Publications by authors named "Kent A Kiehl"

188 Publications

Hormonal response to perceived emotional distress in incarcerated men with sexual sadism.

Pers Individ Dif 2022 Jan 13;184. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Mind Research Network and Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM USA.

Sexual sadists derive pleasure from humiliation, domination and infliction of pain on victims. They display increased penile arousal and activation of brain regions involved in sexual arousal and emotional states when viewing stimuli depicting individuals in physical distress. Neuroactive hormones modulate these regions, but it is unknown if sexual sadists also have endocrine responses to depictions of individuals in distress. The present study examined endocrine responses, elicited by viewing a video depicting an individual in extreme emotional distress, in incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (n = 23) with varying levels of sadistic traits. Sadism, was measured by the Severe Sexual Sadism Scale (SeSaS). Testosterone (T), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and oxytocin (OT) were assayed before and after participants watched a video depicting an individual in emotional distress. T responses to the video were significantly and positively associated with SeSaS scores. There were no significant associations between sexual sadism and OT or ACTH. Our findings provide physiological evidence of atypical processing of distress cues in sadism consistent with the role of testosterone in sexual arousal and aggressive behaviors. These findings have implications for the evaluation and treatment of sexual sadists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415467PMC
January 2022

Phonological processing in psychopathic offenders.

Int J Psychophysiol 2021 10 3;168:43-51. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Psychology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. Electronic address:

Recent research has demonstrated that psychopathic offenders exhibit dynamic cognitive and behavioral deficits on a variety of lab tasks that differentially activate left hemisphere resources. The Left Hemisphere Activation (LHA) hypothesis is a cognitive perspective that aims to address these deficits by conceptualizing psychopathy as a disorder in which behavior and cognitive processing change dynamically as a function of the differential taxation of left hemisphere resources. This study aimed to investigate whether psychopathic traits are associated with electrophysiological anomalies under conditions that place differential demands on left hemisphere language processing systems. We examined in a sample of 43 incarcerated indivdiuals the evocation of the N320, an event-related potential (ERP) elicited by nontarget stimuli during a phonological/phonetic decision task that has been shown to elicit greater activation and cognitive processing within the left hemisphere than the right hemisphere. Findings for a subsample of 18 offenders low in psychopathic traits were generally consistent with previous findings in healthy individuals, suggesting similar electrophysiological activity during phonological processing. However, psychopathic traits impacted the amplitude of the N320. Higher levels of psychopathic traits were associated with reduced left-lateralization in phonological processing as well as enhanced ERP differentiation between pronounceable and nonpronounceable stimuli. These findings provide physiological evidence of a relationship between psychopathic traits and anomalous language processing at the phonological level of word processing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2021.07.627DOI Listing
October 2021

Widespread and interrelated gray matter reductions in child sexual offenders with and without pedophilia: Evidence from a multivariate structural MRI study.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Aim: To further investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of child sexual offending and disentangle them from the neural correlates of pedophilia, using a multivariate analytical approach in order to minimize loss of statistical power.

Methods: This study presents structural MRI data on gray matter in an incarcerated, male population of 22 pedophilic and 21 non-pedophilic child sexual offenders, and 20 violent non-sexual offender controls, based on a multivariate whole-brain approach using source-based morphometry.

Results: We identify a network of several neuroanatomical regions exhibiting interrelated reduced gray matter in both child sexual offender groups relative to controls, comprising extensive clusters in the bilateral cerebellum and frontal lobe, as well as smaller clusters in the bilateral parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, the bilateral basal ganglia, the medial cingulate and the hippocampus.

Conclusion: Our results speak to the interpretation that there are inter- and possibly connectivity-related brain structural abnormalities in child sexual offenders that are not (only) pertaining to pedophilia per se. Interpretations and limitations of the present data are discussed and recommendations for future works are given.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcn.13292DOI Listing
August 2021

Dimensions of impulsivity related to psychopathic traits and homicidal behavior among incarcerated male youth offenders.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Sep 7;303:114094. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Electronic address:

Despite impulsivity being included as scoring criteria within several measures of youth psychopathic traits, the relationship between psychopathic traits and dimensions of impulsivity among high-risk youth is not well-understood. Here we assessed psychopathic traits via total, factor, and facet scores from the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) and impulsivity through total, three-factor, and six-factor model scores from the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) in incarcerated male youth offenders. Correlational analyses indicated PCL:YV total, Factor 2, Facet 3, and Facet 4 scores were significantly positively correlated with BIS-11 total scores. Additionally, psychopathy scores were significantly positively correlated with specific scores from the three-factor model of the BIS-11 (e.g. Motor and Non-Planning Impulsivity scores) and the six-factor model of the BIS-11 (e.g., Attention, Self-Control, and Cognitive Complexity Impulsivity scores). Secondary analyses suggest that participants who had previously committed homicide scored higher on lifestyle/antisocial psychopathic traits and specific dimensions of impulsivity (e.g., BIS-11 Non-Planning and Self-Control Impulsivity factor scores) compared to youth who had not previously committed homicide. Our results improve our understanding of the specific forms of impulsivity significantly correlated with youth psychopathic traits and how specific factors underlying both constructs potentially characterize youth associated with severe forms of antisocial behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373775PMC
September 2021

Reduced endorsement of specific moral foundations in incarcerated adult women with elevated psychopathic traits.

