Publications by authors named "Kenneth M Kaye"

46 Publications

Primary effusion lymphoma enhancer connectome links super-enhancers to dependency factors.

Nat Commun 2020 12 9;11(1):6318. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, USA.

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) has a very poor prognosis. To evaluate the contributions of enhancers/promoters interactions to PEL cell growth and survival, here we produce H3K27ac HiChIP datasets in PEL cells. This allows us to generate the PEL enhancer connectome, which links enhancers and promoters in PEL genome-wide. We identify more than 8000 genomic interactions in each PEL cell line. By incorporating HiChIP data with H3K27ac ChIP-seq data, we identify interactions between enhancers/enhancers, enhancers/promoters, and promoters/promoters. HiChIP further links PEL super-enhancers to PEL dependency factors MYC, IRF4, MCL1, CCND2, MDM2, and CFLAR. CRISPR knock out of MEF2C and IRF4 significantly reduces MYC and IRF4 super-enhancer H3K27ac signal. Knock out also reduces MYC and IRF4 expression. CRISPRi perturbation of these super-enhancers by tethering transcription repressors to enhancers significantly reduces target gene expression and reduces PEL cell growth. These data provide insights into PEL molecular pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20136-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726151PMC
December 2020

KSHV LANA acetylation-selective acidic domain reader sequence mediates virus persistence.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 20;117(36):22443-22451. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal;

Viruses modulate biochemical cellular pathways to permit infection. A recently described mechanism mediates selective protein interactions between acidic domain readers and unacetylated, lysine-rich regions, opposite of bromodomain function. Kaposi´s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is tightly linked with KS, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV latently infects cells, and its genome persists as a multicopy, extrachromosomal episome. During latency, KSHV expresses a small subset of genes, including the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which mediates viral episome persistence. Here we show that LANA contains two tandem, partially overlapping, acidic domain sequences homologous to the SET oncoprotein acidic domain reader. This domain selectively interacts with unacetylated p53, as evidenced by reduced LANA interaction after overexpression of CBP, which acetylates p53, or with an acetylation mimicking carboxyl-terminal domain p53 mutant. Conversely, the interaction of LANA with an acetylation-deficient p53 mutant is enhanced. Significantly, KSHV LANA mutants lacking the acidic domain reader sequence are deficient for establishment of latency and persistent infection. This deficiency was confirmed under physiological conditions, on infection of mice with a murine gammaherpesvirus 68 chimera expressing LANA, where the virus was highly deficient in establishing latent infection in germinal center B cells. Therefore, LANA's acidic domain reader is critical for viral latency. These results implicate an acetylation-dependent mechanism mediating KSHV persistence and expand the role of acidic domain readers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2004809117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486799PMC
September 2020

ViroPanel: Hybrid Capture and Massively Parallel Sequencing for Simultaneous Detection and Profiling of Oncogenic Virus Infection and Tumor Genome.

J Mol Diagn 2020 04 15;22(4):476-487. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Precision cancer medicine aims to classify tumors by site, histology, and molecular testing to determine an individualized profile of cancer alterations. Viruses are a major contributor to oncogenesis, causing 12% to 20% of all human cancers. Several viruses are causal of specific types of cancer, promoting dysregulation of signaling pathways and resulting in carcinogenesis. In addition, integration of viral DNA into the host (human) genome is a hallmark of some viral species. Tests for the presence of viral infection used in the clinical setting most often use quantitative PCR or immunohistochemical staining. Both approaches have limitations and need to be interpreted/scored appropriately. In some cases, results are not binary (virus present/absent), and it is unclear what to do with a weakly or partially positive result. In addition, viral testing of cancers is performed separately from tests to detect human genomic alterations and can thus be time-consuming and use limited valuable specimen. We present a hybrid-capture and massively parallel sequencing approach to detect viral infection that is integrated with targeted genomic analysis to provide a more complete tumor profile from a single sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2019.12.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193840PMC
April 2020

Primary cytomegalovirus infection with invasive disease in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Sep 30;12(9). Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

A 37-year-old woman with a history of inflammatory bowel disease on mercaptopurine presented with a week of recurrent fever, headache, myalgias and mildly elevated serum transaminases and leucopenia. Her workup revealed primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with atypical lymphocytosis, elevated viral load, positive IgM and negative IgG. Two weeks after her initial presentation, she developed odynophagia and diarrhoea prompting endoscopic evaluation with biopsies, which demonstrated CMV disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Her fever and systemic symptoms improved rapidly with initiation of intravenous ganciclovir. She was transitioned to and maintained on oral valganciclovir until two and half months after discharge when her symptoms and lab abnormalities had fully subsided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-230056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768388PMC
September 2019

NDRG1 facilitates the replication and persistence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by interacting with the DNA polymerase clamp PCNA.

