Publications by authors named "Kerry Kinney"

45 Publications

Development of a reproducible method for monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 3;799:149405. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 301 E. Dean Keeton St., Stop C1786, Austin, TX 78712, United States of America. Electronic address:

Monitoring the genetic signal of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through RNA titers in wastewater has emerged as a promising strategy for tracking community-scale prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although many studies of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater have been conducted around the world, a uniform procedure for concentrating the virus in wastewater is lacking. The goal of this study was to comprehensively evaluate how different methods for concentrating the suspended solids in wastewater affect the associated SARS-CoV-2 RNA signal and the time required for processing samples for wastewater-based epidemiology efforts. We additionally consider the effects of sampling location in the wastewater treatment train (i.e., following preliminary or primary treatment), pasteurization, and RNA extraction method. Comparison of the liquid phase to suspended solids obtained via centrifugation or vacuum filtration suggests that the RNA signal of SARS-CoV-2 preferentially occurs in the solids. Therefore, we assert that the recovery of SARS-CoV-2 from wastewater should focus on suspended solids. Our data indicate that the measured SARS-CoV-2 signal is higher among samples taken from the primary clarifier effluent, as opposed to those taken after preliminary treatment. Additionally, we provide evidence that sample pasteurization at 60 °C for 90 min reduces the SARS-CoV-2 signal by approximately 50-55%. Finally, the results indicate that a magnetic bead approach to RNA extraction leads to a higher SARS-CoV-2 signal than does a silica membrane approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328530PMC
August 2021

Predicting pain among female survivors of recent interpersonal violence: A proof-of-concept machine-learning approach.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0255277. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America.

Interpersonal violence (IPV) is highly prevalent in the United States and is a major public health problem. The emergence and/or worsening of chronic pain are known sequelae of IPV; however, not all those who experience IPV develop chronic pain. To mitigate its development, it is critical to identify the factors that are associated with increased risk of pain after IPV. This proof-of-concept study used machine-learning strategies to predict pain severity and interference in 47 young women, ages 18 to 30, who experienced an incident of IPV (i.e., physical and/or sexual assault) within three months of their baseline assessment. Young women are more likely than men to experience IPV and to subsequently develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain. Women completed a comprehensive assessment of theory-driven cognitive and neurobiological predictors of pain severity and pain-related interference (e.g., pain, coping, disability, psychiatric diagnosis/symptoms, PTSD/trauma, executive function, neuroendocrine, and physiological stress response). Gradient boosting machine models were used to predict symptoms of pain severity and pain-related interference across time (Baseline, 1-,3-,6- follow-up assessments). Models showed excellent predictive performance for pain severity and adequate predictive performance for pain-related interference. This proof-of-concept study suggests that machine-learning approaches are a useful tool for identifying predictors of pain development in survivors of recent IPV. Baseline measures of pain, family life impairment, neuropsychological function, and trauma history were of greatest importance in predicting pain and pain-related interference across a 6-month follow-up period. Present findings support the use of machine-learning techniques in larger studies of post-IPV pain development and highlight theory-driven predictors that could inform the development of targeted early intervention programs. However, these results should be replicated in a larger dataset with lower levels of missing data.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255277PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320990PMC
July 2021

Neural mechanisms and predictors of SSRI and CBT treatment of anxiety: A randomized trial focused on emotion and cognitive processing.

J Anxiety Disord 2021 Aug 10;82:102449. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Anxiety disorders (ADs) are common and difficult to treat. While research suggests ADs are characterized by an imbalance between bottom-up and top-down attention processes and that effective treatments work by correcting this dysfunction, there is insufficient data to explain how and for whom treatments work. The late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential reflecting elaborative processing of motivationally salient stimuli, is sensitive to both bottom-up and top-down processes. The present study examines the LPP in healthy controls (HC) and patients with ADs under low and high working memory (WM) load to assess its utility as a predictor and index of symptom reduction in patients who underwent cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. The LPP when viewing negative and neutral distractor images and WM performance were assessed in 96 participants (40 HC, 32 CBT, 24 SSRI) during a letter recall task at Week 0 and in a subset of the study sample (23 CBT, 16 SSRI) at Week 12. Patients were randomly assigned to twelve weeks of CBT or SSRI treatment. Participants completed self-reported symptom measures at each time point. Greater Week 0 LPP to negative images under low WM load predicted greater symptom reduction in the SSRI, but not the CBT, group. Regression analyses examining the LPP to negative images as an index of symptom reduction revealed a smaller decrease in the LPP to negative images under low WM load was associated with less anxiety reduction across treatment modalities. Findings suggest the LPP during low WM load may serve as a cost-effective predictor and index of treatment outcome in ADs. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01903447).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2021.102449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364887PMC
August 2021

Multi-modal data collection for measuring health, behavior, and living environment of large-scale participant cohorts.

Gigascience 2021 Jun;10(6)

Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 301 E Dean Keeton St, Austin, Texas, 78712, USA.

