Publications by authors named "Kerstin Wissel"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) Coverage Heterogeneities on the Changing Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Switzerland, 2005-2019.

Microorganisms 2021 May 18;9(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have lowered the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) worldwide. However, the influence of regional vaccine uptake differences on the changing epidemiology of IPD remains unclear. We aimed to examine the overall impact of both seven- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV7 and PCV13) on IPD in Switzerland. Three-year periods from 2005-2010 and 2011-2019 were considered, respectively, as (early and late) PCV7 eras and (early, mid and late) PCV13 eras. Vaccine coverage was estimated from a nationwide survey according to east (German-speaking) and west (French/Italian-speaking) regions for each period. Reported incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were compared between successive periods and regions using nationwide IPD surveillance data. Overall IPD incidence across all ages was only 16% lower in the late PCV13 era compared to the early PCV7 era (IRR 0.83, 95% CI 0.79-0.88), due to increasing incidence of non-PCV-type IPD (2.59, 2.37-2.83) in all age groups, except children <5 years. PCV uptake rates in swiss children were slightly higher in the west than the east ( < 0.001), and were accompanied by lower IPD incidences across all age groups in the former region. Post-PCV13, non-PCV serotypes 8, 22F and 9N were the major cause of IPD in adults ≥65 years. Increased PCV coverage in both areas of Switzerland resulted in a decrease in vaccine-type and overall IPD incidence across all age groups, in a regionally dependent manner. However, the rising incidence of non-vaccine-type IPD, exclusive to older adults, may undermine indirect beneficial effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157260PMC
May 2021

Analysis of inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study reveals gender inequity.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 02;76(3):758-764

University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: The extent of inappropriate prescribing observed in geriatric medicine has not been thoroughly evaluated in people ageing with HIV. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for inappropriate prescribing in individuals aged ≥75 years enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

Methods: Retrospective review of medical records was performed to gain more insights into non-HIV comorbidities. Inappropriate prescribing was screened using the Beers criteria, the STOPP/START criteria and the Liverpool drug-drug interactions (DDIs) database.

Results: For 175 included individuals, the median age was 78 years (IQR 76-81) and 71% were male. The median number of non-HIV comorbidities was 7 (IQR 5-10). The prevalence of polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing was 66% and 67%, respectively. Overall, 40% of prescribing issues could have deleterious consequences. Prescribing issues occurred mainly with non-HIV drugs and included: incorrect dosage (26%); lack of indication (21%); prescription omission (drug not prescribed although indicated) (17%); drug not appropriate in elderly individuals (18%) and deleterious DDIs (17%). In the multivariable logistic regression, risk factors for prescribing issues were polypharmacy (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.7), renal impairment (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.1), treatment with CNS-active drugs (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.8) and female sex (OR: 8.3; 95% CI: 2.4-28.1).

Conclusions: Polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing are highly prevalent in elderly people living with HIV. Women are at higher risk than men, partly explained by sex differences in the occurrence of non-HIV comorbidities and medical care. Medication reconciliation and periodic review of prescriptions by experienced physicians could help reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in this vulnerable, growing population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkaa505DOI Listing
February 2021

Telomere Length, Traditional Risk Factors, HIV-related Factors and Coronary Artery Disease Events in Swiss Persons Living with HIV.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 29. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

University Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases Service, Kantonsspital Baselland, University of Basel, Bruderholz, Switzerland.

Background: Leukocyte telomere length (TL) shortens with age and is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) events in the general population. Persons living with HIV (PLWH) may have accelerated atherosclerosis and shorter TL than the general population. It is unknown whether TL is associated with CAD in PLWH.

Methods: We measured TL by quantitative PCR in white Swiss HIV Cohort Study participants. Cases had a first CAD event during 01.01.2000-31.12.2017. We matched 1-3 PLWH controls without CAD events on sex, age, and observation time. We obtained univariable and multivariable odds ratios (OR) for CAD from conditional logistic regression analyses.

Results: We included 333 cases (median age 54 years; 14% women; 83% with suppressed HIV RNA) and 745 controls. Median time (interquartile range) of TL measurement was 9.4 (5.9-13.8) years prior to CAD event. Compared to the 1st (shortest) TL quintile, participants in the 5th (longest) TL quintile had univariable and multivariable CAD event OR=0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.91) and OR=0.54 (0.31-0.96). Multivariable OR for current smoking was 1.93 (1.27-2.92), dyslipidemia OR=1.92 (1.41-2.63), and for recent abacavir, cumulative lopinavir, indinavir, and darunavir exposure was OR=1.82 (1.27-2.59), OR=2.02 (1.34-3.04), OR=3.42 (2.14-5.45), and OR=1.66 (1.00-2.74), respectively. The TL-CAD association remained significant when adjusting only for Framingham risk score, when excluding TL outliers, and when adjusting for CMV-seropositivity, HCV-seropositivity, time spent with detectable HIV viremia, and injection drug use.

Conclusion: In PLWH, TL measured >9 years before, is independently associated with CAD events after adjusting for multiple traditional and HIV-related factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1034DOI Listing
July 2020

Topochemical Fluorination of = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper Type SrTiO to SrTiOF and Its Reductive Defluorination.

Inorg Chem 2020 Jan 27;59(2):1153-1163. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Technische Universität Darmstadt , Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Fachgebiet Materialdesign durch Synthese , Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2 , 64287 Darmstadt , Germany.

