Publications by authors named "Keshthra Satchithananda"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clinical and molecular associations with outcomes at 2 years after acute knee injury: a longitudinal study in the Knee Injury Cohort at the Kennedy (KICK).

Lancet Rheumatol 2021 Sep 24;3(9):e648-e658. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Centre for Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis Versus Arthritis, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, NDORMS, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Joint injury is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis and provides an opportunity to prospectively examine early processes associated with osteoarthritis. We investigated whether predefined baseline demographic and clinical factors, and protein analytes in knee synovial fluid and in plasma or serum, were associated with clinically relevant outcomes at 2 years after knee injury.

Methods: This longitudinal cohort study recruited individuals aged 16-50 years between Nov 1, 2010, and Nov 28, 2014, across six hospitals and clinics in London, UK. Participants were recruited within 8 weeks of having a clinically significant acute knee injury (effusion and structural injury on MRI), which was typically treated surgically. We measured several predefined clinical variables at baseline (eg, time from injury to sampling, extent and type of joint injury, synovial fluid blood staining, presence of effusion, self-reported sex, age, and BMI), and measured 12 synovial fluid and four plasma or serum biomarkers by immunoassay at baseline and 3 months. The primary outcome was Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) at 2 years, adjusted for baseline score, assessed in all patients. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for predefined covariates were used to assess associations between baseline variables and 2-year KOOS. This study is registered with, number NCT02667756.

Findings: We enrolled 150 patients at a median of 17 days (range 1-59, IQR 9-26) after knee injury. 123 (82%) were male, with a median age of 25 years (range 16-50, IQR 21-30). 98 (65%) of 150 participants completed a KOOS at 2 (or 3) years after enrolment (50 participants were lost to follow-up and two were withdrawn due to adverse events unrelated to study participation); 77 (51%) participants had all necessary variables available and were included in the core variable adjusted analysis. In the 2-year dataset mean KOOS improved from 38 (SD 18) at baseline to 79 (18) at 2 years. Baseline KOOS medium-to-large knee effusion, and moderate-to-severe synovial blood staining and their interaction significantly predicted 2-year KOOS (n=77; coefficient -20·5, 95% CI -34·8 to -6·18; p=0·0060). The only predefined biomarkers that showed independent associations with 2-year KOOS were synovial fluid MCP-1 (n=77; -0·015, 0·027 to -0·004 per change in 1 pg/mL units; p=0·011) and IL-6 (n=77; -0·0005, -0·0009 to -0·0001 per change in 1 pg/mL units; p=0·017). These biomarkers, combined with the interaction of effusion and blood staining, accounted for 39% of outcome variability. Two adverse events occurred that were linked to study participation, both at the time of blood sampling (one presyncopal episode, one tenderness and pain at the site of venepuncture).

Interpretation: The combination of effusion and haemarthrosis was significantly associated with symptomatic outcomes after acute knee injury. The synovial fluid molecular protein response to acute knee injury (best represented by MCP-1 and IL-6) was independently associated with symptomatic outcomes but not with structural outcomes, with the biomarkers overall playing a minor role relative to clinical predictors. The relationship between symptoms and structure after acute knee injury and their apparent dissociation early in this process need to be better understood to make clinical progress.

Funding: Versus Arthritis, Kennedy Trust for Rheumatology Research, and NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.
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September 2021

Escalation and de-escalation of the radiology response to COVID-19 in a tertiary hospital in South London: The King's College Hospital experience.

Br J Radiol 2020 Dec 28;93(1116):20201034. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Radiology, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

The pandemic of COVID-19 presented an enormous challenge to the medical world in terms of diagnosis, treatment and health-care management as well as service organisation and provision. This novel virus and its spread affected every aspect of modern medical practice, ranging from investigating transmission of this new pathogen, antigen testing of symptomatic patients, imaging, assessing different treatment regimens and the production of a new vaccine. Imaging played a crucial role in the diagnosis of COVID-19-related lung disease, with plain radiography and CT being the main diagnostic modalities, with ultrasound a useful bedside imaging tool. The accurate and early diagnosis of the disease was not the only issue faced by Radiology Departments across the world; prevention of nosocomial infection, creating capacity with elective imaging suspension, management and protection of the workforce being few of the numerous challenges. The purpose of this manuscript is to present the steps that the Radiology Department of a large urban tertiary facility with a local vulnerable population, undertook to adapt the imaging service and structure, both initially escalating and then de-escalating a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. A step-by-step management strategy, effective and sustained staff deployment, imaging management are presented and discussed, to provide a guide for managing a major incident in a radiology department.
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December 2020

Radiological audit of interval breast cancers: Estimation of tumour growth rates.