Background: As mobile technologies become ever more sensor-rich, portable, and ubiquitous, data captured by smart devices are lending rich insights into users' daily lives with unprecedented comprehensiveness and ecological validity. A number of human-subject studies have been conducted to examine the use of mobile sensing to uncover individual behavioral patterns and health outcomes, yet minimal attention has been placed on measuring living environments together with other human-centered sensing data. Moreover, the participant sample size in most existing studies falls well below a few hundred, leaving questions open about the reliability of findings on the relations between mobile sensing signals and human outcomes.

Results: To address these limitations, we developed a home environment sensor kit for continuous indoor air quality tracking and deployed it in conjunction with smartphones, Fitbits, and ecological momentary assessments in a cohort study of up to 1,584 college student participants per data type for 3 weeks. We propose a conceptual framework that systematically organizes human-centric data modalities by their temporal coverage and spatial freedom. Then we report our study procedure, technologies and methods deployed, and descriptive statistics of the collected data that reflect the participants' mood, sleep, behavior, and living environment.

Conclusions: We were able to collect from a large participant cohort satisfactorily complete multi-modal sensing and survey data in terms of both data continuity and participant adherence. Our novel data and conceptual development provide important guidance for data collection and hypothesis generation in future human-centered sensing studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giab044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216865PMC
June 2021

Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 RNA signal in a home with COVID-19 positive occupants.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 9;778:146201. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Although many COVID-19 patients isolate and recover at home, the dispersal of SARS-CoV-2 onto surfaces and dust within the home environment remains poorly understood. To investigate the distribution and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in a home with COVID-19 positive occupants, samples were collected from a household with two confirmed COVID-19 cases (one adult and one child). Home surface swab and dust samples were collected two months after symptom onset (and one month after symptom resolution) in the household. The strength of the SARS-CoV-2 molecular signal in fomites varied as a function of sample location, surface material and cleaning practices. Notably, the SARS-CoV-2 RNA signal was detected at several locations throughout the household although cleaning appears to have attenuated the signal on many surfaces. Of the 24 surfaces sampled, 46% were SARS-CoV-2 positive at the time of sampling. The SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in dust recovered from floor and HVAC filter samples ranged from 10 to 10 N2 gene copies/g dust. While detection of viral RNA does not imply infectivity, this study confirms that the SARS-CoV-2 RNA signal can be detected at several locations within a COVID-19 isolation home and can persist after symptoms have resolved. In addition, the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 (normalized per unit mass of dust) recovered in home HVAC filters may prove useful for estimating SARS-CoV-2 airborne levels in homes. In this work, using the quantitative filter forensics methodology, we estimated an average integrated airborne SARS-CoV-2 concentration of 69 ± 43 copies/m. This approach can be used to help building scientists and engineers develop best practices in homes with COVID-19 positive occupants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7942153PMC
July 2021

Individual differences in striatal and amygdala response to emotional faces are related to symptom severity in social anxiety disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 8;30:102615. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Psychiatry (NAC, FC, KLK, HK), University of Illinois at Chicago, 1601 W. Taylor St (M/C 912), Chicago, IL 60612, United States; Department of Psychology (FC, KLK, HK), University of Illinois at Chicago, 1007 W. Harrison St (M/C 285), Chicago, IL 60607, United States.

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common heterogeneous disorder characterized by excessive fear and deficient positive experiences. Case-control emotion processing studies indicate that altered amygdala and striatum function may underlie SAD; however, links between these regions and symptomatology have yet to be established. Therefore, in the current study, 80 individuals diagnosed with SAD completed a validated emotion processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomy-based regions of interest were amygdala, caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. Neural activity in response to angry > happy faces and fearful > happy faces in these regions were submitted to multiple linear regression analysis with bootstrapping. Additionally, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore clinical features of SAD. Results showed greater putamen activity and less amygdala activity in response to angry > happy faces were related to greater social anxiety severity. In the model consisting of caudate and amygdala activity in response to angry > happy faces, results were marginally related to social anxiety severity and the pattern of activity was similar to the regression model comprising putamen and amygdala. Nucleus accumbens activity was not related to social anxiety severity. There was no correspondence between brain activity in response to fearful > happy faces and social anxiety severity. Clinical variables revealed greater levels of anhedonia and general anxiety were related to social anxiety severity, however, neural activity was not related to these features of SAD. Neuroimaging findings suggest that variance in dorsal striatal and amygdala activity in response to certain social signals of threat contrasted with an approach/rewarding social signal may contribute to individual differences in SAD. Clinical findings indicate variance in anhedonia and general anxiety symptoms may contribute to individual differences in social anxiety severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985697PMC
July 2021