PLoS Pathog 2019 02 27;15(2):e1007628. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Medical Research Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latently infects host cells and establishes lifelong persistence as an extra-chromosomal episome in the nucleus. To persist in proliferating cells, the viral genome typically replicates once per cell cycle and is distributed into daughter cells. This process involves host machinery utilized by KSHV, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In present study, we found that N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), a cellular gene known to be non-detectable in primary B cells and endothelial cells which are the major cell types for KSHV infection in vivo, was highly upregulated by KSHV in these cells. We further demonstrated that the high expression of NDRG1 was regulated by latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), the major viral latent protein which tethers the viral genome to host chromosome and plays an essential role in viral genome maintenance. Surprisingly, knockdown of NDRG1 in KSHV latently infected cells resulted in a significant decrease of viral genome copy number in these cells. Interestingly, NDRG1 can directly interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cellular protein which functions as a DNA polymerase clamp during DNA replication. Intriguingly, we found that NDRG1 forms a complex with LANA and PCNA and serves as a scaffold protein bridging these two proteins. We further demonstrated that NDRG1 is critical for mediating LANA to recruit PCNA onto terminal repeat (TR) of KSHV genome, and facilitates viral DNA replication and episome persistence. Taken together, our findings suggest that NDRG1 plays an important role in KSHV viral genome replication, and provide new clues for understanding of KSHV persistence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6411202PMC
February 2019

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus LANA-Adjacent Regions with Distinct Functions in Episome Segregation or Maintenance.

J Virol 2019 03 5;93(6). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a 1,162-amino-acid protein that mediates episome persistence of viral genomes. LANA binds the KSHV terminal-repeat (TR) sequence through its carboxy-terminal domain to mediate DNA replication. LANA simultaneously binds mitotic chromosomes and TR DNA to segregate virus genomes to daughter cell nuclei. Amino-terminal LANA attaches to chromosomes by binding histones H2A/H2B, and carboxy-terminal LANA contributes to mitotic-chromosome binding. Although amino- and carboxy-terminal LANA are essential for episome persistence, they are not sufficient, since deletion of all internal LANA sequence renders LANA highly deficient for episome maintenance. Internal LANA sequence upstream of the internal repeat elements contributes to episome segregation and persistence. Here, we investigate this region with a panel of LANA deletion mutants. Mutants retained the ability to associate with mitotic chromosomes and bind TR DNA. In contrast to prior results, deletion of most of this sequence did not reduce LANA's ability to mediate DNA replication. Deletions of upstream sequence within the region compromised segregation of TR DNA to daughter cells, as assessed by retention of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression from a replication-deficient TR plasmid. However, deletion of this upstream sequence did not reduce episome maintenance. In contrast, deletions that included an 80-amino-acid sequence immediately downstream resulted in highly deficient episome persistence. LANA with this downstream sequence deleted maintained the ability to replicate and segregate TR DNA, suggesting a unique role for the residues. Therefore, this work identifies adjacent LANA regions with distinct roles in episome segregation and persistence. KSHV LANA mediates episomal persistence of viral genomes. LANA binds the KSHV terminal-repeat (TR) sequence to mediate DNA replication and tethers KSHV DNA to mitotic chromosomes to segregate genomes to daughter cell nuclei. Here, we investigate LANA sequence upstream of the internal repeat elements that contributes to episome segregation and persistence. Mutants with deletions within this sequence maintained the ability to bind mitotic chromosomes or bind and replicate TR DNA. Deletion of upstream sequence within the region reduced segregation of TR DNA to daughter cells, but not episome maintenance. In contrast, mutants with deletions of 80 amino acids immediately downstream were highly deficient for episome persistence yet maintained the ability to replicate and segregate TR DNA, the two principal components of episome persistence, suggesting another role for the residues. In summary, this work identifies adjacent LANA sequence with distinct roles in episome segregation and persistence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02158-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401465PMC
March 2019

Persistence of Chimeric Virus after Substitution of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus LANA DNA Binding Domain with That of Murid Herpesvirus 4.

J Virol 2018 11 12;92(21). Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal

The latency-associated nuclear antigen from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), kLANA, and its homolog from the murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4), mLANA, are essential for viral latency. kLANA is nearly four times the size of mLANA, mainly due to an extensive central repeat region that is absent in mLANA. Both proteins harbor a C-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD). The DBD binds the terminal repeat (TR) DNA sequences of the viral genome to mediate persistence. Despite structural conservation, the kLANA and mLANA DBDs differ in sequence and mode of oligomerization. kLANA DBD oligomers are flexible and bent, while mLANA DBD oligomers bind DNA in a rigid, linear conformation. We previously reported that kLANA and mLANA acted reciprocally on TR sequences. Furthermore, a MuHV-4 expressing kLANA instead of mLANA (v-kLANA) established latency in mice, albeit at a lower magnitude than the wild-type (WT) virus. Here, we asked if kLANA can accommodate the mLANA DBD and generated a fusion protein which contains kLANA but with the mLANA C-terminal region in place of that of kLANA. We report a recombinant MuHV-4 (v-KM) encoding this LANA fusion protein instead of mLANA. The fusion protein was expressed in lytic infection and assembled nuclear LANA dots in infected splenocytes. Results demonstrated that kLANA functionally accommodated mLANA's mode of DNA binding, allowing MuHV-4 chimeric virus to establish latency Notably, v-KM established latency in germinal center B cells more efficiently than did v-kLANA, although levels were reduced compared to WT MuHV-4. KSHV is a human oncogenic virus for which there is no tractable, immunocompetent animal model of infection. MuHV-4, a related rodent gammaherpesvirus, enables pathogenesis studies in mice. In latency, both viruses persist as extrachromosomal, circular genomes (episomes). LANA proteins encoded by KSHV (kLANA) and MuHV-4 (mLANA) contain a C-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD) that acts on the virus terminal repeats to enable episome persistence. mLANA is a smaller protein than kLANA. Their DBDs are structurally conserved but differ strikingly in the conformation of DNA binding. We report a recombinant, chimeric MuHV-4 which contains kLANA in place of mLANA, but in which the DBD is replaced with that of mLANA. Results showed that kLANA functionally accommodated mLANA's mode of DNA binding. In fact, the new chimeric virus established latency more efficiently than MuHV-4 expressing full-length kLANA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01251-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6189500PMC
November 2018