Breast 2020 Jun 1;51:114-119. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: This multicentre, retrospective study aimed to establish correlation between estimated tumour volume doubling times (TVDT) from a series of interval breast cancers with their clinicopathological features. The potential impact of delayed diagnosis on prognosis was also explored.

Materials And Methods: Interval cancers, where screening mammograms demonstrated changes that were retrospectively classified as either uncertain or suspicious, were reviewed from five screening units within the UK NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). Data collected included the time interval between screening mammogram and cancer diagnosis, the size of the initial mammographic abnormality and of the subsequent cancer, demographics, mammographic density and tumour biology. We estimated volume doubling times and the estimated change in size and node status, which would have followed if these cancers had been detected at the previous screen.

Results: 306 interval cancers meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Average time from screening to diagnosis was 644 days (SD 276 days). 19% were diagnosed in the first twelve months, 42% in the subsequent twelve months and 39% thereafter. Overall average estimated TVDT was 167 days (95% CI 151-186). Significant differences were noted with age (p = 0.01), grade (p < 0.001) and ER status (p < 0.001) with women under 60, grade 3 cancers and ER negative cancers having shorter TVDTs. HER2 positive tumours had shorter doubling times than HER2 negative, but this difference was not statistically significant. It was estimated that diagnosing these cancers at the previous screen would have increased ten-year survival from 82% to 86%.

Conclusion: High grade, ER negativity and younger age were associated with shorter durations of TVDT. The role of HER2 status on interval cancer growth rate requires further assessment. It is likely that the delayed diagnosis of interval cancers confers a 4% reduction in ten-year survival.
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June 2020

Enhanced pre-operative axillary staging using intradermal microbubbles and contrast-enhanced ultrasound to detect and biopsy sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer: a potential replacement for axillary surgery.

Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 5;91(1082):20170626. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

8 Breast Radiology, Breast Unit, Addenbrooke's Treatment Centre , Breast Unit, Addenbrooke's Treatment Centre , Cambridge , UK.

Objective: To compare the experience of four UK Centres in the use of intradermal microbubbles and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to pre-operatively identify and biopsy sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in patients with breast cancer.

Methods: In all centres, breast cancer patients had a microbubble/CEUS SLN core biopsy prior to axillary surgery and patients in Centres 1 and 2 had a normal greyscale axillary ultrasound. Data were collected between 2010 and 2016; 1361 from Centre 1 (prospective, sequential), 376 from Centre 2 (retrospective, sequential), 121 from Centre 3 (retrospective, selected) and 48 from Centre 4 (prospective, selected).

Results: SLN were successfully core biopsied in 80% (Centre 1), 79.6% (Centre 2), 77.5% (Centre 3) and 88% (Centre 4). The sensitivities to identify all SLN metastases were 46.9% [95% confidence intervals (CI) (39.4-55.1)], 52.5% [95% CI (39.1-65.7)], 46.4% [95% CI (27.5-66.1)] and 45.5% [95% CI (16.7-76.6)], respectively. The specificities were 99.7% [95% CI (I98.9-100)], 98.1% [95% CI (94.5-99.6)], 100% [95% CI (93.2-100%)] and 96.3% [95% CI (81-99.9)], respectively.The negative predictive values were 87.0% [95% CI (84.3-89.3)], 84.5% [95% CI (78.4-89.5)], 86.9% [95% CI (82.4-90.3)] and 86.2% [95% CI (78.4-91.5)], respectively. At Centres 1 and 2, 12/730 (1.6%) and 7/181 (4%), respectively, of patients with a benign microbubble/CEUS SLN core biopsy had two or more lymph node (LN) macrometastases found at the end of primary surgical treatment.

Conclusion: The identification and biopsy of SLN using CEUS is a reproducible technique. Advances in knowledge: In the era of axillary conservation, microbubble/CEUS SLN core biopsy has the potential to succeed surgical staging of the axilla.
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February 2018

Calculating the hip center of rotation using contralateral pelvic anatomy.