Pers Individ Dif 2021 Oct 26;181. Epub 2021 May 26.

The Mind Research Network (MRN), Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Previous studies have associated adult men with elevated psychopathic traits with reduced endorsement of certain moral foundations measured with the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ), including Harm/Care (measuring one's concern for protecting individuals from harm) and Fairness/Reciprocity (measuring one's concern for the rights of individuals). However, it is not known whether such results extrapolate to women with elevated levels of psychopathic traits. Here, we examined the relationship between endorsement of moral foundations (assessed via the MFQ) and psychopathy scores (assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised [PCL-R]) in a sample of 299 incarcerated adult women. Consistent with hypotheses, higher PCL-R total scores were associated with reduced endorsement of MFQ Harm/Care and Fairness/Reciprocity foundations. Additionally, we extended upon previous studies, observing higher PCL-R total, Factor 1 (measuring interpersonal/affective psychopathic traits), and Facet 1 (measuring interpersonal psychopathic traits) scores were associated with reduced endorsement of the MFQ Authority/Respect foundation (measuring one's respect for authority figures) in incarcerated adult women. Our results highlight reduced endorsement for similar moral foundations between men and women scoring high on psychopathic traits (i.e., Harm/Care and Fairness/Reciprocity), while also outlining a moral foundation that may be uniquely associated with women scoring high on psychopathic traits (i.e., Authority/Respect).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.110998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276858PMC
October 2021

Brain gray matter differences among forensic psychiatric patients with psychosis and incarcerated individuals without psychosis: A source-based morphometry study.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 15;30:102673. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, USA; University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Background: While psychosis is a risk factor for violence, the majority of individuals who perpetrate aggression do not present psychotic symptoms. Pathological aggressive behavior is associated with brain gray matter differences, which, in turn, has shown a relationship with increased psychopathic traits. However, no study, to our knowledge, has ever investigated gray matter differences in forensic psychiatric patients with psychosis compared with incarcerated individuals without psychosis matched on levels of psychopathic traits. Here, we employed source-based morphometry (SBM) to investigate gray matter differences in these two populations.

Methods: We scanned 137 participants comprising two offender subgroups: 69, non-psychotic incarcerated offenders and 68, psychotic, forensic psychiatric patients. Groups showed no difference in age, race, ethnicity, handedness, and Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores. Source-based morphometry was utilized to identify spatially distinct sets of brain regions where gray matter volumes covaried between groups. SBM is a data-driven, multivariate technique that uses independent components analysis to categorize groups of voxels that display similar variance patterns (e.g., components) that are compared across groups.

Results: SBM identified four components that differed between groups. These findings indicated greater loading weights in the superior, transverse, and middle temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate in the non-psychotic versus psychotic group; greater loading weights in the basal ganglia in the psychotic versus non-psychotic group; greater loading weights in the frontal pole, precuneus, and visual cortex among psychotic versus non-psychotic offenders; and greater loading weights in the thalamus and parahippocampal gyrus in psychotic versus non-psychotic groups.

Conclusions: Two different offender groups that perpetrate violence and show comparable levels of psychopathic traits evidenced different gray matter volumes. We suggest that future studies of violent offenders with psychosis take psychopathic traits into account to refine neural phenotypes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111335PMC
July 2021

Neural responses to morally laden interactions in female inmates with psychopathy.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 27;30:102645. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Psychiatry, and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Much of social cognition requires making inferences about the mental and emotional states of others. Moreover, understanding the emotions of others is an important foundation for moral decision-making. Psychopathy is associated with both aberrant emotional understanding and atypical hemodynamic responses when viewing and evaluating morally laden social interactions. In the present functional MRI study, female inmates (N = 107) were asked to evaluate the likely emotional state of either the recipient or the initiator of harmful or helpful interactions. Psychopathy was assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). PCL-R scores were not associated with differences in confidence or accuracy ratings. However, psychopathy scores were significantly related to increased hemodynamic response in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex when viewing harmful interactions and decreased functional connectivity from right amygdala to inferior parietal cortex and insula, and from temporal parietal junction to dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Overall, this work indicates that in females, psychopathy is associated with normal behavioral accuracy and confidence but alterations in neural network activity during moral decision-making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045040PMC
July 2021

Clarifying fearlessness in psychopathy: An examination of thrill-seeking and physical risk-taking.