Cross-species conservation of episome maintenance provides a basis for in vivo investigation of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus LANA.

PLoS Pathog 2017 Sep 14;13(9):e1006555. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Many pathogens, including Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), lack tractable small animal models. KSHV persists as a multi-copy, nuclear episome in latently infected cells. KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (kLANA) binds viral terminal repeat (kTR) DNA to mediate episome persistence. Model pathogen murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) mLANA acts analogously on mTR DNA. kLANA and mLANA differ substantially in size and kTR and mTR show little sequence conservation. Here, we find kLANA and mLANA act reciprocally to mediate episome persistence of TR DNA. Further, kLANA rescued mLANA deficient MHV68, enabling a chimeric virus to establish latent infection in vivo in germinal center B cells. The level of chimeric virus in vivo latency was moderately reduced compared to WT infection, but WT or chimeric MHV68 infected cells had similar viral genome copy numbers as assessed by immunofluorescence of LANA intranuclear dots or qPCR. Thus, despite more than 60 Ma of evolutionary divergence, mLANA and kLANA act reciprocally on TR DNA, and kLANA functionally substitutes for mLANA, allowing kLANA investigation in vivo. Analogous chimeras may allow in vivo investigation of genes of other human pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5599060PMC
September 2017

Identification of a nucleoside analog active against adenosine kinase-expressing plasma cell malignancies.

J Clin Invest 2017 Jun 15;127(6):2066-2080. Epub 2017 May 15.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a largely incurable malignancy of B cell origin with plasmacytic differentiation. Here, we report the identification of a highly effective inhibitor of PEL. This compound, 6-ethylthioinosine (6-ETI), is a nucleoside analog with toxicity to PEL in vitro and in vivo, but not to other lymphoma cell lines tested. We developed and performed resistome analysis, an unbiased approach based on RNA sequencing of resistant subclones, to discover the molecular mechanisms of sensitivity. We found different adenosine kinase-inactivating (ADK-inactivating) alterations in all resistant clones and determined that ADK is required to phosphorylate and activate 6-ETI. Further, we observed that 6-ETI induces ATP depletion and cell death accompanied by S phase arrest and DNA damage only in ADK-expressing cells. Immunohistochemistry for ADK served as a biomarker approach to identify 6-ETI-sensitive tumors, which we documented for other lymphoid malignancies with plasmacytic features. Notably, multiple myeloma (MM) expresses high levels of ADK, and 6-ETI was toxic to MM cell lines and primary specimens and had a robust antitumor effect in a disseminated MM mouse model. Several nucleoside analogs are effective in treating leukemias and T cell lymphomas, and 6-ETI may fill this niche for the treatment of PEL, plasmablastic lymphoma, MM, and other ADK-expressing cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI83936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451239PMC
June 2017

3-D Microwell Array System for Culturing Virus Infected Tumor Cells.

Sci Rep 2016 12 22;6:39144. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Demirci Bio-Acoustic-MEMS in Medicine (BAMM) Laboratories, Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA.

Cancer cells have been increasingly grown in pharmaceutical research to understand tumorigenesis and develop new therapeutic drugs. Currently, cells are typically grown using two-dimensional (2-D) cell culture approaches, where the native tumor microenvironment is difficult to recapitulate. Thus, one of the main obstacles in oncology is the lack of proper infection models that recount main features present in tumors. In recent years, microtechnology-based platforms have been employed to generate three-dimensional (3-D) models that better mimic the native microenvironment in cell culture. Here, we present an innovative approach to culture Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infected human B cells in 3-D using a microwell array system. The results demonstrate that the KSHV-infected B cells can be grown up to 15 days in a 3-D culture. Compared with 2-D, cells grown in 3-D had increased numbers of KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) dots, as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy, indicating a higher viral genome copy number. Cells in 3-D also demonstrated a higher rate of lytic reactivation. The 3-D microwell array system has the potential to improve 3-D cell oncology models and allow for better-controlled studies for drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep39144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5177905PMC
December 2016

Epstein-Barr virus super-enhancer eRNAs are essential for MYC oncogene expression and lymphoblast proliferation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 12 18;113(49):14121-14126. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115;

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) super-enhancers (ESEs) are essential for lymphoblastoid cell (LCL) growth and survival. Reanalyses of LCL global run-on sequencing (Gro-seq) data found abundant enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) being transcribed at ESEs. Inactivation of ESE components, EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), significantly decreased eRNAs at ESEs -428 and -525 kb upstream of the MYC oncogene transcription start site (TSS). shRNA knockdown of the MYC -428 and -525 ESE eRNA caused LCL growth arrest and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, MYC ESE eRNA knockdown also significantly reduced MYC expression, ESE H3K27ac signals, and MYC ESEs looping to MYC TSS. These data indicate that ESE eRNAs strongly affect cell gene expression and enable LCL growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616697113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5150416PMC
December 2016

Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus Genome Persistence.