Supersaturated-oxygen aeration effects on a high-loaded membrane bioreactor (HL-MBR): Biological performance and microbial population dynamics.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 19;771:144847. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Water Supply, Sanitation and Environmental Engineering, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611AX Delft, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Conventional diffused aeration systems (such as fine-bubble diffusers) exhibit a poor oxygen transfer in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), particularly when operating at sludge concentrations higher than 15 g L. The supersaturated dissolved oxygen (SDOX) system has been proposed as an alternative for supplying dissolved oxygen (DO) at high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations. The advantages introduced by such technology include the possibility of operating WWTPs at much higher than usual MLSS concentrations, increasing the treatment capacity of WWTPs. Recent studies have demonstrated that the SDOX system has higher oxygen transfer rates (OTRs) and oxygen transfer efficiencies (OTEs) relative to fine-bubble diffusers. However, it is unknown if the high-pressure conditions introduced by SDOX may possibly impact the biological performance of WWTPs. In this study, the effects of SDOX technology on the biological performance of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) were evaluated. The MBR was operated at an MLSS concentration of approximately 15 g L in four phases as follows: (P1) with bubble diffusers, (P2) with an SDOX unit, (P3) with the bubble diffusers, and (P4) with the SDOX unit. The performance of the MBR was assessed by monitoring the sludge concentration, as well as changes in the particle size distribution (PSD), sludge activity, organic matter removal and nitrification performance, and changes in the microbial community within the MBR. The operational conditions exerted by the SDOX technology did not affect the concentration of active biomass during the study period. The biological performance of the MBR was not affected by the introduction of the SDOX technology. Finally, the microbial community was relatively stable although some variations at the family and genus level were evident during each of the study phases. Therefore, the SDOX system can be proposed as an alternative technology for DO supply in WWTPs increasing the overall treatment capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144847DOI Listing
June 2021

An examination of the microbial community and occurrence of potential human pathogens in rainwater harvested from different roofing materials.

Water Res 2019 Aug 14;159:406-413. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712, USA.

While harvested rainwater can serve as an alternative water supply, microbial contaminants within the collection system can negatively affect water quality. Here, we investigated the impact of roofing material on the microbial quality of rainwater freshly harvested from pilot-scale roofs (concrete tile, cool, green, Galvalume metal, and asphalt fiberglass shingle). The microbial quality of freshly harvested rainwater from six rain events over two years was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The concentrations of total coliform were significantly different among rainwaters harvested from the various roofing materials (p-value >0.05). However, the fecal coliform concentrations and the copy numbers of Enterococcus 23S rRNA genes and total Bacteria 16S rRNA genes did not vary by type of roofing material in a statistically significant way. Potential human pathogens such as Legionella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and adenovirus were detected at least once in rainwater harvested from the different roofing materials, even though the lowest occurrence of those potential human pathogens was noted from the metal roof. Also, substantial variation in the microbial communities from the different roofing materials was observed at the family and genus levels. These results demonstrate that the type of roofing material affects the microbial quality of freshly harvested rainwater, indicating that the choice of roofing material could shape the microbial community structure entering a rainwater storage tank. Given that detection of potential pathogens in the freshly harvested rainwater also differed between roofing materials, the type of roofing used to capture rainwater needs to be considered in rainwater harvesting system design, particularly if the water is intended for potable use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.05.029DOI Listing
August 2019

Longitudinal homogenization of the microbiome between both occupants and the built environment in a cohort of United States Air Force Cadets.

Microbiome 2019 05 2;7(1):70. Epub 2019 May 2.

Veterans Health Administration, Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), Denver, CO, 80220, USA.

Background: The microbiome of the built environment has important implications for human health and wellbeing; however, bidirectional exchange of microbes between occupants and surfaces can be confounded by lifestyle, architecture, and external environmental exposures. Here, we present a longitudinal study of United States Air Force Academy cadets (n = 34), which have substantial homogeneity in lifestyle, diet, and age, all factors that influence the human microbiome. We characterized bacterial communities associated with (1) skin and gut samples from roommate pairs, (2) four built environment sample locations inside the pairs' dormitory rooms, (3) four built environment sample locations within shared spaces in the dormitory, and (4) room-matched outdoor samples from the window ledge of their rooms.

Results: We analyzed 2,170 samples, which generated 21,866 unique amplicon sequence variants. Linear convergence of microbial composition and structure was observed between an occupants' skin and the dormitory surfaces that were only used by that occupant (i.e., desk). Conversely, bacterial community beta diversity (weighted Unifrac) convergence between the skin of both roommates and the shared dormitory floor between the two cadet's beds was not seen across the entire study population. The sampling period included two semester breaks in which the occupants vacated their rooms; upon their return, the beta diversity similarity between their skin and the surfaces had significantly decreased compared to before the break (p < 0.05). There was no apparent convergence between the gut and building microbiota, with the exception of communal bathroom door-handles, which suggests that neither co-occupancy, diet, or lifestyle homogenization had a significant impact on gut microbiome similarity between these cadets over the observed time frame. As a result, predictive classifier models were able to identify an individual more accurately based on the gut microbiota (74%) compared to skin (51%).

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show an increase in skin microbial similarity of two individuals who start living together for the first time and who are not genetically related or romantically involved. Cohabitation was significantly associated with increased skin microbiota similarity but did not significantly influence the gut microbiota. Following a departure from the occupied space of several weeks, the skin microbiota, but not the gut microbiota, showed a significant reduction in similarity relative to the building. Overall, longitudinal observation of these dynamics enables us to dissect the influence of occupation, diet, and lifestyle factors on occupant and built environment microbial ecology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0686-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6498636PMC
May 2019

Laccase removal of 2-chlorophenol and sulfamethoxazole in municipal wastewater.