Within this study, we show that a sequence of substitutive topochemical fluorination of the = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper type compounds SrTiO to SrTiOF followed by reductive topochemical defluorination reactions between the oxyfluoride and the reducing agent sodium hydride allows for a substantial reduction of the oxidation state of Ti due to selective extraction and hydride substitution of fluoride ions. The oxyfluoride SrTiOF has been synthesized and characterized structurally for the first time. The defluorination experiments have been conducted at temperatures as low as 300 °C, enabling also the reduction of this metastable compound. The evolution of phase fractions and unit cell volumes of various reduced phases as well as of side products has been monitored by an X-ray diffraction study as a function of the amount of sodium hydride used. Strong structural changes within the reduced phases, involving considerable decreases in the lattice parameters partly accompanied by symmetry, lowering have been observed. To gain a deeper understanding of the structural changes, selected reduction reaction products have been further investigated by coupled analysis of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. Moreover, changes in the oxidation state of Ti have been studied using magnetic measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy examining differences between the bulk and the surface properties. Additionally, similarities and differences between previously published results on the topochemical defluorination of the = 1 Ruddlesden-Popper type compound SrTiOF are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b02783DOI Listing
January 2020

Synthesis, structure and electrical conductivity of a new perovskite type barium cobaltate BaCoO(OH).

Dalton Trans 2018 Aug;47(32):11136-11145

Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Fachgebiet Materialdesign durch Synthese, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

Perovskite oxides exhibiting mixed protonic and electronic conductivities have interesting applications in protonic ceramic fuel cells. In this work, we report on a hydrated phase of BaCoO1.80(OH)0.86 synthesized using nebulized spray pyrolysis. Structural analysis based on X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data showed that the compound is isotypic to BaFeO2.33(OH)0.33. The water loss behaviour was studied using simultaneous thermal analysis and high temperature X-ray diffraction, indicating that protons (respectively water) can be stabilized within the compound up to temperatures significantly above 673 K, confirmed by ex situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies. Impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the conductivity characteristics of BaCoO1.80(OH)0.86, finding and a total electrical conductivity in the order of 10-4 S cm-1 at ambient temperature with an activation energy of 0.28 eV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8dt01326hDOI Listing
August 2018

Topochemical Fluorination of LaNiO: Unprecedented Ordering of Oxide and Fluoride Ions in LaNiOF.

Inorg Chem 2018 Jun 11;57(11):6549-6560. Epub 2018 May 11.

School of Chemistry , University of Birmingham , Birmingham B15 2TT , United Kingdom.

The Ruddlesden-Popper (KNiF) type phase LaNiOF was prepared via a polymer-based fluorination of LaNiO. The compound was found to crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cccm ( a = 12.8350(4) Å, b = 5.7935(2) Å, c = 5.4864(2) Å). This structural distortion results from an ordered half occupation of the interstitial anion layers and has not been observed previously for KNiF-type oxyfluoride compounds. From a combination of neutron and X-ray powder diffraction and F magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, it was found that the fluoride ions are only located on the apical anion sites, whereas the oxide ions are located on the interstitial sites. This ordering results in a weakening of the magnetic Ni-F-F-Ni superexchange interactions between the perovskite layers and a reduction of the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature to 49 K. Below 30 K, a small ferromagnetic component was found, which may be the result of a magnetic canting within the antiferromagnetic arrangement and will be the subject of a future low-temperature neutron diffraction study. Additionally, density functional theory-based calculations were performed to further investigate different anion ordering scenarios.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b00661DOI Listing
June 2018

Fractalkine promotes platelet activation and vascular dysfunction in congestive heart failure.

Thromb Haemost 2014 Apr 12;111(4):725-35. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Prof. Dr. Andreas Schäfer, Klinik für Kardiologie und Angiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany, Tel.: +49 511 532 5240, Fax: +49 511 532 8244, E-mail:

Unlabelled: Endothelial dysfunction and enhanced platelet reactivity in congestive heart failure (CHF) contribute to poor prognosis. CHF patients display an impaired responsiveness to clopidogrel. Fractalkine activates platelets and elevated plasma levels of this chemokine are a feature of CHF. We here addressed the interrelation of fractalkine, platelet reactivity and clopidogrel efficacy in humans and rats with CHF. Fractalkine serum levels determined by ELISA were increased in CHF patients (CHF: 1548 ± 650 pg/ml;

Control: 968 ± 575 pg/ml, p<0.01) and following CHF induction in rats (CHF: 1509 ± 753 pg/ml; Sham: 1181 ± 275 pg/ml, p<0.05). Expression of fractalkine and its receptor CX3CR1 was enhanced in aortas of CHF rats as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and molecular analysis. Fractalkine significantly aggravated endothelial dysfunction and augmented P-selectin expression on platelets from CHF rats. Platelet surface expression of CX3CR1 was increased in CHF rats, who displayed an impaired response to clopidogrel (platelet reactivity to ADP: CHF 30 ± 22%; Sham: 8 ± 5%, p<0.05). Similarly in humans with CHF, elevated fractalkine levels were accompanied by reduced clopidogrel responsiveness. Patients with high on-clopidogrel treatment platelet P2Y12 reactivity displayed higher fractalkine levels (1525 ± 487 pg/ml) than those with sufficient clopidogrel response (684 ± 315 pg/ml, p<0.01). In conclusion, in CHF fractalkine was increased on the endothelium and in blood serum, and platelet surface-expression of CX3CR1 was enhanced. Fractalkine diminished endothelial function beyond the impairment already observed in CHF and was associated with a reduced responsiveness to the platelet inhibitor clopidogrel. These findings may indicate a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to impaired clopidogrel responsiveness in CHF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH13-08-0640DOI Listing
April 2014
-->