J Psychopathol Behav Assess 2021 Mar 5;43(1):21-32. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

The Mind Research Network (MRN) & Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI), Albuquerque, NM.

has been described among the traits associated with psychopathy; however, disparities in conceptualizations of fear and how related elements are operationalized among different measures of psychopathic traits have led to some enduring controversy. Here we address a subset of elements characterizing fearlessness represented in thrill-seeking and physical risk-taking among a large sample of incarcerated individuals (n = 688). We examine these relationships utilizing Hare's Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), the Psychopathy Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF), and the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). Among males, the (TAS) scale of the SSS was not related to features of the PCL-R, but was highly correlated with (FD) of the PPI-SF. Among females, TAS was only modestly correlated with PCL-R total score, but neither of the two PCL-R factors. PPI-SF FD remained a strong predictor of TAS among females. We argue for a careful consideration of the boundaries of the term "fearlessness" as it relates to diverse manifestations of behavior and varied conceptualizations of psychopathy. We also reiterate apparent differences between males and females in the presentation of psychopathic traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-020-09847-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011553PMC
March 2021

Psychopathy is associated with fear-specific reductions in neural activity during affective perspective-taking.

Neuroimage 2020 12 6;223:117342. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Psychology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, United States.

Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their callous disregard for others' emotions. Prior research has linked psychopathy to deficits in affective mechanisms underlying empathy (e.g., affective sharing), yet research relating psychopathy to cognitive mechanisms underlying empathy (e.g., affective perspective-taking and Theory of Mind) requires further clarification. To elucidate the neurobiology of cognitive mechanisms of empathy in psychopathy, we administered an fMRI task and tested for global as well as emotion-specific deficits in affective perspective-taking. Adult male incarcerated offenders (N = 94) viewed images of two people interacting, with one individual's face obscured by a shape. Participants were cued to either identify the emotion of the obscured individual or identify the shape from one of two emotion or shape choices presented on each trial. Target emotions included anger, fear, happiness, sadness, and neutral. Contrary to predictions, psychopathy was unrelated to neural activity in the Affective Perspective-taking > Shape contrast. In line with predictions, psychopathy was negatively related to task accuracy during affective perspective-taking for fear, happiness, and sadness. Psychopathy was related to reduced hemodynamic activity exclusively during fear perspective-taking in several areas: left anterior insula extending into posterior orbitofrontal cortex, right precuneus, left superior parietal lobule, and left superior occipital cortex. Although much prior research has emphasized psychopathy-related abnormalities in affective mechanisms mediating empathy, current results add to growing evidence of psychopathy-related abnormalities in a cognitive mechanism related to empathy. These findings highlight brain regions that are hypoactive in psychopathy when explicitly processing another's fear.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117342DOI Listing
December 2020

Psychopathy and substance use in relation to prostitution and pimping among women offenders.

Personal Disord 2020 Sep 7. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

The Mind Research Network.

Much research exists examining sex work in relation to substance use and other physical health risks. However, there is a paucity of research exploring person-level characteristics, such as pathological personality traits, in relation to sex work. This study used a large sample of incarcerated women ( = 310) to address 2 aims involving prostitution and pimping. The first aim was an attempt to replicate and generalize previous findings from Edwards and Verona (2016) on associations among psychopathic traits, substance use, and prostitution. The second aim explored relationships among substance use, psychopathic traits, and pimping. Psychopathy and substance use were measured using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and a modified version of the Addiction Severity Index, respectively. Prostitution and pimping were coded through institutional file review and self-report. Results replicated those of the study by Edwards and Verona (2016), such that psychopathy, and impulsive-antisocial traits specifically, positively related to prostitution above substance use. Results for the second aim showed that PCL-R total and impulsive-antisocial traits were also related to pimping, above the influence of substance use. Substance use was also higher in women who engaged in pimping versus those who did not. Results indicate that substance use and impulsive-antisocial traits of psychopathy are independently related to engagement in distinct roles across sex work contexts among incarcerated women. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000418DOI Listing
September 2020

Anomalous Moral Intuitions in Juvenile Offenders with Psychopathic Traits.

J Res Pers 2020 Jun 20;86. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

The Mind Research Network, University of New Mexico, 1101 Yale Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA.

