showed that virus infection can trigger genes in cellular process, metabolic process, developmental process and biological regulation. This study provided some insights into the cellular miRNA profiling in response to various subtypes of influenza A viruses in circulation and which have caused outbreaks in human population. The regulated miRNAs might be involved in virus-host interaction or host defense mechanism, which should be investigated for effective antiviral therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535370215611764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4935422PMC
February 2016

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in miR-149 (rs2292832) and miR-101-1 (rs7536540) Are Not Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thai Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(15):6457-61

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand E-mail :

MicroRNAs directly and indirectly influence many biological processes such as apoptosis, cell maintenance, and immune responses, impacting on tumor genesis and metastasis. They modulate gene expression at the post- transcriptional level and are associated with progression of liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer which mostly occurs in males. There are many factors affect HCC development, for example, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), co-infection, environmental factors including alcohol, aflatoxin consumption and host-related factors such as age, gender immune response, microRNA and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus is the major factor leading to HCC progression since it causes the liver injury. At present, there are many reports regarding the association of SNPs on miRNAs and the HCC progression. In this research, we investigated the role of miR- 149 (rs2292832) and miR-101-1 (rs7536540) with HCC progression in Thai population. The study included 289 Thai subjects including 104 HCC patients, 90 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) and 95 healthy control subjects. The allele and genotype of rs2292832 and rs7536540 polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Our results revealed no significant association between miR-149 (rs2292832) and miR-101-1 (rs7536540) and the risk of HCC in our Thai population. However, this research is the first study of miR-149 (rs2292832) and miR-101-1 (rs7536540) in HCC in Thai populations and the results need to be confirmed with a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.15.6457DOI Listing
July 2016

Multiplex real-time RT-PCR for detecting chikungunya virus and dengue virus.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2012 May;5(5):342-6

Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: To develop diagnostic test for detection chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Dengue virus (DENV) infection.

Methods: We have performed a rapid, accurate laboratory confirmative method to simultaneously detect, quantify and differentiate CHIKV and DENV infection by single-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR.

Results: The assay's sensitivity was 97.65%, specificity was 92.59% and accuracy was 95.82% when compared to conventional RT-PCR. Additionally, there was no cross-reaction between CHIKV, DENV, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C, hepatitis A or hepatitis E virus.

Conclusions: This rapid and reliable assay provides a means for simultaneous early diagnosis of CHIKV and DENV in a single-step reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60055-8DOI Listing
May 2012

Serum adiponectin and transient elastography as non-invasive markers for postoperative biliary atresia.

BMC Gastroenterol 2011 Feb 28;11:16. Epub 2011 Feb 28.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Background: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive inflammatory disorder of the extrahepatic bile ducts leading to the obliteration of bile flow. The purpose of this study was to determine serum adiponectin in BA patients and to investigate the relationship of adiponectin with clinical parameters and liver stiffness scores.

Methods: Sixty BA patients post Kasai operation and 20 controls were enrolled. The mean age of BA patients and controls was 9.6 ± 0.7 and 10.1 ± 0.7 years, respectively. BA patients were classified into two groups according to their serum total bilirubin (TB) levels (non-jaundice, TB < 2 mg/dl vs. jaundice, TB ≥ 2 mg/dl) and liver stiffness (insignificant fibrosis, liver stiffness < 7 kPa vs. significant fibrosis, liver stiffness ≥ 7 kPa). Serum adiponectin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liver stiffness scores were examined by transient elastography (FibroScan).

Results: BA patients had markedly higher serum adiponectin levels (15.5 ± 1.1 vs. 11.1 ± 1.1 μg/ml, P = 0.03) and liver stiffness than controls (30.1 ± 3.0 vs. 5.1 ± 0.5 kPa, P < 0.001). Serum adiponectin levels were significantly elevated in BA patients with jaundice compared with those without jaundice (24.4 ± 1.4 vs. 11.0 ± 0.7 μg/ml, P < 0.001). In addition, BA patients with significant liver fibrosis had remarkably greater serum adiponectin than insignificant fibrosis counterparts (17.7 ± 1.2 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1 μg/ml, P < 0.001). Subsequent analysis revealed that serum adiponectin was positively correlated with total bilirubin, hyaluronic acid, and liver stiffness (r = 0.58, r = 0.46, and r = 0.60, P < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: Serum adiponectin and liver stiffness values were higher in BA patients compared with normal participants. The elevated serum adiponectin levels also positively correlated with the degree of hepatic dysfunction and liver fibrosis. Accordingly, serum adiponectin and transient elastography could serve as the useful non-invasive biomarkers for monitoring the severity and progression in postoperative BA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-11-16DOI Listing
February 2011

High serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 and liver stiffness in postoperative biliary atresia.

