Publications by authors named "Kerstin Gries"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of MLH2/hPMS1 dominant mutations that prevent DNA mismatch repair function.

Commun Biol 2020 12 10;3(1):751. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

DNA Repair Mechanisms and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, 69120, Germany.

Inactivating mutations affecting key mismatch repair (MMR) components lead to microsatellite instability (MSI) and cancer. However, a number of patients with MSI-tumors do not present alterations in classical MMR genes. Here we discovered that specific missense mutations in the MutL homolog MLH2, which is dispensable for MMR, confer a dominant mutator phenotype in S. cerevisiae. MLH2 mutations elevated frameshift mutation rates, and caused accumulation of long-lasting nuclear MMR foci. Both aspects of this phenotype were suppressed by mutations predicted to prevent the binding of Mlh2 to DNA. Genetic analysis revealed that mlh2 dominant mutations interfere with both Exonuclease 1 (Exo1)-dependent and Exo1-independent MMR. Lastly, we demonstrate that a homolog mutation in human hPMS1 results in a dominant mutator phenotype. Our data support a model in which yeast Mlh1-Mlh2 or hMLH1-hPMS1 mutant complexes act as roadblocks on DNA preventing MMR, unraveling a novel mechanism that can account for MSI in human cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01481-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730388PMC
December 2020

A genetic screen pinpoints ribonucleotide reductase residues that sustain dNTP homeostasis and specifies a highly mutagenic type of dNTP imbalance.

Nucleic Acids Res 2019 01;47(1):237-252

DNA Repair Mechanisms and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg D-69120, Germany.

The balance and the overall concentration of intracellular deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are important determinants of faithful DNA replication. Despite the established fact that changes in dNTP pools negatively influence DNA replication fidelity, it is not clear why certain dNTP pool alterations are more mutagenic than others. As intracellular dNTP pools are mainly controlled by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), and given the limited number of eukaryotic RNR mutations characterized so far, we screened for RNR1 mutations causing mutator phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 24 rnr1 mutant alleles resulting in diverse mutator phenotypes linked in most cases to imbalanced dNTPs. Among the identified rnr1 alleles the strongest mutators presented a dNTP imbalance in which three out of the four dNTPs were elevated (dCTP, dTTP and dGTP), particularly if dGTP levels were highly increased. These rnr1 alleles caused growth defects/lethality in DNA replication fidelity-compromised backgrounds, and caused strong mutator phenotypes even in the presence of functional DNA polymerases and mismatch repair. In summary, this study pinpoints key residues that contribute to allosteric regulation of RNR's overall activity or substrate specificity. We propose a model that distinguishes between different dNTP pool alterations and provides a mechanistic explanation why certain dNTP imbalances are particularly detrimental.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky1154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326808PMC
January 2019

Alterations in cellular metabolism triggered by or inactivation cause imbalanced dNTP pools and increased mutagenesis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 05 17;114(22):E4442-E4451. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany;

Eukaryotic DNA replication fidelity relies on the concerted action of DNA polymerase nucleotide selectivity, proofreading activity, and DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Nucleotide selectivity and proofreading are affected by the balance and concentration of deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pools, which are strictly regulated by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). Mutations preventing DNA polymerase proofreading activity or MMR function cause mutator phenotypes and consequently increased cancer susceptibility. To identify genes not previously linked to high-fidelity DNA replication, we conducted a genome-wide screen in using DNA polymerase active-site mutants as a "sensitized mutator background." Among the genes identified in our screen, three metabolism-related genes (, , and ) have not been previously associated to the suppression of mutations. Loss of either the transcription factor Gln3 or inactivation of the CTP synthetase Ura7 both resulted in the activation of the DNA damage response and imbalanced dNTP pools. Importantly, these dNTP imbalances are strongly mutagenic in genetic backgrounds where DNA polymerase function or MMR activity is partially compromised. Previous reports have shown that dNTP pool imbalances can be caused by mutations altering the allosteric regulation of enzymes involved in dNTP biosynthesis (e.g., RNR or dCMP deaminase). Here, we provide evidence that mutations affecting genes involved in RNR substrate production can cause dNTP imbalances, which cannot be compensated by RNR or other enzymatic activities. Moreover, Gln3 inactivation links nutrient deprivation to increased mutagenesis. Our results suggest that similar genetic interactions could drive mutator phenotypes in cancer cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1618714114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465912PMC
May 2017

Mlh2 is an accessory factor for DNA mismatch repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

PLoS Genet 2014 May 8;10(5):e1004327. Epub 2014 May 8.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America; Moores-UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America; Department of Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential mismatch repair (MMR) endonuclease Mlh1-Pms1 forms foci promoted by Msh2-Msh6 or Msh2-Msh3 in response to mispaired bases. Here we analyzed the Mlh1-Mlh2 complex, whose role in MMR has been unclear. Mlh1-Mlh2 formed foci that often colocalized with and had a longer lifetime than Mlh1-Pms1 foci. Mlh1-Mlh2 foci were similar to Mlh1-Pms1 foci: they required mispair recognition by Msh2-Msh6, increased in response to increased mispairs or downstream defects in MMR, and formed after induction of DNA damage by phleomycin but not double-stranded breaks by I-SceI. Mlh1-Mlh2 could be recruited to mispair-containing DNA in vitro by either Msh2-Msh6 or Msh2-Msh3. Deletion of MLH2 caused a synergistic increase in mutation rate in combination with deletion of MSH6 or reduced expression of Pms1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the S. cerevisiae Mlh2 protein and the mammalian PMS1 protein are homologs. These results support a hypothesis that Mlh1-Mlh2 is a non-essential accessory factor that acts to enhance the activity of Mlh1-Pms1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014439PMC
May 2014
-->