Water Environ Res 2019 Apr 25;91(4):281-291. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, Texas.

Laccases were studied for their ability to remove two compounds, 2-chlorophenol and sulfamethoxazole, in batch studies, both in buffered solutions and in wastewater samples from different points in a municipal water resource recovery facility. Two enzymes with and without a mediator (acetosyringone) were investigated: a commercial product derived from Myceliphthora thermophile and a laboratory-generated enzyme mix derived from Tramates versicolor. The chlorophenol was removed rapidly by the commercial enzyme in the presence of acetosyringone, but the primary products were coupling complexes of the reactants. Excellent removal was achieved without acetosyringone by the natural enzyme mix. Sulfamethoxazole was poorly removed in all laboratory-generated chemically buffered solutions, but was very well removed, without the addition of mediators, in secondary effluent suspensions from a municipal water resource recovery facility. Mechanistic studies are still required, but the results suggest that treatment via direct addition of enzymes is feasible to remove recalcitrant compounds in municipal wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1006DOI Listing
April 2019

Self-report and neurophysiological indicators of emotion processing and regulation in social anxiety disorder.

Biol Psychol 2019 03 8;142:126-131. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States; Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) report less habitual reappraisal and more frequent suppression compared to healthy controls (HC). However, it is unclear whether a neurophysiological index of emotional reactivity, the late positive potential (LPP), is aberrant in SAD or whether self-reported reappraisal or suppression relates to the LPP during on-line emotion reactivity and reappraisal. Participants with SAD (n = 51) and HC (n = 31) completed an Emotion Regulation Task. Emotion reactivity and regulation were measured via LPP when viewing negative images ('Look Negative') and when using a cognitive strategy to reduce negative affect ('Reappraise Negative'). Participants also completed a self-report measure of habitual reappraisal and suppression. SAD participants displayed heightened LPP for 'Look Negative' compared to HC. However, LPP for online reappraisal was comparable between groups. Self-reported suppression predicted the LPP during 'Look Negative' in HC, and there was a trend-level relationship in SAD. LPP findings suggest targeted reappraisal approaches may benefit individuals with SAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2019.01.019DOI Listing
March 2019

Quantitative filter forensics with residential HVAC filters to assess indoor concentrations.

Indoor Air 2019 05 1;29(3):390-402. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Analysis of the dust from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters is a promising long-term sampling method to characterize airborne particle-bound contaminants. This filter forensics (FF) approach provides valuable insights about differences between buildings, but does not allow for an estimation of indoor concentrations. In this investigation, FF is extended to quantitative filter forensics (QFF) by using measurements of the volume of air that passes through the filter and the filter efficiency, to assess the integrated average airborne concentrations of total fungal and bacterial DNA, 36 fungal species, endotoxins, phthalates, and organophosphate esters (OPEs) based on dust extracted from HVAC filters. Filters were collected from 59 homes located in central Texas, USA, after 1 month of deployment in each summer and winter. Results showed considerable differences in the concentrations of airborne particle-bound contaminants in studied homes. The airborne concentrations for most of the analytes are comparable with those reported in the literature. In this sample of homes, the HVAC characterization measurements varied much less between homes than the variation in the filter dust concentration of each analyte, suggesting that even in the absence of HVAC data, FF can provide insight about concentration differences for homes with similar HVAC systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ina.12536DOI Listing
May 2019

The roles of early-life adversity and rumination in neural response to emotional faces amongst anxious and depressed adults.

Psychol Med 2019 10 13;49(13):2267-2278. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Psychiatry, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Early-life adversity (ELA) is a risk factor for internalizing psychopathology (IP). ELA is also linked to alterations in neural phenotypes of emotion processing and maladaptive emotion regulatory strategies, such as ruminative brooding, in adulthood. We therefore expected that ELA would predict cortical brain activation to emotional faces in transdiagnostic IP and in turn, mediate the extent of rumination amongst patients with IPs and ELA (IP + ELA).

Method: One hundred and thirty-two individuals, including 102 treatment-seeking adults with heterogeneous IPs and 30 healthy controls (HCs) performed an Emotional Face-Matching Task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Whole-brain analyses compared HC (n = 30), IP (n = 52), and IP + ELA (n = 50) neural responses to emotional (angry, fearful, happy, and sad) faces v. shapes, controlling for depression and anxiety symptoms. Parameter estimates of activation were extracted for significant between-group differences and tested as a mediator of ruminative brooding in IP + ELA.

Results: IP + ELA demonstrated increased activation in the superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (fear), superior parietal lobule, precuneus, posterior cingulate, and inferior temporal gyrus (fear only), and cuneus (fear and angry). These regions were preferentially correlated with ruminative brooding in IP + ELA, many of which mediated the link between IP + ELA and ruminative brooding.

Conclusions: Results provide evidence that ELA history amongst IP patients augments engagement of brain regions involved in emotion processing, above and beyond what is accounted for by current symptoms. Though longitudinal designs are needed, alterations in the neural correlates of maladaptive processing of socio-emotional information may be a common pathway by which ELA poses risk for psychopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718003203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6513724PMC
October 2019

Principal component analysis and brain-based predictors of emotion regulation in anxiety and depression.

