Publications by authors named "Kenneth W Duncan"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of a peptide inhibitor for the histone methyltransferase WHSC1.

PLoS One 2018 9;13(5):e0197082. Epub 2018 May 9.

Epizyme Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

WHSC1 is a histone methyltransferase that is responsible for mono- and dimethylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 and has been implicated as a driver in a variety of hematological and solid tumors. Currently, there is a complete lack of validated chemical matter for this important drug discovery target. Herein we report on the first fully validated WHSC1 inhibitor, PTD2, a norleucine-containing peptide derived from the histone H4 sequence. This peptide exhibits micromolar affinity towards WHSC1 in biochemical and biophysical assays. Furthermore, a crystal structure was solved with the peptide in complex with SAM and the SET domain of WHSC1L1. This inhibitor is an important first step in creating potent, selective WHSC1 tool compounds for the purposes of understanding the complex biology in relation to human disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197082PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5942779PMC
August 2018

Identification of a CARM1 Inhibitor with Potent In Vitro and In Vivo Activity in Preclinical Models of Multiple Myeloma.

Sci Rep 2017 12 21;7(1):17993. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Epizyme, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

CARM1 is an arginine methyltransferase with diverse histone and non-histone substrates implicated in the regulation of cellular processes including transcriptional co-activation and RNA processing. CARM1 overexpression has been reported in multiple cancer types and has been shown to modulate oncogenic pathways in in vitro studies. Detailed understanding of the mechanism of action of CARM1 in oncogenesis has been limited by a lack of selective tool compounds, particularly for in vivo studies. We describe the identification and characterization of, to our knowledge, the first potent and selective inhibitor of CARM1 that exhibits anti-proliferative effects both in vitro and in vivo and, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a role for CARM1 in multiple myeloma (MM). EZM2302 (GSK3359088) is an inhibitor of CARM1 enzymatic activity in biochemical assays (IC = 6 nM) with broad selectivity against other histone methyltransferases. Treatment of MM cell lines with EZM2302 leads to inhibition of PABP1 and SMB methylation and cell stasis with IC values in the nanomolar range. Oral dosing of EZM2302 demonstrates dose-dependent in vivo CARM1 inhibition and anti-tumor activity in an MM xenograft model. EZM2302 is a validated chemical probe suitable for further understanding the biological role CARM1 plays in cancer and other diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18446-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5740082PMC
December 2017

Structure and Property Guided Design in the Identification of PRMT5 Tool Compound EPZ015666.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2016 Feb 2;7(2):162-6. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Epizyme, Inc. , 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

The recent publication of a potent and selective inhibitor of protein methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) provides the scientific community with in vivo-active tool compound EPZ015666 (GSK3235025) to probe the underlying pharmacology of this key enzyme. Herein, we report the design and optimization strategies employed on an initial hit compound with poor in vitro clearance to yield in vivo tool compound EPZ015666 and an additional potent in vitro tool molecule EPZ015866 (GSK3203591).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.5b00380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4753547PMC
February 2016

Metabolism and disposition of the DOT1L inhibitor, pinometostat (EPZ-5676), in rat, dog and human.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2016 Jan 8;77(1):43-62. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

Epizyme, Inc., 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Purpose: The metabolism and disposition of the first-in-class DOT1L inhibitor, EPZ-5676 (pinometostat), was investigated in rat and dog. Metabolite profiles were compared with those from adult patients in the first-in-man phase 1 study as well as the cross-species metabolism observed in vitro.

Methods: EPZ-5676 was administered to rat and dog as a 24-h IV infusion of [(14)C]-EPZ-5676 for determination of pharmacokinetics, mass balance, metabolite profiling and biodistribution by quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA). Metabolite profiling and identification was performed by radiometric and LC-MS/MS analysis.

Results: Fecal excretion was the major route of elimination, representing 79 and 81% of the total dose in and rat and dog, respectively. QWBA in rats showed that the radioactivity was well distributed in the body, except for the central nervous system, and the majority of radioactivity was eliminated from most tissues by 168 h. Fecal recovery of dose-related material in bile duct-cannulated animals as well as higher radioactivity concentrations in the wall of the large intestine relative to liver implicated intestinal secretion as well as biliary elimination. EPZ-5676 underwent extensive oxidative metabolism with the major metabolic pathways being hydroxylation of the t-butyl group (EPZ007769) and N-dealkylation of the central nitrogen. Loss of adenine from parent EPZ-5676 (M7) was observed only in rat and dog feces, suggesting the involvement of gut microbiota. In rat and dog, steady-state plasma levels of total radioactivity and parent EPZ-5676 were attained rapidly and maintained through the infusion period before declining rapidly on cessation of dosing. Unchanged EPZ-5676 was the predominant circulating species in rat, dog and man.