J Orthop Res 2016 06 29;34(6):1077-83. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Institute of Orthopaedic and Musculoskeletal Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Failure to place an artificial hip in the optimal center of rotation results in poor hip function and costly complications. The aim of this study was to develop robust methodology to estimate hip center of rotation (hCoR) from preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, using contralateral anatomy, in patients with unilateral diseased hips. Ten patients (five male, five female) with normal pelvic anatomy, and one patient with a unilateral dysplastic acetabulum were recruited from the London Implant Retrieval center image bank. 3D models of each pelvis were generated using commercial software. Two methods for estimation of hCoR were compared. Method 1 used a mirroring technique alone. Method 2 utilized mirroring and automatic alignment. Predicted versus actual hCoR co-ordinates were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients and paired T-tests. Both methods predicted hCoR with excellent agreement to original co-ordinates (>0.9) in all axes. Both techniques allowed prediction of the hCoR within ± 5 mm in all axes. Both techniques provided useful clinical information for planning acetabular reconstruction in patients with unilateral defects. Method 1 was less complex and is suitable for patients with developmental and degenerative pathologies. Method 2 may provide greater accuracy in a discrete group of patients with normal development prior to pathology (e.g., acetabular fractures). © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1077-1083, 2016.
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June 2016

Early metacarpal bone mineral density loss using digital x-ray radiogrammetry and 3-tesla wrist MRI in established rheumatoid arthritis: a longitudinal one-year observational study.

Arthritis 2015 17;2015:852989. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LD, UK.

Objectives. Early change in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by periarticular osteopenia. We investigated the relationship of early metacarpal digital X-ray radiogrammetry bone mineral density (DXR-BMD) change rate (RC-BMD, mg/cm(2)/month) to longitudinal changes in hand and feet radiographic and wrist MRI scores over 1 year. Materials and Methods. 10 RA patients completed the study and had wrist 3T-MRI and hand and feet X-rays at various time points over 1 year. MRI was scored by RAMRIS, X-ray was done by van der Heijde modified Sharp scoring, and RC-BMD was analysed using dxr-online. Results. There was good correlation amongst the two scorers for MRI measures and ICC for erosions: 0.984, BME: 0.943, and synovitis: 0.657. Strong relationships were observed between RC-BMD at 12-week and 1-year change in wrist marrow oedema (BME) (r = 0.78, P = 0.035) but not with erosion, synovitis, or radiographic scores. Conclusion. Early RC-BMD correlates with 1-year wrist BME change, which is a known predictor of future erosion and joint damage. However, in our pilot study, early RC-BMD did not show relationships to MRI erosion or radiographic changes over 1 year. This may reflect a slower kinetic in the appearance of MRI/radiographic erosions, generating the hypothesis that RC-BMD may be a more sensitive and early structural prognostic marker in RA follow-up.
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March 2015

Cross-sectional imaging of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties. Can we substitute MARS MRI with CT?

Acta Orthop 2014 Dec 30;85(6):577-84. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Institute of Musculoskeletal Science, UCL, London.

Background And Purpose: Metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) MRI is widely advocated for surveillance of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties (MOM-HAs). However, its use is limited by susceptibility artifact at the prosthesis-bone interface, local availability, patient compliance, and cost (Hayter et al. 2011a). We wanted to determine whether CT is a suitable substitute for MARS MRI in evaluation of the painful MOM-HA.

Patients And Methods: 50 MOM-HA patients (30 female) with unexplained painful prostheses underwent MARS MRI and CT imaging. 2 observers who were blind regarding the clinical data objectively reported the following outcomes: soft tissue lesions (pseudotumors), muscle atrophy, and acetabular and femoral osteolysis. Diagnostic test characteristics were calculated.

Results: Pseudotumor was diagnosed in 25 of 50 hips by MARS MRI and in 11 of 50 by CT. Pseudotumors were classified as type 1 (n=2), type 2A (n=17), type 2B (n=4), and type 3 (n=2) by MARS MRI. CT did not permit pseudotumor classification. The sensitivity of CT for diagnosis of pseudotumor was 44% (95% CI: 25-65). CT had "slight" agreement with MARS MRI for quantification of muscle atrophy (κ=0.23, CI: 0.16-0.29; p<0.01). Osteolysis was identified in 15 of 50 patients by CT. 4 of these lesions were identified by MARS MRI.