Psychol Med 2019 10 25;49(14):2320-2329. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Psychology (JMF), University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: Reappraisal, an adaptive emotion regulation strategy, is associated with frontal engagement. In internalizing psychopathologies (IPs) such as anxiety and depression frontal activity is atypically reduced suggesting impaired regulation capacity. Yet, successful reappraisal is often demonstrated at the behavioral level. A data-driven approach was used to clarify brain and behavioral relationships in IPs.

Methods: During functional magnetic resonance imaging, anxious [general anxiety disorder (n = 43), social anxiety disorder (n = 72)] and depressed (n = 47) patients reappraised negative images to reduce negative affect ('ReappNeg') and viewed negative images ('LookNeg'). After each trial, the affective state was reported. A cut-point (i.e. values <0 based on ΔReappNeg-LookNeg) demarcated successful reappraisers. Neural activity for ReappNeg-LookNeg, derived from 37 regions of interest, was submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify unique components of reappraisal-related brain response. PCA factors, symptom severity, and self-reported habitual reappraisal were submitted to discriminant function analysis and linear regression to examine whether these data predicted successful reappraisal (yes/no) and variance in reappraisal ability.

Results: Most patients (63%) were successful reappraisers according to the behavioral criterion (values<0; ΔReappNeg-LookNeg). Discriminant function analysis was not significant for PCA factors, symptoms, or habitual reappraisal. For regression, more activation in a factor with high loadings for frontal regions predicted better reappraisal facility. Results were not significant for other variables.

Conclusions: At the individual level, more activation in a 'frontal' factor corresponded with better reappraisal facility. However, neither brain nor behavioral variables classified successful reappraisal (yes/no). Findings suggest individual differences in regions strongly implicated in reappraisal play a role in on-line reappraisal capability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718003148DOI Listing
October 2019

Phthalates and organophosphates in settled dust and HVAC filter dust of U.S. low-income homes: Association with season, building characteristics, and childhood asthma.

Environ Int 2018 12 20;121(Pt 1):916-930. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA; Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Phthalates and organophosphates are ubiquitous indoor semi-volatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) that have been widely used as plasticizers and flame retardants in consumer products. Although many studies have assessed their levels in house dust, only a few used dust samples captured by filters of building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. HVAC filters collect particles from large volumes of air over a long period of time (potentially known) and thus provide a spatially and temporally integrated concentration. This study measured concentrations of phthalates and organophosphates in HVAC filter dust and settled floor dust collected from low-income homes in Texas, United States, in both the summer and winter seasons. The most frequently detected compounds were benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The median level of TCIPP in settled dust was 3- to 180-times higher than levels reported in other studies of residential homes. Significantly higher concentrations were observed in HVAC filter dust as compared to settled dust for most of the frequently detected compounds in both seasons, except for several phthalates in the winter. SVOC concentrations in settled dust in winter were generally higher than in summer, while different seasonality patterns were found for HVAC filter dust. Settled dust samples from homes with vinyl flooring contained significantly higher levels of BBzP and DEHP as compared to homes with other types of floor material. The concentration of DEHP and TDCIPP in settled dust also significantly associated with the presence of carpet in homes. Cleaning activities to remove dust from furniture actually increased the levels of certain compounds in HVAC filter dust, while frequent vacuuming of carpet helped to decrease the concentrations of some compounds in settled dust. Additionally, the size and age of a given house also correlated with the levels of some pollutants in dust. A statistically significant association between DEHP concentration in HVAC filter dust in summer and the severity of asthma in children was observed. These results suggest that HVAC filter dust represents a useful sampling medium to monitor indoor SVOC concentrations with high sensitivity; in contrast, when using settled dust, in addition to consideration of seasonal influences, it is critical to know the sampling location because the type and level of SVOCs may be related to local materials used there.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.09.013DOI Listing
December 2018

Trait attentional control modulates neurofunctional response to threat distractors in anxiety and depression.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 07 27;102:87-95. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Mood and Anxiety Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States; Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States; Mental Health Service, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States.

Accumulating data suggest attentional control capability varies across psychiatric diagnostic boundaries. The Attentional Control Scale (ACS) assesses self-reported trait attentional control (TAC) and tracks the anterior attention system. Greater TAC is associated with less negative affect, however, its mechanisms in anxiety and depression are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined whether individual differences in TAC modulated top-down mechanisms in a clinical sample. During fMRI, 104 patients with social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and/or major depression and 34 healthy participants completed a validated attentional control paradigm comprising strings of letters superimposed on threatening and neutral face distractors. In the low perceptual load condition, a target letter was in a string of identical letters. In the high load condition, a target letter was in a mixed letter string. Whole-brain regression results for low load revealed more activation to threat (vs. neutral) distractors in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex was predicted by better TAC (i.e., higher ACS scores). For high load, regression results showed less activation to threat (vs. neutral) distractors in the inferior frontal gyrus was predicted by better TAC. An exploratory whole-brain ANOVA revealed a main effect of group in the superior temporal gyrus and a main effect of perceptual load in parietal, frontal, and limbic regions. No other effects were detected and activation derived from significant ANOVA results did not correlate with ACS scores. In conclusion, regression findings suggest individual differences in brain-behavioral ACS-related activity in frontal structures may be useful in identifying phenotypes in internalizing conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.03.011DOI Listing
July 2018

Distinct neural engagement during implicit and explicit regulation of negative stimuli.