Front Microbiol 2016 12;7:1149. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has an etiologic role in Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. These diseases are most common in immunocompromised individuals, especially those with AIDS. Similar to all herpesviruses, KSHV infection is lifelong. KSHV infection in tumor cells is primarily latent, with only a small subset of cells undergoing lytic infection. During latency, the KSHV genome persists as a multiple copy, extrachromosomal episome in the nucleus. In order to persist in proliferating tumor cells, the viral genome replicates once per cell cycle and then segregates to daughter cell nuclei. KSHV only expresses several genes during latent infection. Prominent among these genes, is the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). LANA is responsible for KSHV genome persistence and also exerts transcriptional regulatory effects. LANA mediates KSHV DNA replication and in addition, is responsible for segregation of replicated genomes to daughter nuclei. LANA serves as a molecular tether, bridging the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes to ensure that KSHV DNA reaches progeny nuclei. N-terminal LANA attaches to mitotic chromosomes by binding histones H2A/H2B at the surface of the nucleosome. C-terminal LANA binds specific KSHV DNA sequence and also has a role in chromosome attachment. In addition to the essential roles of N- and C-terminal LANA in genome persistence, internal LANA sequence is also critical for efficient episome maintenance. LANA's role as an essential mediator of virus persistence makes it an attractive target for inhibition in order to prevent or treat KSHV infection and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982378PMC
August 2016

Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Impacts Gammaherpesvirus-Driven Germinal Center B Cell Proliferation.

J Virol 2016 09 12;90(17):7667-83. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal

Unlabelled: Viruses have evolved mechanisms to hijack components of cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases, thus modulating the ubiquitination pathway. However, the biological relevance of such mechanisms for viral pathogenesis in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we utilized murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infection of mice as a model system to address the role of MuHV-4 latency-associated nuclear antigen (mLANA) E3 ligase activity in gammaherpesvirus latent infection. We show that specific mutations in the mLANA SOCS box (V199A, V199A/L202A, or P203A/P206A) disrupted mLANA's ability to recruit Elongin C and Cullin 5, thereby impairing the formation of the Elongin BC/Cullin 5/SOCS (EC5S(mLANA)) complex and mLANA's E3 ligase activity on host NF-κB and Myc. Although these mutations resulted in considerably reduced mLANA binding to viral terminal repeat DNA as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), the mutations did not disrupt mLANA's ability to mediate episome persistence. In vivo, MuHV-4 recombinant viruses bearing these mLANA SOCS box mutations exhibited a deficit in latency amplification in germinal center (GC) B cells. These findings demonstrate that the E3 ligase activity of mLANA contributes to gammaherpesvirus-driven GC B cell proliferation. Hence, pharmacological inhibition of viral E3 ligase activity through targeting SOCS box motifs is a putative strategy to control gammaherpesvirus-driven lymphoproliferation and associated disease.

Importance: The gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) cause lifelong persistent infection and play causative roles in several human malignancies. Colonization of B cells is crucial for virus persistence, and access to the B cell compartment is gained by virus-driven proliferation in germinal center (GC) B cells. Infection of B cells is predominantly latent, with the viral genome persisting as a multicopy episome and expressing only a small subset of viral genes. Here, we focused on latency-associated nuclear antigen (mLANA) encoded by murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), which exhibits homology in sequence, structure, and function to KSHV LANA (kLANA), thereby allowing the study of LANA-mediated pathogenesis in mice. Our experiments show that mLANA's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is necessary for efficient expansion of latency in GC B cells, suggesting that the development of pharmacological inhibitors of LANA E3 ubiquitin ligase activity may allow strategies to interfere with gammaherpesvirus-driven lymphoproliferation and associated disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00813-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4988161PMC
September 2016

Electrical response of a B lymphoma cell line latently infected with Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus.

Biosens Bioelectron 2016 Jun 26;80:230-236. Epub 2016 Jan 26.

Division of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Certain viruses, such as herpesviruses, are capable of persistent and latent infection of host cells. Distinguishing and separating live, latently infected cells from uninfected cells is not easily attainable using current approaches. The ability to perform such separation would greatly enhance the ability to study primary, infected cells and potentially enable elimination of latently infected cells from the host. Here, the dielectrophoretic response of B cells infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) were investigated and compared to uninfected B cells. We evaluated the effect of applied voltage, signal frequency, and flow rate of the sample on the cell capture efficiency. We achieved 37.1% ± 8.5% difference in capture efficiencies between latently KSHV-infected and uninfected BJAB B lymphoma cells at the chip operational conditions of 1V, 50 kHz and 0.02 μl/min sample flow rate. Our results show that latently infected B lymphoma cells demonstrated significantly different electrical response compared to uninfected B cells and DEP-based microchips can be potentially used for sorting latently infected cells based on their electrical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.01.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4779410PMC
June 2016

KSHV but not MHV-68 LANA induces a strong bend upon binding to terminal repeat viral DNA.