Since the historical conception of psychopathy, researchers have been interested in understanding moral functioning among psychopathic individuals. The present study investigated the association between psychopathic traits and moral intuitions among incarcerated juvenile offenders ( = 178). Participants were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version (Forth et al., 2003) and the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (Graham et al., 2011), which defines five core moral foundations: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. As expected, psychopathy in juvenile offenders negatively predicted endorsement of all five foundations. This study is the first to demonstrate broad abnormalities in Haidt et al.'s moral foundations in a juvenile sample and can help explain delinquent behavior in juveniles with psychopathic traits. Implications for theories of psychopathy are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2020.103962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295123PMC
June 2020

Sacrificing reward to avoid threat: Characterizing PTSD in the context of a trauma-related approach-avoidance conflict task.

J Abnorm Psychol 2020 Jul 21;129(5):457-468. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by heightened avoidance, cognitive inflexibility, and impaired reward processing. Maladaptive behavior in PTSD may reflect an imbalance between approach and avoidance, but no research has investigated approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) in PTSD. The current study investigated approach-avoidance behavior in PTSD using a trauma-related AAC (trAAC) task in two independent samples. In Study 1, 43 women with a current diagnosis of PTSD and 18 healthy comparison subjects were recruited from the community. In Study 2, 53 women with trauma exposure and a range of PTSD symptoms were recruited from a correctional institution. Trials were separated into two phases: conflict (the option most likely to win points was most likely to show a trauma-related image) and congruent (the option most likely to win points was least likely to show a trauma-related image). In Study 1, reward obtainment varied with the task manipulation (i.e., fewer points earned during conflict compared to congruent Phase) in PTSD but not healthy subjects. These results indicate that when avoidance is advantageous (congruent phase), individuals with PTSD show increased task performance, whereas when avoidance is maladaptive (conflict phase), individuals with PTSD show increased sacrifice of reward. In Study 2, higher PTSD symptoms predicted decreased reward earning during the conflict phase, again indicating a sacrifice of reward when avoidance is maladaptive. Across both studies, PTSD associated with increased AAC and sacrifice of reward in the presence of trauma-related stimuli. These studies shed light on AAC in PTSD and could inform more targeted therapy approaches. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/abn0000528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393639PMC
July 2020

Cognitive Training for Very High Risk Incarcerated Adolescent Males.

Front Psychiatry 2020 15;11:225. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Objective: Persistent violent and antisocial behavior, as manifested in conduct disorder (CD) traits, are associated with a range of cognitive deficits. Individuals with more severe cognitive deficits are more likely to commit violent crimes. Currently, no treatments target improving cognition in high-risk CD youth. This pilot study tests the feasibility and efficacy of delivering intensive tablet-based cognitive training (CT) to adolescent males incarcerated in a youth maximum-security prison.

Methods: Participants were fourteen adolescent males, diagnosed with CD. All participants completed up to 30 h of unsupervised, intensive, adaptive CT exercises that targeted multiple neurocognitive domains, as well as a battery of standardized neurocognitive measures and computerized assessments at baseline and post-training.

Conclusions And Implications For Practice: At baseline, participants exhibited significant impairments on neurocognitive measures, relative to age-matched healthy controls. Twelve participants completed training and showed evidence of target engagement, as indexed by improvement in cognitive processing speed. Significant gains were observed in measures of global cognition, with additional gains in cognitive flexibility at trend level significance. Improvements in these measures were positively related to total training time. In summary, both assessments and intervention appear to be feasible, tolerable, and acceptable in incarcerated youth. Intensive CT shows preliminary efficacy in improving neurocognitive performance in key domains, with large effect sizes, and significant performance improvement associations with the time in training.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175987PMC
April 2020

Re-wiring Guilt: How Advancing Neuroscience Encourages Strategic Interventions Over Retributive Justice.

Front Psychol 2020 13;11:390. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, United States.

The increasing visibility of neuroscience employed in legal contexts has rightfully prompted critical discourse regarding the boundaries of its utility. High profile debates include some extreme positions that either undermine the relevance of neuroscience or overstate its role in determining legal responsibility. Here we adopt a conciliatory attitude, reaffirming the current value of neuroscience in jurisprudence and addressing its role in shifting normative attitudes about culpability. Adopting a balanced perspective about the interaction between two dynamic fields (science and law) allows for more fruitful consideration of practical changes likely to improve the way we engage in legal decision-making. Neuroscience provides a useful platform for addressing nuanced and multifaceted deterministic factors promoting antisocial behavior. Ultimately, we suggest that shifting normative attitudes about culpability vis-à-vis advancing neuroscience are not likely to promote major changes in the way we assign legal responsibility. Rather, it helps us to shed our harshest retributivist instincts in favor of more pragmatic strategies for combating the most conspicuous patterns promoting mass incarceration and recidivism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082751PMC
March 2020