Neuropsychologia 2020 08 8;145:106675. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Psychology, Chicago, IL, USA; University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Psychiatry, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Neuroimaging research has characterized underlying neural mechanisms of attentional control and cognitive reappraisal, common implicit and explicit forms of emotion regulation, respectively. This research suggests attentional control and reappraisal may engage similar midline and lateral areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); however, findings are largely based on separate studies. Therefore, the extent to which mechanisms of implicit versus explicit regulation are independent or overlapping is not clear. In the current study, 49 healthy participants completed well-validated implicit and explicit regulation tasks in the form of attentional control and cognitive reappraisal during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During implicit regulation, participants identified a target letter in a string of letters superimposed on threatening faces. To manipulate attentional control, the letter string either consisted of all targets ('Threat Low' perceptual load), or was embedded among non-target letters ('Threat High' perceptual load). During cognitive reappraisal, participants were shown aversive images and instructed to use a cognitive approach to down-regulate negative affect ('Reappraise') or to naturally experience emotions without altering them ('Look-Negative'). Order of administration of tasks was counterbalanced across participants. Whole-brain results regarding frontal activity showed ventromedial PFC/rostral anterior cingulate cortex was recruited during Threat Low > Threat High. In contrast, Reappraise > Look-Negative resulted in engagement of the dorsolateral PFC, ventrolateral PFC and dorsomedial PFC. In addition, results showed no relationship between accuracy during attentional control and self-reported negative affect during cognitive reappraisal. Results indicate attentional control in the context of threat distractors and the reappraisal of negative images are supported by discrete, non-overlapping neurocircuitries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086767PMC
August 2020

Filter forensics: microbiota recovery from residential HVAC filters.

Microbiome 2018 01 30;6(1):22. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Background: Establishing reliable methods for assessing the microbiome within the built environment is critical for understanding the impact of biological exposures on human health. High-throughput DNA sequencing of dust samples provides valuable insights into the microbiome present in human-occupied spaces. However, the effect that different sampling methods have on the microbial community recovered from dust samples is not well understood across sample types. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters hold promise as long-term, spatially integrated, high volume samplers to characterize the airborne microbiome in homes and other climate-controlled spaces. In this study, the effect that dust recovery method (i.e., cut and elution, swabbing, or vacuuming) has on the microbial community structure, membership, and repeatability inferred by Illumina sequencing was evaluated.

Results: The results indicate that vacuum samples captured higher quantities of total, bacterial, and fungal DNA than swab or cut samples. Repeated swab and vacuum samples collected from the same filter were less variable than cut samples with respect to both quantitative DNA recovery and bacterial community structure. Vacuum samples captured substantially greater bacterial diversity than the other methods, whereas fungal diversity was similar across all three methods. Vacuum and swab samples of HVAC filter dust were repeatable and generally superior to cut samples. Nevertheless, the contribution of environmental and human sources to the bacterial and fungal communities recovered via each sampling method was generally consistent across the methods investigated.

Conclusions: Dust recovery methodologies have been shown to affect the recovery, repeatability, structure, and membership of microbial communities recovered from dust samples in the built environment. The results of this study are directly applicable to indoor microbiota studies utilizing the filter forensics approach. More broadly, this study provides a better understanding of the microbial community variability attributable to sampling methodology and helps inform interpretation of data collected from other types of dust samples collected from indoor environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0407-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791358PMC
January 2018

Principal component analysis and neural predictors of emotion regulation.

Behav Brain Res 2018 02 20;338:128-133. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Psychology (JMF), University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Reappraisal, a cognitive approach intended to alter an emotional response, is generally associated with prefrontal cortical recruitment and decreased limbic activity. However, the extent to which neurofunctional activity predicts successful reappraisal is unclear. During fMRI, 60 healthy participants completed a reappraisal paradigm, which included reappraising negative images to reduce emotional reactivity ('ReappNeg') and viewing negative images and experiencing the negative affect they evoke ('LookNeg'). After each trial, participants rated their emotional response on a Likert-type scale where higher values indicated more negative affect. Reappraisal ability was based on a difference value (ΔReappNeg-LookNeg) such that negative values signified successful reappraisal ('SR'; n=38) and positive values, unsuccessful reappraisal ('USR'; n=22). Neural activity based on ReappNeg-LookNeg conditions from 37 regions of interest encompassing cortical and limbic areas was submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Resulting PCA factors were submitted to discriminant function analysis to evaluate which factor(s) predicted SR and USR groups. Results showed a factor with high loadings for certain frontal areas (e.g., left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) and limbic regions (e.g., bilateral amygdala) predicted 71.1% of cases in the SR group and 68.2% of cases in the USR group. Additionally, successful reappraisal corresponded with more activation in the factor with high loadings for frontal areas and less activity in the factor associated with limbic regions. Results are consistent with studies of individual differences where more prefrontal engagement and less limbic activity is associated with effectual reappraisal, but for the first time, a neural 'signature' for successful reappraisal has been demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.10.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5815323PMC
February 2018

Predicting cognitive behavioral therapy response in social anxiety disorder with anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala during emotion regulation.