Conclusions: The excretory and metabolic pathways for EPZ-5676 were very similar across species. Renal excretion of both parent EPZ-5676 and EPZ-5676-related material was low, and in preclinical species fecal excretion of parent EPZ-5676 and EPZ007769 accounted for the majority of drug-related elimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-015-2929-yDOI Listing
January 2016

Species differences in metabolism of EPZ015666, an oxetane-containing protein arginine methyltransferase-5 (PRMT5) inhibitor.

Xenobiotica 2016 ;46(3):268-77

1. Metabolite profiling and identification studies were conducted to understand the cross-species differences in the metabolic clearance of EPZ015666, a first-in-class protein arginine methyltransferase-5 (PRMT5) inhibitor, with anti-proliferative effects in preclinical models of Mantle Cell Lymphoma. EPZ015666 exhibited low clearance in human, mouse and rat liver microsomes, in part by introduction of a 3-substituted oxetane ring on the molecule. In contrast, a higher clearance was observed in dog liver microsomes (DLM) that translated to a higher in vivo clearance in dog compared with rodent. 2. Structure elucidation via high resolution, accurate mass LC-MS(n) revealed that the prominent metabolites of EPZ015666 were present in hepatocytes from all species, with the highest turnover rate in dogs. M1 and M2 resulted from oxidative oxetane ring scission, whereas M3 resulted from loss of the oxetane ring via an N-dealkylation reaction. 3. The formation of M1 and M2 in DLM was significantly abrogated in the presence of the specific CYP2D inhibitor, quinidine, and to a lesser extent by the CYP3A inhibitor, ketoconazole, corroborating data from human recombinant isozymes. 4. Our data indicate a marked species difference in the metabolism of the PRMT5 inhibitor EPZ015666, with oxetane ring scission the predominant metabolic pathway in dog mediated largely by CYP2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00498254.2015.1072253DOI Listing
October 2016

A selective inhibitor of PRMT5 with in vivo and in vitro potency in MCL models.

Nat Chem Biol 2015 Jun 27;11(6):432-7. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Departments of Biology and Molecular Discovery, Epizyme, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Protein arginine methyltransferase-5 (PRMT5) is reported to have a role in diverse cellular processes, including tumorigenesis, and its overexpression is observed in cell lines and primary patient samples derived from lymphomas, particularly mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Here we describe the identification and characterization of a potent and selective inhibitor of PRMT5 with antiproliferative effects in both in vitro and in vivo models of MCL. EPZ015666 (GSK3235025) is an orally available inhibitor of PRMT5 enzymatic activity in biochemical assays with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 22 nM and broad selectivity against a panel of other histone methyltransferases. Treatment of MCL cell lines with EPZ015666 led to inhibition of SmD3 methylation and cell death, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Oral dosing with EPZ015666 demonstrated dose-dependent antitumor activity in multiple MCL xenograft models. EPZ015666 represents a validated chemical probe for further study of PRMT5 biology and arginine methylation in cancer and other diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.1810DOI Listing
June 2015

Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of intestinal inflammation.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011 Dec 21;17(12):2416-26. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: We developed a series of dendritic cell autoimmune modulators (DCAMs) based on small molecule Flt3 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for the inhibition of intestinal inflammation and oral delivery.

Methods: DCAMs were administered orally during and after induction of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Dendritic cell recruitment and inflammatory responses were determined in the mucosal immune system during acute intestinal inflammatory responses and mucosal recovery. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were utilized to define the mechanisms by which DCAMs can modify responses to microbial signals.

Results: Oral doses of DCAMs prevented severe weight loss and mucosal inflammation associated with DSS colitis in mice. The presence of DCAMs increased the number of CD11c(+) PDCA1(+) dendritic cells, induced interleukin (IL)-10 expression, and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in the mucosal immune system. Surprisingly, DCAMs regulated innate immune responses in macrophages resulting in the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production and the induction of IL-10 expression during Toll-like receptor-mediated signaling.

Conclusions: We identified two new imidazoacridinone derivatives that protect mice from severe colitis and promote mucosal recovery by enhancing protective cytokine production while inhibiting proinflammatory stimuli during microbial recognition. These compounds are promising candidates for further development into potent orally available drugs for the prevention of colitis and promotion of mucosal recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ibd.21646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3657752PMC
December 2011