Youth with elevated psychopathic traits exhibit structural integrity deficits in the uncinate fasciculus.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 5;26:102236. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA; The Mind Research Network (MRN) & Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI), Albuquerque, NM, USA. Electronic address:

Youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup of adolescents characterized by extreme behavioral problems and exhibit comparable neurocognitive deficits as adult offenders with psychopathic traits. A consistent finding among adults with elevated psychopathic traits is reduced white matter structural integrity of the right uncinate fasciculus (UF). The UF is a major white matter tract that connects regions of the anterior temporal lobe (i.e., the amygdala) to higher-order executive control regions, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. However, the relationship between youth psychopathic traits and structural integrity of the UF has been mixed, with some studies identifying a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and FA in the UF, and others identifying a positive relationship. Here, we investigated structural integrity of the left and right UF using fractional anisotropy (FA) in a large sample of n = 254 male adolescent offenders recruited from maximum-security juvenile correctional facilities. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). Consistent with hypotheses, interpersonal and affective traits (i.e., PCL:YV Factor 1 and Facet 1 scores) were associated with reduced FA in the right UF. Additionally, lifestyle traits (i.e., PCL:YV Facet 3 scores) were associated with increased FA in the left UF. Results are consistent with previously published studies reporting reduced FA in the right UF in adult psychopathic offenders and increased left UF FA in youth meeting criteria for certain externalizing disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076567PMC
February 2021

Psychopathy is associated with shifts in the organization of neural networks in a large incarcerated male sample.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 9;24:102083. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Yale University, Department of Psychology, 2 Hillhouse Ave. New Haven, CT 06511, USA.

Psychopathy is a personality disorder defined by antisocial behavior paired with callousness, low empathy, and low interpersonal emotions. Psychopathic individuals reliably display complex atypicalities in emotion and attention processing that are evident when examining task performance, activation within specific neural regions, and connections between regions. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods, namely graph analysis, attempt to unpack this type of processing complexity by evaluating the overall organization of neural networks. Graph analysis has been used to better understand neural functioning in several clinical disorders but has not yet been used in the study of psychopathy. The present study applies a minimum spanning tree graph analysis to resting-state fMRI data collected from male inmates assessed for psychopathy with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (n = 847). Minimum spanning tree analysis provides several metrics of neural organization optimality (i.e., the effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of neural network organization). Results show that inmates higher in psychopathy exhibit a more efficiently organized dorsal attention network (β = =0.101, p = =0.018). Additionally, subcortical structures (e.g., amygdala, caudate, and hippocampus) act as less of a central hub in the global flow of information in inmates higher in psychopathy (β = =-0.104, p = =0.048). There were no significant effects of psychopathy on neural network organization in the default or salience networks. Together, these shifts in neural organization suggest that the brains of inmates higher in psychopathy are organized in a fundamentally different way than other individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.102083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861623PMC
September 2020

Resting-state fMRI dynamic functional network connectivity and associations with psychopathy traits.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 5;24:101970. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Studies have used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine associations between psychopathy and brain connectivity in selected regions of interest as well as networks covering the whole-brain. One of the limitations of these approaches is that brain connectivity is modeled as a constant state through the scan duration. To address this limitation, we apply group independent component analysis (GICA) and dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analysis to uncover whole-brain, time-varying functional network connectivity (FNC) states in a large forensic sample. We then examined relationships between psychopathic traits (PCL-R total scores, Factor 1 and Factor 2 scores) and FNC states obtained from dFNC analysis. FNC over the scan duration was better represented by five states rather than one state previously shown in static FNC analysis. Consistent with prior findings, psychopathy was associated with networks from paralimbic regions (amygdala and insula). In addition, whole-brain FNC identified 15 networks from nine functional domains (subcortical, auditory, sensorimotor, cerebellar, visual, salience, default mode network, executive control and attentional) related to psychopathy traits (Factor 1 and PCL-R scores). Results also showed that individuals with higher Factor 1 scores (affective and interpersonal traits) spend more time in a state with weaker connectivity overall, and changed states less frequently compared to those with lower Factor 1 scores. On the other hand, individuals with higher Factor 2 scores (impulsive and antisocial behaviors) showed more dynamism (changes to and from different states) than those with lower scores.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6728837PMC
September 2020

A review of psychopathy and Cluster B personality traits and their neural correlates in female offenders.

Biol Psychol 2019 11 12;148:107740. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

The Mind Research Network and Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States; University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States.