Neuroimage Clin 2017 12;15:25-34. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Mood and Anxiety Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry (HK, AEK, SAL, KLP), University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States; Department of Psychology (HK, JMF, KLK, SAS, KLP), University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States; Mental Health Service (AEK, KLP), Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States.

Background: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) and other internalizing conditions attempts to improve emotion regulation. Accumulating data indicate anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and to a lesser extent amygdala, activation in various tasks predicts treatment outcome. However, little is known about ACC and amygdala activation to emotion regulation in predicting clinical improvement following CBT in SAD.

Methods: Before treatment, 38 SAD patients completed implicit and explicit emotion regulation paradigms during fMRI. Implicit regulation involved attentional control over negative distractors. Explicit regulation comprised cognitive reappraisal to negative images. Pre-CBT brain activity was circumscribed to anatomical-based ACC sub-regions (rostral, dorsal) and amygdala masks, which were submitted to ROC curves to examine predictive validity as well as correlational analysis to evaluate prognostic change in symptom severity.

Results: More rostral (rACC) activity in implicit regulation and less rACC activity during explicit regulation distinguished responders (34%) from non-responders. Greater amygdala response in implicit regulation also foretold responder status. Baseline rACC and amygdala activity during attentional control correlated with pre-to-post CBT change in symptom severity such that more activation was related to greater decline in symptoms. No significant correlations were observed for explicit regulation.

Conclusions: Across forms of regulation, rACC activity predicted responder status whereas amygdala as a neuromarker was limited to implicit regulation. While the direction of effects (enhanced vs. reduced) in rACC activity was task-dependent, results suggest SAD patients with deficient regulation benefited more from CBT. Findings support previous studies involving patients with depression and suggest the rACC may be a viable marker of clinical improvement in SAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2017.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5403806PMC
March 2018

Threat distractor and perceptual load modulate test-retest reliability of anterior cingulate cortex response.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2017 07 11;77:120-127. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

Mood and Anxiety Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60608, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.

Accumulating data from fMRI studies implicate the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in inhibition of attention to threat distractors that compete with task-relevant goals for processing resources. However, little data is available on the reliability of rACC activation. Our aim in the current study was to examine test-retest reliability of rACC activation over a 12-week period, in the context of a validated emotional interference paradigm that varied in perceptual load. During functional MRI, 23 healthy volunteers completed a task involving a target letter in a string of identical letters (low load) or in a string of mixed letters (high load) superimposed on angry, fearful, and neutral face distractors. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated that under low, but not high perceptual load, rACC activation to fearful vs. neutral distractors was moderately reliable. Conversely, regardless of perceptual load, rACC activation to angry vs. neutral distractors was not reliable. Regarding behavioral performance, ICCs indicated that accuracy was not reliable regardless of distractor type or perceptual load. Although reaction time (RT) was similarly not reliable regardless of distractor type under low perceptual load, RT to angry vs. neutral distractors and to fearful vs. neutral distractors was reliable under high perceptual load. Together, results indicate the test-retest reliability of rACC activation and corresponding behavioral performance are context dependent; reliability of the former varies as a function of distractor type and level of cognitive demand, whereas reliability of the latter depends on behavioral index (accuracy vs. RT) and level of cognitive demand but not distractor type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.04.007DOI Listing
July 2017

Gender Difference in Attentional Bias Toward Negative and Positive Stimuli in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Behav Ther 2017 05 11;48(3):277-284. Epub 2016 Jun 11.

San Diego State University; University of California San Diego. Electronic address:

Females are two times as likely as males to develop generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; Steiner et al., 2005; Vesga-López et al., 2008). Moreover, the clinical presentation of GAD is different across genders. One explanation for these differences may be the role of cognitive biases involved in GAD between genders. In the present study, we used an exogenous spatial cueing task to examine gender differences in attentional bias for negative and positive information in 118 individuals with a primary diagnosis of GAD. Males and females did not differ in their attentional bias for idiographically selected negative or neutral words. However, women showed a significantly larger attentional bias for positive words than did men. Results suggest that developing gender-specific treatments for GAD could improve treatment response rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2016.06.002DOI Listing
May 2017

The Microbiota, Immunoregulation, and Mental Health: Implications for Public Health.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2016 09;3(3):270-86

Center for Clinical Microbiology, UCL (University College London), WC1E 6BT, London, UK.