Nucleic Acids Res 2015 Nov 30;43(20):10039-54. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras 2700-157, Portugal

Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is central to episomal tethering, replication and transcriptional regulation of γ2-herpesviruses. LANA binds cooperatively to the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral episome via adjacent LANA binding sites (LBS), but the molecular mechanism by which LANA assembles on the TR remains elusive. We show that KSHV LANA and MHV-68 LANA proteins bind LBS DNA using strikingly different modes. Solution structure of LANA complexes revealed that while kLANA tetramer is intrinsically bent both in the free and bound state to LBS1-2 DNA, mLANA oligomers instead adopt a rigid linear conformation. In addition, we report a novel non-ring kLANA structure that displays more flexibility at its assembly interface than previously demonstrated. We identified a hydrophobic pivot point located at the dimer-dimer assembly interface, which gives rotational freedom for kLANA to adopt variable conformations to accommodate both LBS1-2 and LBS2-1-3 DNA. Alterations in the arrangement of LBS within TR or at the tetramer assembly interface have a drastic effect on the ability of kLANA binding. We also show kLANA and mLANA DNA binding functions can be reciprocated. Although KSHV and MHV-68 are closely related, the findings provide new insights into how the structure, oligomerization, and DNA binding of LANA have evolved differently to assemble on the TR DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4787769PMC
November 2015

The Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus Latency-associated Nuclear Antigen DNA Binding Domain Dorsal Positive Electrostatic Patch Facilitates DNA Replication and Episome Persistence.

J Biol Chem 2015 Nov 29;290(47):28084-96. Epub 2015 Sep 29.

From the Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115,

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has a causative role in several human malignancies. KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates persistence of viral episomes in latently infected cells. LANA mediates KSHV DNA replication and segregates episomes to progeny nuclei. The structure of the LANA DNA binding domain was recently solved, revealing a positive electrostatic patch opposite the DNA binding surface, which is the site of BET protein binding. Here we investigate the functional role of the positive patch in LANA-mediated episome persistence. As expected, LANA mutants with alanine or glutamate substitutions in the central, peripheral, or lateral portions of the positive patch maintained the ability to bind DNA by EMSA. However, all of the substitution mutants were deficient for LANA DNA replication and episome maintenance. Mutation of the peripheral region generated the largest deficiencies. Despite these deficiencies, all positive patch mutants concentrated to dots along mitotic chromosomes in cells containing episomes, similar to LANA. The central and peripheral mutants, but not the lateral mutants, were reduced for BET protein interaction as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. However, defects in BET protein binding were independent of episome maintenance function. Overall, the reductions in episome maintenance closely correlated with DNA replication deficiencies, suggesting that the replication defects account for the reduced episome persistence. Therefore, the electrostatic patch exerts a key role in LANA-mediated DNA replication and episome persistence and may act through a host cell partner(s) other than a BET protein or by inducing specific structures or complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.674622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4653668PMC
November 2015

Multitarget, quantitative nanoplasmonic electrical field-enhanced resonating device (NE2RD) for diagnostics.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Aug 20;112(32):E4354-63. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Demirci Bio-Acoustic-Microelectromechanical Systems in Medicine (BAMM) Laboratory, Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection, Radiology Department, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304; Department of Electrical Engineering (By courtesy), Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305

Recent advances in biosensing technologies present great potential for medical diagnostics, thus improving clinical decisions. However, creating a label-free general sensing platform capable of detecting multiple biotargets in various clinical specimens over a wide dynamic range, without lengthy sample-processing steps, remains a considerable challenge. In practice, these barriers prevent broad applications in clinics and at patients' homes. Here, we demonstrate the nanoplasmonic electrical field-enhanced resonating device (NE(2)RD), which addresses all these impediments on a single platform. The NE(2)RD employs an immunodetection assay to capture biotargets, and precisely measures spectral color changes by their wavelength and extinction intensity shifts in nanoparticles without prior sample labeling or preprocessing. We present through multiple examples, a label-free, quantitative, portable, multitarget platform by rapidly detecting various protein biomarkers, drugs, protein allergens, bacteria, eukaryotic cells, and distinct viruses. The linear dynamic range of NE(2)RD is five orders of magnitude broader than ELISA, with a sensitivity down to 400 fg/mL This range and sensitivity are achieved by self-assembling gold nanoparticles to generate hot spots on a 3D-oriented substrate for ultrasensitive measurements. We demonstrate that this precise platform handles multiple clinical samples such as whole blood, serum, and saliva without sample preprocessing under diverse conditions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. The NE(2)RD's broad dynamic range, detection limit, and portability integrated with a disposable fluidic chip have broad applications, potentially enabling the transition toward precision medicine at the point-of-care or primary care settings and at patients' homes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1510824112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4538635PMC
August 2015

Printed Flexible Plastic Microchip for Viral Load Measurement through Quantitative Detection of Viruses in Plasma and Saliva.