Although men commit more crime and are incarcerated at higher rates than women, women represent the fastest growing segment of the justice system. Empirical work suggests that psychopathy and Cluster B disorders are implicated in antisocial behavior across gender, and that neurobiological correlates of personality may inform such behavior. This review utilizes a gendered perspective to discuss psychopathy and Cluster B disorders in relation to antisocial behavior and incorporates work on neural correlates of personality disorders. Co-morbidity across these conditions may be partly explained by similar frontal deficits, reflective of disinhibition. Affective processing abnormalities appear to be characterized by distinct deficits in limbic/paralimbic regions, reflecting differential etiological underpinnings and behavioral outcomes. This review underscores the utility in examining personality pathology together with neurobiological and environmental factors. Methodological issues and clinical implications are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2019.107740DOI Listing
November 2019

Aberrant brain gray matter in murderers.

Brain Imaging Behav 2020 Oct;14(5):2050-2061

The Mind Research Network, 1101 Yale Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM, 87106, USA.

Homicide is a significant societal problem with economic costs in the billions of dollars annually and incalculable emotional impact on victims and society. Despite this high burden, we know very little about the neuroscience of individuals who commit homicide. Here we examine brain gray matter differences in incarcerated adult males who have committed homicide (n = 203) compared to other non-homicide offenders (n = 605; total n = 808). Homicide offenders' show reduced gray matter in brain areas critical for behavioral control and social cognition compared with subsets of other violent and non-violent offenders. This demonstrates, for the first time, that unique brain abnormalities may distinguish offenders who kill from other serious violent offenders and non-violent antisocial individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-019-00155-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942640PMC
October 2020

Which features of psychopathy and impulsivity matter most for prison violence? New evidence among female prisoners.

Int J Law Psychiatry 2019 May - Jun;64:26-33. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Sociology, Iowa State University, 203A East Hall, Ames, IA 50011-1070, United States.

Prison violence is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. While a great deal of research has been conducted in male samples, very few studies are dedicated to understanding violence committed by female offenders. Two constructs that have emerged as important predictors of violence are psychopathy and impulsivity. These constructs may be an important line of inquiry due to the close association between psychopathy, impulsivity, and violence. In a sample of 166 female offenders, we used the 3-facet model of psychopathy and 3-factor model of trait impulsivity with the goal to statistically explain two types of prison violence: official reports of violent misconducts over a 12-month period, and self-report of deliberately instigating a violent altercation. We conducted three separate regression models to test the independent contribution of psychopathy and impulsivity, as well as accounting for the overlap between psychopathy and impulsivity. When impulsivity and psychopathy were not competing within the same model, affective and behavioral psychopathic traits, and nonplanning impulsiveness predicted violent misconducts. However, when accounting for impulsivity and psychopathy within the same model, only affective psychopathic traits remained significant. When predicting if an offender deliberately started a violent altercation, separate statistical models showed affective and interpersonal psychopathic traits, and nonplanning impulsiveness were significant. When competing for variance within the same statistical model, only affective and interpersonal psychopathic traits remained as significant predictors. This suggests an overlap between psychopathic traits and nonplanning impulsivity when understanding violent misconducts in female offenders, while affective psychopathic explains female prison violence, regardless of impulsivity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2020

Adolescent Psychopathic Traits Negatively Relate to Hemodynamic Activity within the Basal Ganglia during Error-Related Processing.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2019 12;47(12):1917-1929

Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Youth with elevated psychopathic traits exhibit a number of comparable neurocognitive deficits as adult psychopathic offenders, including error-related processing deficits. Subregions of the basal ganglia play an important, though indirect, role in error-related processing through connections with cortical areas including the anterior cingulate cortex. A number of recent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (s/fMRI) studies have associated basal ganglia dysfunction in youth with elevated psychopathic traits, but these studies have not examined whether dysfunction occurring within subregions of the basal ganglia help contribute to error-related processing deficits previously observed in such at-risk youth. Here, we investigated error-related processing using a response inhibition Go/NoGo fMRI experimental paradigm in a large sample of incarcerated male adolescent offenders (n = 182). In the current report, psychopathy scores (measured via the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV)) were negatively related to hemodynamic activity within input nuclei of the basal ganglia (i.e., the caudate and nucleus accumbens), as well as intrinsic/output nuclei (i.e., the globus pallidus and substantia nigra) and related nuclei (i.e., the subthalamic nucleus) during error-related processing. This is the first evidence to suggest that error-related dysfunction previously observed in youth with elevated psychopathic traits may be related to underlying abnormalities occurring within subregions of the basal ganglia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00560-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6842671PMC
December 2019

Autoconnectivity: A new perspective on human brain function.

J Neurosci Methods 2019 07 18;323:68-76. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Department of ECE, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Background: Autocorrelation (AC) in fMRI time-series is a well-known phenomenon, typically attributed to colored noise and therefore removed from the data. We hypothesize that AC reflects systematic and meaningful signal fluctuations that may be tied to neural activity and provide evidence to support this hypothesis.