The hygiene or "Old Friends" hypothesis proposes that the epidemic of inflammatory disease in modern urban societies stems at least in part from reduced exposure to microbes that normally prime mammalian immunoregulatory circuits and suppress inappropriate inflammation. Such diseases include but are not limited to allergies and asthma; we and others have proposed that the markedly reduced exposure to these Old Friends in modern urban societies may also increase vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders and stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and affective disorders, where data are emerging in support of inflammation as a risk factor. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the potential for Old Friends, including environmental microbial inputs, to modify risk for inflammatory disease, with a focus on neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions. We highlight potential mechanisms, involving bacterially derived metabolites, bacterial antigens, and helminthic antigens, through which these inputs promote immunoregulation. Though findings are encouraging, significant human subjects' research is required to evaluate the potential impact of Old Friends, including environmental microbial inputs, on biological signatures and clinically meaningful mental health prevention and intervention outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40572-016-0100-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5763918PMC
September 2016

Effect of CaCO Nucleation Modes on Algae Removal from Alkaline Water.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Oct 4;53(20):11694-11703. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering , The University of Texas at Austin , Austin , Texas 78712 , United States.

The role of calcite heterogeneous nucleation was studied in a particle-coagulation treatment process for removing microalgae from water. Batch experiments were conducted with sp. and sp. in the presence and absence of carbonate and in the presence and absence of magnesium to delineate the role of CaCO nucleation on microalgae removal. The results indicate that effective algae coagulation (e.g., up to 81% algae removal efficiency) can be achieved via heterogeneous nucleation with CaCO; however, supersaturation ratios between 120 and 200 are required to achieve at least 50% algae removal, depending on ion concentrations. Algae removal was attributed to the adsorption of Ca onto the cell surface, which provides nucleation sites for CaCO precipitation. Bridging of calcite particles between the algal cells led to rapid aggregation and formation of larger flocs. However, at higher supersaturation conditions, algae removal was diminished due to the dominance of homogeneous nucleation of CaCO. The removal of algae in the presence of Ca and Mg required higher supersaturation values; however, the shift from heteronucleation to homonucleation with increasing supersaturation was still evident. The results suggest that water chemistry, pH, ionic strength, alkalinity, and Ca concentration can be optimized for algae removal via coagulation and sedimentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05255DOI Listing
October 2019

The microbiome of the built environment and mental health.

Microbiome 2015 Dec 17;3:60. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Department of Integrative Physiology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, 1725 Pleasant Street, Boulder, CO, 80309-0354, USA.

The microbiome of the built environment (MoBE) is a relatively new area of study. While some knowledge has been gained regarding impacts of the MoBE on the human microbiome and disease vulnerability, there is little knowledge of the impacts of the MoBE on mental health. Depending on the specific microbial species involved, the transfer of microorganisms from the built environment to occupant's cutaneous or mucosal membranes has the potential to increase or disrupt immunoregulation and/or exaggerate or suppress inflammation. Preclinical evidence highlighting the influence of the microbiota on systemic inflammation supports the assertion that microorganisms, including those originating from the built environment, have the potential to either increase or decrease the risk of inflammation-induced psychiatric conditions and their symptom severity. With advanced understanding of both the ecology of the built environment, and its influence on the human microbiome, it may be possible to develop bioinformed strategies for management of the built environment to promote mental health. Here we present a brief summary of microbiome research in both areas and highlight two interdependencies including the following: (1) effects of the MoBE on the human microbiome and (2) potential opportunities for manipulation of the MoBE in order to improve mental health. In addition, we propose future research directions including strategies for assessment of changes in the microbiome of common areas of built environments shared by multiple human occupants, and associated cohort-level changes in the mental health of those who spend time in the buildings. Overall, our understanding of the fields of both the MoBE and influence of host-associated microorganisms on mental health are advancing at a rapid pace and, if linked, could offer considerable benefit to health and wellness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-015-0127-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4682225PMC
December 2015

Evolution of the indoor biome.

Trends Ecol Evol 2015 Apr 11;30(4):223-32. Epub 2015 Mar 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA; Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2015.02.001DOI Listing
April 2015

Indoor particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations.

Environ Res 2014 Jul 16;132:46-53. Epub 2014 Apr 16.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Despite the fact that precursors to reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prevalent indoors, the concentration of ROS inside buildings is unknown. ROS on PM2.5 was measured inside and outside twelve residential buildings and eleven institutional and retail buildings. The mean (± s.d.) concentration of ROS on PM2.5 inside homes (1.37 ± 1.2 nmoles/m(3)) was not significantly different from the outdoor concentration (1.41 ± 1.0 nmoles/m(3)). Similarly, the indoor and outdoor concentrations of ROS on PM2.5 at institutional buildings (1.16 ± 0.38 nmoles/m(3) indoors and 1.68 ± 1.3 nmoles/m(3) outdoors) and retail stores (1.09 ± 0.93 nmoles/m(3) indoors and 1.12 ± 1.1 nmoles/m(3) outdoors) were not significantly different and were comparable to those in residential buildings. The indoor concentration of particulate ROS cannot be predicted based on the measurement of other common indoor pollutants, indicating that it is important to separately assess the concentration of particulate ROS in air quality studies. Daytime indoor occupational and residential exposure to particulate ROS dominates daytime outdoor exposure to particulate ROS. These findings highlight the need for further study of ROS in indoor microenvironments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.03.026DOI Listing
July 2014

Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.

Bioresour Technol 2012 Jun 28;114:542-8. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering Department, Cockrell School of Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.03.055DOI Listing
June 2012
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