Sci Rep 2015 Jun 5;5:9919. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

1] Division of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA [2] Department of Radiology, Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

We report a biosensing platform for viral load measurement through electrical sensing of viruses on a flexible plastic microchip with printed electrodes. Point-of-care (POC) viral load measurement is of paramount importance with significant impact on a broad range of applications, including infectious disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring specifically in resource-constrained settings. Here, we present a broadly applicable and inexpensive biosensing technology for accurate quantification of bioagents, including viruses in biological samples, such as plasma and artificial saliva, at clinically relevant concentrations. Our microchip fabrication is simple and mass-producible as we print microelectrodes on flexible plastic substrates using conductive inks. We evaluated the microchip technology by detecting and quantifying multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, G, and panel), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) in a fingerprick volume (50 µL) of PBS, plasma, and artificial saliva samples for a broad range of virus concentrations between 10(2) copies/mL and 10(7) copies/mL. We have also evaluated the microchip platform with discarded, de-identified HIV-infected patient samples by comparing our microchip viral load measurement results with reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as the gold standard method using Bland-Altman Analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep09919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4456945PMC
June 2015

Functional heterogeneity in the CD4+ T cell response to murine γ-herpesvirus 68.

J Immunol 2015 Mar 6;194(6):2746-56. Epub 2015 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756;

CD4(+) T cells are critical for the control of virus infections, T cell memory, and immune surveillance. We studied the differentiation and function of murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68)-specific CD4(+) T cells using gp150-specific TCR-transgenic mice. This allowed a more detailed study of the characteristics of the CD4(+) T cell response than did previously available approaches for this virus. Most gp150-specific CD4(+) T cells expressed T-bet and produced IFN-γ, indicating that MHV-68 infection triggered differentiation of CD4(+) T cells largely into the Th1 subset, whereas some became follicular Th cells and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. These CD4(+) T cells were protective against MHV-68 infection in the absence of CD8(+) T cells and B cells, and protection depended on IFN-γ secretion. Marked heterogeneity was observed in the CD4(+) T cells, based on lymphocyte Ag 6C (Ly6C) expression. Ly6C expression positively correlated with IFN-γ, TNF-α, and granzyme B production; T-bet and KLRG1 expression; proliferation; and CD4(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Ly6C expression inversely correlated with survival, CCR7 expression, and secondary expansion potential. Ly6C(+) and Ly6C(-) gp150-specific CD4(+) T cells were able to interconvert in a bidirectional manner upon secondary Ag exposure in vivo. These results indicate that Ly6C expression is closely associated with antiviral activity in effector CD4(+) T cells but is inversely correlated with memory potential. Interconversion between Ly6C(+) and Ly6C(-) cells may maintain a balance between the two Ag-specific CD4(+) T cell populations during MHV-68 infection. These findings have significant implications for Ly6C as a surface marker to distinguish functionally distinct CD4(+) T cells during persistent virus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1401928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355211PMC
March 2015

Assay Development and High-Throughput Screening for Inhibitors of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus N-Terminal Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen Binding to Nucleosomes.

J Biomol Screen 2014 Jul 11;19(6):947-58. Epub 2014 Feb 11.

Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has a causative role in several human malignancies, especially in immunocompromised hosts. KSHV latently infects tumor cells and persists as an extrachromosomal episome (plasmid). KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates KSHV episome persistence. LANA binds specific KSHV sequence to replicate viral DNA. In addition, LANA tethers KSHV genomes to mitotic chromosomes to efficiently segregate episomes to daughter nuclei after mitosis. N-terminal LANA (N-LANA) binds histones H2A and H2B to attach to chromosomes. Currently, there are no specific inhibitors of KSHV latent infection. To enable high-throughput screening (HTS) of inhibitors of N-LANA binding to nucleosomes, here we develop, miniaturize, and validate a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay that detects fluorophore-labeled N-LANA peptide binding to nucleosomes. We also miniaturize a counterscreen to identify DNA intercalators that nonspecifically inhibit N-LANA binding to nucleosomes, and also develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess N-LANA binding to nucleosomes in the absence of fluorescence. HTS of libraries containing more than 350,000 compounds identified multiple compounds that inhibited N-LANA binding to nucleosomes. No compounds survived all counterscreens, however. More complex small-molecule libraries will likely be necessary to identify specific inhibitors of N-LANA binding to histones H2A and H2B; these assays should prove useful for future screens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087057114520973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4656118PMC
July 2014

A short sequence immediately upstream of the internal repeat elements is critical for KSHV LANA mediated DNA replication and impacts episome persistence.