Pediatr Surg Int 2011 Jul 30;27(7):681-7. Epub 2010 Dec 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Rama IV Road, Patumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Background: Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal liver disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and obliteration of extrahepatic bile ducts. The purpose of the study was to investigate serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in postoperative BA patients and the association of MMP-3 with clinical outcome and liver stiffness score.

Methods: Fifty-eight BA patients post-Kasai operation and 20 controls were enrolled. None of the patients had undergone liver transplantation. BA patients were classified into two groups according to their serum total bilirubin (TB) levels (TB < 2 mg/dL, no jaundice vs. TB ≥ 2 mg/dL, persistent jaundice) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT < 45 IU/L, normal ALT vs. ALT ≥ 45 IU/L, elevated ALT). Serum MMP-3 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liver stiffness scores were measured by FibroScan.

Results: BA patients had greater MMP-3 levels (10.8 ± 1.0 vs. 7.9 ± 0.8 ng/mL, P = 0.02) and higher liver stiffness values than controls (29.7 ± 3.0 vs. 5.1 ± 0.5 kPa, P < 0.001). Serum MMP-3 levels were significantly elevated in BA patients with jaundice when compared with those without jaundice (15.3 ± 2.2 vs. 8.5 ± 0.8 ng/mL, P = 0.004). In addition, BA patients with elevated ALT had higher levels of serum MMP-3 than those with normal ALT (12.4 ± 1.5 vs. 8.3 ± 0.9 ng/mL, P = 0.02). Moreover, BA patients with portal hypertension displayed higher serum MMP-3 than those without portal hypertension (13.5 ± 1.5 vs. 7.4 ± 0.8 ng/mL, P = 0.001). There was also a correlation between serum MMP-3 and liver stiffness scores (r = 0.448, P ≤ 0.001).

Conclusion: Serum MMP-3 was associated with hepatic dysfunction and liver stiffness in postoperative BA patients. Accordingly, MMP-3 could play a role in the pathophysiology of hepatic fibrosis in BA after Kasai operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-010-2816-xDOI Listing
July 2011

Seroprevalence and genotype of hepatitis C virus among immigrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar in Thailand.

Intervirology 2011 6;54(1):10-6. Epub 2010 Aug 6.

Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: There is a large number of immigrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar in Thailand. The aim of our study was to determine seroprevalence and genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in this group.

Methods: Immigrants aged between 15 and 60 years (1,431 Cambodians and 1,594 Myanmarese) were recruited into this study. Each sample was screened for anti-HCV by ELISA. RNA was extracted from seropositive samples and RT-PCR was performed in order to amplify the HCV core region. Each sample was subsequently sequenced, and the genotype was determined by phylogenetic analysis.

Results: The prevalence of HCV infection in immigrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar was 33 (2.3%) and 27 (1.69%) samples, respectively. Of the anti-HCV-positive individuals, 25 (75.8%) from Cambodia and 15 (55.6%) from Myanmar harbored viral RNA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the predominant HCV genotypes in this group were 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b and 6 (6e, 6f, 6m, 6p and 6r). Most HCV isolates can be found in Thailand, though some subtypes of HCV-6 are uncommon.

Conclusions: This study shows the HCV seroprevalence and genotypes among immigrant Cambodians and Myanmarese which may reflect the prevalence in each country and closely relate to the prevalence in the guest country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000318884DOI Listing
January 2011

Molecular evolution of human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A virus in Thailand, 2006-2009.

PLoS One 2010 Mar 16;5(3):e9717. Epub 2010 Mar 16.

Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Annual seasonal influenza outbreaks are associated with high morbidity and mortality.

Objective: To index and document evolutionary changes among influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 viruses isolated from Thailand during 2006-2009, using complete genome sequences.

Methods: Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from patients diagnosed with respiratory illness in Thailand during 2006-2009. All samples were screened for Influenza A virus. A total of 13 H1N1 and 21 H3N2 were confirmed and whole genome sequenced for the evolutionary analysis using standard phylogenetic approaches.