Interpretation: CT was found to be superior to MRI for detection of osteolysis adjacent to MOM-HA, and should be incorporated into diagnostic algorithms. CT was unable to classify and failed to detect many pseudotumors, and it was unreliable for assessment of muscle atrophy. Where MARS MRI is contraindicated or unavailable, CT would be an unsuitable substitute and other modalities such as ultrasound should be considered.
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December 2014

A comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of MARS MRI and ultrasound of the painful metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

Acta Orthop 2014 Aug 3;85(4):375-82. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Institute of Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Science , University College London, the Royal National Orthopedic Hospital, Brockley Hill , Stanmore.

Background And Purpose: Metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) MRI and ultrasound scanning (USS) can both be used to detect pseudotumors, abductor muscle atrophy, and tendinous pathology in patients with painful metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasty. We wanted to determine the diagnostic test characteristics of USS using MARS MRI as a reference for detection of pseudotumors and muscle atrophy. PatienTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study to compare MARS MRI and USS findings in 19 consecutive patients with unilateral MOM hips. Protocolized USS was performed by consultant musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded regarding clinical details. Reports were independently compared with MARS MRI, the imaging gold standard, to calculate predictive values.

Results: The prevalence of pseudotumors on MARS MRI was 68% (95% CI: 43-87) and on USS it was 53% (CI: 29-76). The sensitivity of USS in detecting pseudotumors was 69% (CI 39-91) and the specificity was 83% (CI: 36-97). The sensitivity of detection of abductor muscle atrophy was 47% (CI: 24-71). In addition, joint effusion was detected in 10 cases by USS and none were seen by MARS MRI.

Interpretation: We found a poor agreement between USS and MARS MRI. USS was inferior to MARS MRI for detection of pseudotumors and muscle atrophy, but it was superior for detection of joint effusion and tendinous pathologies. MARS MRI is more advantageous than USS for practical reasons, including preoperative planning and longitudinal comparison.
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August 2014

Night-time immobilization of the distal interphalangeal joint reduces pain and extension deformity in hand osteoarthritis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2014 Jun 8;53(6):1142-9. Epub 2014 Feb 8.

Arthritis Research UK Centre for OA Pathogenesis, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, Rheumatology Department, Therapies Department, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Centre for Haematology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, Imaging Department, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Department of Imaging, King's College Hospital, London, UK.Arthritis Research UK Centre for OA Pathogenesis, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, Rheumatology Department, Therapies Department, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Centre for Haematology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, Imaging Department, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Department of Imaging, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

Objective: DIP joint OA is common but has few cost-effective, evidence-based interventions. Pain and deformity [radial or ulnar deviation of the joint or loss of full extension (extension lag)] frequently lead to functional and cosmetic issues. We investigated whether splinting the DIP joint would improve pain, function and deformity.

Methods: A prospective, radiologist-blinded, non-randomized, internally controlled trial of custom splinting of the DIP joint was carried out. Twenty-six subjects with painful, deforming DIP joint hand OA gave written, informed consent. One intervention joint and one control joint were nominated. A custom gutter splint was worn nightly for 3 months on the intervention joint, with clinical and radiological assessment at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Differences in the change were compared by the Wilcoxon signed rank test.

Results: The median average pain at baseline was similar in the intervention (6/10) and control joints (5/10). Average pain (primary outcome measure) and worst pain in the intervention joint were significantly lower at 3 months compared with baseline (P = 0.002, P = 0.02). Differences between intervention and control joint average pain reached significance at 6 months (P = 0.049). Extension lag deformity was significantly improved in intervention joints at 3 months and in splinted joints compared with matched contralateral joints (P = 0.016).

Conclusion: Short-term night-time DIP joint splinting is a safe, simple treatment modality that reduces DIP joint pain and improves extension of the digit, and does not appear to give rise to non-compliance, increased stiffness or joint restriction.

Trial Registration: clinical,, NCT01249391.
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June 2014

Evaluating automated dynamic contrast enhanced wrist 3T MRI in healthy volunteers: one-year longitudinal observational study.

Eur J Radiol 2013 Aug 4;82(8):1286-91. Epub 2013 Apr 4.

Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College London, UK.