New Method: Each fMRI time-series is modeled as an autoregressive process from which the autocorrelation is quantified. Then, autocorrelation during resting-state fMRI and auditory oddball (AOD) task in schizophrenia and healthy volunteers is examined.

Results: During resting-state, AC was higher in the visual cortex while during AOD task, frontal part of the brain exhibited higher AC in both groups. AC values were significantly lower in specific brain regions in schizophrenia patients (such as thalamus during resting-state) compared to healthy controls in two independent datasets. Moreover, AC values had significant negative correlation with patients' symptoms. AC differences discriminated patients from healthy controls with high accuracy (resting-state).

Comparison With Existing Methods: Contrary to most prior works, the results suggest AC shows meaningful patterns that are discriminative between patients and controls. Our results are in line with recent works attributing autocorrelation to feedback loop of brain's regulatory circuit.

Conclusions: Autoconnectivity is cognitive state dependent (resting-state vs. task) and mental state dependent (healthy vs. schizophrenia). The concept of autoconnectivity resembles a recurrent neural network and provides a new perspective of functional integration in the brain. These findings may have important implications for understanding of brain function in health and disease as well as for analysis of fMRI time-series.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2019.03.015DOI Listing
July 2019

The structural brain correlates of callous-unemotional traits in incarcerated male adolescents.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 30;22:101703. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

The Mind Research Network and Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Electronic address:

Youth with severe conduct problems impose a significant cost on society by engaging in high levels of antisocial and aggressive behavior. Within this group, adolescents with high levels of callous- unemotional traits have been found to exhibit more severe and persistent patterns of antisocial behavior than youth with severe conduct problems but normative levels of callous-unemotional traits. Existing neuroimaging studies, along with theoretical accounts of psychopathology, suggest that dysfunction within the paralimbic cortex and limbic system may underlie elevated levels of callous-unemotional traits. The present study examines this hypothesis by investigating gray matter correlates associated with callous-unemotional traits. A sample of incarcerated male adolescents (N = 269), were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Callous-unemotional traits were assessed using the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits (Frick 2004). Total callous-unemotional traits were negatively correlated with anterior temporal lobe gray matter volume (GMV). Callous traits in particular exhibited a reliable negative correlation with gray matter volume in nearly every paralimbic brain region examined. Uncaring traits were positively correlated with GMV in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. These findings demonstrate specific neural features within the paralimbic cortex and limbic system that accompany elevated callous-unemotional traits and serves to expand our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms that may give rise to severe conduct problems in youth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370859PMC
December 2019

Meta-analysis of the moral brain: patterns of neural engagement assessed using multilevel kernel density analysis.

Brain Imaging Behav 2020 Apr;14(2):534-547

Psychology Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

The neuroimaging literature in moral cognition has rapidly developed in the last decade with more than 200 publications on the topic. Neuroimaging based models generally agree that limbic regions work with medial prefrontal and temporal regions during moral processing to integrate emotional, social, and cognitive elements into decision-making. However, no quantitative work has been done examining neural response across types of moral cognition tasks. This paper uses Multilevel Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) to conduct neuroimaging meta-analyses of the moral cognitive literature. MKDA replicated previous findings of the neural correlates of moral cognition: the left amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral temporoparietal junction, and posterior cingulate. Random forest algorithms classified neural features as belonging to simple/utilitarian moral dilemmas, explicit/implicit moral tasks, and word/picture moral stimuli tasks; in combination with univariate contrast analyses, these results indicated a distinct pattern of processing for each of the members of these paradigm pairs. Overall, the results emphasize that the task selected for use in a moral cognition neuroimaging study is vital for the elicitation and interpretation of results. It also replicates and re-establishes the neural basis for moral processing, especially important in light of implementation errors in previous meta-analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-019-00035-5DOI Listing
April 2020

Development of an expert-rater assessment of trauma history in a high-risk youth forensic sample.

Psychol Trauma 2019 Oct 27;11(7):713-721. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Mind Research Network and Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute.

Objective: Exposure to childhood trauma is particularly prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. Although there is a growing understanding of the detrimental impact trauma exposure can have on child and adolescent development, childhood maltreatment can be very difficult to accurately measure. Integration of self-report trauma histories as well as supplemental file reports of trauma exposure may provide the most accurate estimate of experienced trauma among youth in correctional settings.

Method: The current study developed an expert-rated assessment of trauma that synthesizes self-report, as well as objective file information, using a sample of 114 incarcerated male juveniles.

Results: In addition to establishing scale factor structure, reliability, and validity, the current study provides additional evidence of the prevalence of trauma among incarcerated juveniles and reports on external correlates of the scale that are particularly relevant in correctional settings (e.g., psychopathic traits).