Results: Phylogenetic analysis of HA revealed a clear diversification of seasonal from vaccine strain lineages. H3N2 seasonal clusters were closely related to the WHO recommended vaccine strains in each season. Most H1N1 isolates could be differentiated into 3 lineages. The A/Brisbane/59/2007 lineage, a vaccine strain for H1N1 since 2008, is closely related with the H1N1 subtypes circulating in 2009. HA sequences were conserved at the receptor-binding site. Amino acid variations in the antigenic site resulted in a possible N-linked glycosylation motif. Recent H3N2 isolates had higher genetic variations compared to H1N1 isolates. Most substitutions in the NP protein were clustered in the T-cell recognition domains.

Conclusion: In this study we performed evolutionary genetic analysis of influenza A viruses in Thailand between 2006-2009. Although the current vaccine strain is efficient for controlling the circulating outbreak subtypes, surveillance is necessary to provide unambiguous information on emergent viruses. In summary, the findings of this study contribute the understanding of evolution in influenza A viruses in humans and is useful for routine surveillance and vaccine strain selection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0009717PLOS
March 2010

Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotype 6 subtypes in Thailand.

J Med Virol 2010 Feb;82(2):257-62

Faculty of Medicine, Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

The nucleotide sequence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 found mostly in south China and south-east Asia, displays profound genetic diversity. The aim of this study to determine the genetic variability of HCV genotype 6 (HCV-6) in Thailand and locate the subtype distribution of genotype 6 in various geographic areas. Four hundred nineteen anti-HCV positive serum samples were collected from patients residing in - the central part of the country. HCV RNA positive samples based on reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the 5'UTR were amplified with primers specific for the core and NS5B regions. Nucleotide sequences of both regions were analyzed for the genotype by phylogenetic analysis. To determine geographic distribution of HCV-6 subtypes, a search of the international database on subtype distribution in the respective countries was conducted. Among 375 HCV RNA positive samples, 71 had HCV-6 based on phylogenetic analysis of partial core and NS5B regions. The subtype distribution in order of predominance was 6f (56%), 6n (22%), 6i (11%), 6j (10%), and 6e (1%). Among the 13 countries with different subtypes of HCV-6, most sequences have been reported from Vietnam. Subtype 6f was found exclusively in Thailand where five distinct HCV-6 subtypes are circulating. HCV-6, which is endemic in south China and south-east Asia, displays profound genetic diversity and may have evolved over a considerable period of time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21680DOI Listing
February 2010

Clinical and molecular characterization of chikungunya virus in South Thailand.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2009 Jul;62(4):303-5

Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In 2008, an outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) occurred in Narathiwat province, south Thailand. To determine the clinical significance, molecular epidemiology and evolutionary origin of the CHIKV causing this outbreak, 47 patients who had been admitted to Narathiwatratchanakharin provincial hospital due to acute febrile illness were enrolled in this study. Sera were tested for IgM antibodies, and RT-PCR was performed for CHIKV and dengue virus. We diagnosed 10 patients with CHIKV infection and 5 with dengue virus infection. Joint pain is a significant symptom of chikungunya fever. Five strains of CHIKV were isolated. Their genome sequences were different from those isolated from the previous outbreaks in Thailand (1988, 1995-1996) but similar to the sequences isolated from the 2008 Singapore outbreak. We speculated that the outbreak was caused by a group of viruses different from the previous outbreaks. RT-PCR, serology to detect IgM antibodies or paired sera for IgG for CHIKV should be performed in all patients with presumed hemorrhagic fever to promptly detect outbreaks of CHIKV. This precaution would help control global epidemics of this virus.
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July 2009

Long-term humoral and cellular immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in high-risk children 18-20 years after neonatal immunization.

Viral Immunol 2009 Apr;22(2):125-30

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Eighty-seven high-risk individuals in Thailand who had received a complete course of recombinant HBV vaccine 18-20 y ago were investigated with regard to their immunological memory. To evaluate humoral immunity, anti-HBs antibody titers were measured. Cellular immunity was determined by ELISPOT to detect HBV-specific IFN-gamma-producing cells. Overall 83.9% of participants developed circulating anti-HBs (titer > or = 1 mIU/mL) and 58.6% were seroprotected (titer > or = 10 mIU/mL). As for cellular immunity, 50.6% were positive on ELISPOT. Moreover, there was no correlation between the level of anti-HBs and positive ELISPOT results. However, the majority of participants (81.8%) who were positive for IFN-gamma-producing cells were seropositive, but only 50% of seropositive participants were ELISPOT-positive. Thus, 18-20 y after immunization, it appears that a second booster dose should be considered, especially in high-risk groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2008.0087DOI Listing
April 2009
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