Rational And Objective: Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI has great potential to provide quantitative measure of inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis. There is no current benchmark to establish the stability of signal in the joints of healthy subjects when imaged with DCE-MRI longitudinally, which is crucial so as to differentiate changes induced by treatment from the inherent variability of perfusion measures. The objective of this study was to test a pixel-by-pixel parametric map based approach for analysis of DCE-MRI (Dynamika) and to investigate the variability in signal characteristics over time in healthy controls using longitudinally acquired images.

Materials And Methods: 10 healthy volunteers enrolled, dominant wrists were imaged with contrast enhanced 3T MRI at baseline, week 12, 24 and 52 and scored with RAMRIS, DCE-MRI was analysed using a novel quantification parametric map based approach. Radiographs were obtained at baseline and week 52 and scored using modified Sharp van der Heidje method. RAMRIS scores and dynamic MRI measures were correlated.

Results: No erosions were seen on radiographs, whereas MRI showed erosion-like changes, low grade bone marrow oedema and low-moderate synovial enhancement. The DCE-MRI parameters were stable (baseline scores, variability) (mean±; in whole wrist analysis, MEmean (1.3±0.07, -0.08±0.1 at week 24) and IREmean (0.008±0.004, -0.002±0.005 at week 12 and 24). In the rough wrist ROI, MEmean (1.2±0.07, 0.04±0.02 at week 52) and IREmean (0.001±0.0008, 0.0006±0.0009 at week 52) and precise wrist ROI, MEmean (1.2±0.09, 0.04±0.04 at week 52) and IREmean (0.001±0.0008, 0.0008±0.001 at week 24 and 52). The Dynamic parameters obtained using fully automated analysis demonstrated strong, statistically significant correlations with RAMRIS synovitis scores.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that contrast enhancement does occur in healthy volunteers but the inherent variability of perfusion measures obtained with quantitative DCE-MRI method is low and stable, suggesting its suitability for longitudinal studies of inflammatory arthritis. These results also provide important information regarding potential cut-off levels for imaging remission goals in patients with RA using both RAMRIS and DCE-MRI extracted parametric parameters.
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August 2013

The efficacy of axillary ultrasound in the detection of nodal metastasis in breast cancer.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2013 Mar;200(3):W314-20

Department of Medical Oncology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Recent reports indicate a lack of survival benefit for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) versus sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer. To study this issue further, we assessed the accuracy and effectiveness of ultrasound examination in detecting axillary nodal involvement in breast cancer patients with the aim of refining our current clinical pathways.

Materials And Methods: Ultrasound data were collected from breast cancer cases over 3 years. Images were reviewed by experienced radiologists and the following characteristics were assessed: size, morphology, hyperechoic hilum, and cortical thickness of the ipsilateral axillary nodes. The findings were correlated with histologic outcomes after ALND.

Results: Two hundred twenty-four cases were included in the analysis, 113 (50.4%) of which had evidence of metastatic nodal involvement at final histology. Of these 113 cases, ultrasound findings for 59 (52.2%) were positive. The overall positive predictive value of ultrasound for detecting metastatic nodal involvement measured 0.81. The negative predictive value was 0.60. The sensitivity was 53.7%; specificity, 85.1%; and accuracy, 67.9%. The ultrasound morphologic lymph node features with the greatest correlation with malignancy were the absence of a hyperechoic hilum (p = 0.003) and increased cortical thickness (p = 0.03). Patients with a metastatic nodal burden density of at least 20% were more likely to have abnormal findings on axillary ultrasound examination (p = 0.009).

Conclusion: Axillary ultrasound has a low negative predictive value and negative ultrasound results do not exclude axillary node metastases with sufficient sensitivity to justify its routine clinical use. Clinical pathways need to consider an evidence-based approach, focusing on the criteria by which we select breast cancer patients for ALND.
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March 2013

Pseudotumors in association with well-functioning metal-on-metal hip prostheses: a case-control study using three-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2012 Feb;94(4):317-25

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Charing Cross Hospital (Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Imperial College London), Fulham Palace Road, London W6 8RF, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Many papers have been published recently on the subject of pseudotumors surrounding metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and replacement prostheses. These pseudotumors are sterile, inflammatory lesions within the periprosthetic tissues and have been variously termed masses, cysts, bursae, collections, or aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL). The prevalence of pseudotumors in patients with a well-functioning metal-on-metal hip prosthesis is not well known. The purpose of this study was to quantify the prevalence of pseudotumors adjacent to well-functioning and painful metal-on-metal hip prostheses, to characterize these lesions with use of magnetic resonance imaging, and to assess the relationship between their presence and acetabular cup position with use of three-dimensional computed tomography.