Conclusion: These results suggest that the integration of both self-report and file material can be meaningfully used to assess traumatic symptomology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000423DOI Listing
October 2019

Violence and aggression in young women: The importance of psychopathy and neurobiological function.

Physiol Behav 2019 03 4;201:130-138. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Departments of Psychiatry, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, United States.

Psychopathy is one of the most researched risk factors for violence. Yet, research in women is sparse. The present study aimed to test if the link between the four-facet structure of psychopathy and interpersonal violence and aggression was moderated by neurobiological function (indexed by resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Results showed the lifestyle and affective facets were associated with reactive aggression and these associations were moderated by low resting RSA. The interpersonal, affective, and antisocial facets were associated with proactive aggression but no moderation effect was found. The affective and antisocial facets of psychopathy were associated with histories of interpersonal violence, however, only the affective facet was moderated by low RSA. This is the first study in young women to demonstrate the link between affective psychopathic traits and interpersonal violence and reactive aggression is via aberrant prefrontal cortex functioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.11.043DOI Listing
March 2019

Machine learning of brain gray matter differentiates sex in a large forensic sample.

Hum Brain Mapp 2019 04 15;40(5):1496-1506. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

The Mind Research Network & Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Differences between males and females have been extensively documented in biological, psychological, and behavioral domains. Among these, sex differences in the rate and typology of antisocial behavior remains one of the most conspicuous and enduring patterns among humans. However, the nature and extent of sexual dimorphism in the brain among antisocial populations remains mostly unexplored. Here, we seek to understand sex differences in brain structure between incarcerated males and females in a large sample (n = 1,300) using machine learning. We apply source-based morphometry, a contemporary multivariate approach for quantifying gray matter measured with magnetic resonance imaging, and carry these parcellations forward using machine learning to classify sex. Models using components of brain gray matter volume and concentration were able to differentiate between males and females with greater than 93% generalizable accuracy. Highly differentiated components include orbitofrontal and frontopolar regions, proportionally larger in females, and anterior medial temporal regions proportionally larger in males. We also provide a complimentary analysis of a nonforensic healthy control sample and replicate our 93% sex discrimination. These findings demonstrate that the brains of males and females are highly distinguishable. Understanding sex differences in the brain has implications for elucidating variability in the incidence and progression of disease, psychopathology, and differences in psychological traits and behavior. The reliability of these differences confirms the importance of sex as a moderator of individual differences in brain structure and suggests future research should consider sex specific models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397072PMC
April 2019

Structural analysis of the PCL-R and relationship to BIG FIVE personality traits and parenting characteristics in an Hispanic female offender sample.

Pers Individ Dif 2018 Jul 20;129:59-65. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

University of North Texas.

Valid measurement of psychopathic traits in females using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) continues to be an under researched topic. Previous latent variable and other psychometric studies have raised questions concerning the structure and predictive effects of psychopathic traits in females. New cross-cultural research finds good support for a four-factor model of psychopathy in females and the predictive effects of the psychopathy factors (Declercq, Carter, & Neumann, 2015; Neumann, Hare, & Pardini, 2015). Nevertheless, additional research is needed on females, especially individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. We investigated the factor structure and construct validity of the PCL-R in a female Hispanic sample (n = 155). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the four-factor model provided an adequate fit. Furthermore, structural equation modelling revealed significant negative and positive predictive effects, respectively, between general personality (Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and indifferent/abusive parenting with the broad syndrome of psychopathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.03.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186447PMC
July 2018

Affective and interpersonal psychopathic traits associated with reduced corpus callosum volume among male inmates - RETRACTED.

Psychol Med 2019 06 12;49(8):1401-1408. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

The Mind Research Network & Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute,Albuquerque, NM,USA.

Background: Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with severe emotional and interpersonal consequences and persistent antisocial behavior. Neurobiological models of psychopathy emphasize impairments in emotional processing, attention, and integration of information across large-scale neural networks in the brain. One of the largest integrative hubs in the brain is the corpus callosum (CC) - a large white matter structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.

Method: The current study examines CC volume, measured via Freesurfer parcellation, in a large sample (n = 495) of incarcerated men who were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R).

Results: Psychopathy was associated with reduced volume across all five sub-regions of the CC. These relationships were primarily driven by the affective/interpersonal elements of psychopathy (PCL-R Factor 1), as no significant associations were found between the CC and the lifestyle/antisocial traits of psychopathy. The observed effects were not attributable to differences in substance use severity, age, IQ, or total brain volume.

Conclusions: These findings align with suggestions that core psychopathic traits may be fostered by reduced integrative capacity across large-scale networks in the brain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718002921DOI Listing
June 2019
-->