Methods: We performed a case-control study to compare the magnetic resonance imaging findings of patients with a well-functioning unilateral metal-on-metal hip prosthesis and patients with a painful prosthesis (defined by either revision arthroplasty performed because of unexplained pain or an Oxford hip score of <30 of 48 possible points). Thirty patients with a painful hip prosthesis and twenty-eight controls with a well-functioning prosthesis were recruited consecutively. All patients also underwent computed tomography to assess the position of the acetabular component.

Results: Thirty-four patients were diagnosed with a pseudotumor. However, the prevalence of pseudotumors in patients with a painful hip (seventeen of thirty, 57%) was not significantly different from the prevalence in the control group (seventeen of twenty-eight, 61%). No objective differences in pseudotumor characteristics between the groups were identified. No clear association between the presence of a pseudotumor and acetabular component position was identified. The Oxford hip score in the group with a painful hip (mean, 20.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.7 to 45.8) was poorer than that in the control group (mean, 41.2; 95% CI, 18.5 to 45.8; p ≤ 0.0001).

Conclusions: A periprosthetic cystic pseudotumor was diagnosed commonly (in thirty-four [59%] of the entire study cohort) with use of metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) magnetic resonance imaging in this series of patients with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis. The prevalence of pseudotumors was similar in patients with a well-functioning hip prosthesis and patients with a painful hip. Pseudotumors were also diagnosed commonly in patients with a well-positioned acetabular component. Although magnetic resonance imaging is useful for surgical planning, the presence of a cystic pseudotumor may not necessarily indicate the need for revision arthroplasty. Further correlation of clinical and imaging data is needed to determine the natural history of pseudotumors to guide clinical practice.
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February 2012

The postoperative patellofemoral joint: expected radiological appearances and complications.

Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2006 Mar-Apr;35(2):55-64

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kings College Hospital NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.

The following learning objectives will be covered in this article: (1) To briefly review the range of surgical options for patellofemoral joint disorders; and (2) to recognize the expected appearances and complications of the postoperative patellofemoral joint on conventional radiography and cross sectional imaging.
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July 2006

An audit of pain/discomfort experienced during image-guided breast biopsy procedures.

Breast J 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):398-402

Department of Breast Radiology, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

A prospective audit of 221 breast biopsies was carried out to assess the pain/discomfort experienced during image-guided breast biopsies. The only significant factor in pain scores was the size of the needle used. Fine-needle aspiration cytology using a 21-gauge needle was found to cause the most discomfort.
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December 2005

High-frequency color Doppler ultrasonography of the spermatic cord arteries: resistive index variation in a cohort of 51 healthy men.

J Ultrasound Med 2005 Jul;24(7):905-9

Department of Radiology, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, England.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of Doppler ultrasonographic measurements of spermatic cord arteries in a cohort of healthy men.

Methods: The spermatic cord arteries of 51 men were interrogated with color Doppler ultrasonography. The resistive index (RI) of each artery was measured for the entire cohort; peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity values were obtained in a smaller subgroup (n = 31). The artery with the lowest RI was labeled A; the other 2 arteries were identified as B and C.

Results: Three separate arteries were identified within the spermatic cord in all individuals. The median RI values for arteries A, B, and C were 0.70 (range, 0.48-0.82), 0.84 (0.67-0.90), and 0.84 (0.72-0.92), respectively. One-way analysis of variance showed a significant difference between the mean RIs of arteries A and B (P < .0001) and arteries A and artery C (P < .0001) but not between B and C (P = .49). Peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity values differed significantly between arteries A and B (P < .0001) and arteries A and C (P < .0001) but not between B and C (P = .31). No age effect was shown for the RI measurements of the cohort.

Conclusions: Color Doppler ultrasonography enables the objective quantification of Doppler measurements of arteries within the spermatic cord. Knowledge of the normal range of Doppler measurements for spermatic cord arteries that supply the testes may be a useful adjunct to the assessment of the testes.
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July 2005