Virology 2014 Jan 12;448:344-55. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, United States.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA (1162 residues) mediates episomal persistence of viral genomes during latency. LANA mediates viral DNA replication and segregates episomes to daughter nuclei. A 59 residue deletion immediately upstream of the internal repeat elements rendered LANA highly deficient for DNA replication and modestly deficient for the ability to segregate episomes, while smaller deletions did not. The 59 amino acid deletion reduced LANA episome persistence by ~14-fold, while sequentially smaller deletions resulted in ~3-fold, or no deficiency. Three distinct LANA regions reorganized heterochromatin, one of which contains the deleted sequence, but the deletion did not abolish LANA's ability to alter chromatin. Therefore, this work identifies a short internal LANA sequence that is critical for DNA replication, has modest effects on episome segregation, and substantially impacts episome persistence; this region may exert its effects through an interacting host cell protein(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2013.10.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857964PMC
January 2014

Crystal structure of the gamma-2 herpesvirus LANA DNA binding domain identifies charged surface residues which impact viral latency.

PLoS Pathog 2013 17;9(10):e1003673. Epub 2013 Oct 17.

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal.

Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates γ2-herpesvirus genome persistence and regulates transcription. We describe the crystal structure of the murine gammaherpesvirus-68 LANA C-terminal domain at 2.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals an alpha-beta fold that assembles as a dimer, reminiscent of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1. A predicted DNA binding surface is present and opposite this interface is a positive electrostatic patch. Targeted DNA recognition substitutions eliminated DNA binding, while certain charged patch mutations reduced bromodomain protein, BRD4, binding. Virus containing LANA abolished for DNA binding was incapable of viable latent infection in mice. Virus with mutations at the charged patch periphery exhibited substantial deficiency in expansion of latent infection, while central region substitutions had little effect. This deficiency was independent of BRD4. These results elucidate the LANA DNA binding domain structure and reveal a unique charged region that exerts a critical role in viral latent infection, likely acting through a host cell protein(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3798461PMC
May 2014

Identification of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA regions important for episome segregation, replication, and persistence.

J Virol 2013 Nov 4;87(22):12270-83. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a 1,162-amino-acid protein that mediates the maintenance of episomal viral genomes in latently infected cells. The two central components of episome persistence are DNA replication with each cell division and the segregation of DNA to progeny nuclei. LANA self-associates to bind KSHV terminal-repeat (TR) DNA and to mediate its replication. LANA also simultaneously binds to TR DNA and mitotic chromosomes to mediate the segregation of episomes to daughter nuclei. The N-terminal region of LANA binds histones H2A and H2B to attach to mitotic chromosomes, while the C-terminal region binds TR DNA and also associates with chromosomes. Both the N- and C-terminal regions of LANA are essential for episome persistence. We recently showed that deletion of all internal LANA sequences results in highly deficient episome maintenance. Here we assess independent internal LANA regions for effects on episome persistence. We generated a panel of LANA mutants that included deletions in the large internal repeat region and in the unique internal sequence. All mutants contained the essential N- and C-terminal regions, and as expected, all maintained the ability to associate with mitotic chromosomes in a wild-type fashion and to bind TR DNA, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Deletion of the internal regions did not reduce the half-life of LANA. Notably, deletions within either the repeat elements or the unique sequence resulted in deficiencies in DNA replication. However, only the unique internal sequence exerted effects on the ability of LANA to retain green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression from TR-containing episomes deficient in DNA replication, consistent with a role in episome segregation; this region did not independently associate with mitotic chromosomes. All mutants were deficient in episome persistence, and the deficiencies ranged from minor to severe. Mutants deficient in DNA replication that contained deletions within the unique internal sequence had the most-severe deficits. These data suggest that internal LANA regions exert critical roles in LANA-mediated DNA replication, segregation, and episome persistence, likely through interactions with key host cell factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01243-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3807934PMC
November 2013

Stabilization of Myc through heterotypic poly-ubiquitination by mLANA is critical for γ-herpesvirus lymphoproliferation.

PLoS Pathog 2013 8;9(8):e1003554. Epub 2013 Aug 8.

Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Host colonization by lymphotropic γ-herpesviruses depends critically on expansion of viral genomes in germinal center (GC) B-cells. Myc is essential for the formation and maintenance of GCs. Yet, the role of Myc in the pathogenesis of γ-herpesviruses is still largely unknown. In this study, Myc was shown to be essential for the lymphotropic γ-herpesvirus MuHV-4 biology as infected cells exhibited increased expression of Myc signature genes and the virus was unable to expand in Myc defficient GC B-cells. We describe a novel strategy of a viral protein activating Myc through increased protein stability resulting in increased progression through the cell cycle. This is acomplished by modulating a physiological post-translational regulatory pathway of Myc. The molecular mechanism involves Myc heterotypic poly-ubiquitination mediated via the viral E3 ubiquitin-ligase mLANA protein. EC5S(mLANA) modulates cellular control of Myc turnover by antagonizing SCF(Fbw7) mediated proteasomal degradation of Myc, mimicking SCF(β-TrCP). The findings here reported reveal that modulation of Myc is essential for γ-herpesvirus persistent infection, establishing a link between virus induced lymphoproliferation and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3738482PMC
March 2014

Timeless-dependent DNA replication-coupled recombination promotes Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus episome maintenance and terminal repeat stability.

J Virol 2013 Apr 16;87(7):3699-709. Epub 2013 Jan 16.

Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is maintained as a stable episome in latently infected pleural effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells. Episome maintenance is conferred by the binding of the KSHV-encoded LANA protein to the viral terminal repeats (TR). Here, we show that DNA replication in the KSHV TR is coupled with DNA recombination and mediated in part through the cellular replication fork protection factors Timeless (Tim) and Tipin. We show by two-dimensional (2D) agarose gel electrophoresis that replication forks naturally stall and form recombination-like structures at the TR during an unperturbed cell cycle. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that Tim and Tipin are selectively enriched at the KSHV TR during S phase and in a LANA-dependent manner. Tim depletion inhibited LANA-dependent TR DNA replication and caused the loss of KSHV episomes from latently infected PEL cells. Tim depletion resulted in the aberrant accumulation of recombination structures and arrested MCM helicase at TR. Tim depletion did not induce the KSHV lytic cycle or apoptotic cell death. We propose that KSHV episome maintenance requires Tim-assisted replication fork protection at the viral terminal repeats and that Tim-dependent recombination-like structures form at TR to promote DNA repeat stability and viral genome maintenance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02211-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3624199PMC
April 2013

Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 LANA acts on terminal repeat DNA to mediate episome persistence.

J Virol 2012 Nov 22;86(21):11863-76. Epub 2012 Aug 22.

Channing Laboratory and Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) ORF73 (mLANA) has sequence homology to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). LANA acts on the KSHV terminal repeat (TR) elements to mediate KSHV episome maintenance. Disruption of mLANA expression severely reduces the ability of MHV68 to establish latent infection in mice, consistent with the possibility that mLANA mediates episome persistence. Here we assess the roles of mLANA and MHV68 TR (mTR) elements in episome persistence. mTR-associated DNA persisted as an episome in latently MHV68-infected tumor cells, demonstrating that the mTR elements can serve as a cis-acting element for MHV68 episome maintenance. In some cases, both control vector and mTR-associated DNAs integrated into MHV68 episomal genomes. Therefore, we also assessed the roles of mTRs as well as mLANA in the absence of infection. DNA containing both mLANA and mTRs in cis persisted as an episome in murine A20 or MEF cells. In contrast, mTR DNA never persisted as an episome in the absence of mLANA. mLANA levels were increased when mLANA was expressed from its native promoters, and episome maintenance was more efficient with higher mLANA levels. Increased numbers of mTRs conferred more efficient episome maintenance, since DNA containing mLANA and eight mTR elements persisted more efficiently in A20 cells than did DNA with mLANA and two or four mTRs. Similar to KSHV LANA, mLANA broadly associated with mitotic chromosomes but relocalized to concentrated dots in the presence of episomes. Therefore, mLANA acts on mTR elements to mediate MHV68 episome persistence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01656-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3486315PMC
November 2012

The latency-associated nuclear antigen, a multifunctional protein central to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency.

Future Microbiol 2011 Dec;6(12):1399-413

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama in Birmingham, School of Medicine, Children's Harbor Building, Room 148, 1600 6th Ave South, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA.

Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is encoded by the Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) open reading frame 73. LANA is expressed during latent KSHV infection of cells, including tumor cells, such as primary effusion lymphoma, KS and multicentric Castleman's disease. Latently infected cells have multiple extrachromosomal copies of covalently closed circular KSHV genomes (episomes) that are stably maintained in proliferating cells. LANA's best characterized function is that of mediating episome persistence. It does so by binding terminal repeat sequences to the chromosomal matrix, thus ensuring episome replication with each cell division and efficient DNA segregation to daughter nuclei after mitosis. To achieve these functions, LANA associates with different host cell proteins, including chromatin-associated proteins and proteins involved in DNA replication. In addition to episome maintenance, LANA has transcriptional regulatory effects and affects cell growth. LANA exerts these functions through interactions with different cell proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb.11.137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857968PMC
December 2011

Newer beta-lactam antibiotics: doripenem, ceftobiprole, ceftaroline, and cefepime.

Med Clin North Am 2011 Jul;95(4):743-60, viii

Division of Infectious Diseases, The Ohio State University Medical Center, N1129 Doan Hall, 410 West 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

This article reviews the new beta-lactam (β-lactam) antibiotics doripenem, ceftobiprole, and ceftaroline. It covers pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, dosing, in vitro activities, safety, and clinical trial results. Doripenem (Doribax) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections. Ceftaroline has received FDA approval for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections and community acquired pneumonia. Ceftobiprole has not received FDA approval. The article also reviews recent data suggesting increased overall mortality with Cefepime (Maxipime) use compared with other beta-lactam antibiotics and the potential risk for neurotoxicity in the setting of renal failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2011.03.009DOI Listing
July 2011

The internal Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA regions exert a critical role on episome persistence.

J Virol 2011 Aug 18;85(15):7622-33. Epub 2011 May 18.

Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 181 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a 1,162-amino-acid protein that acts on viral terminal repeat (TR) DNA to mediate KSHV episome persistence. The two essential components of episome persistence are DNA replication prior to cell division and episome segregation to daughter nuclei. These functions are located within N- and C-terminal regions of LANA. N- and C-terminal regions of LANA are sufficient for TR DNA replication. In addition, N- and C-terminal regions of LANA tether episomes to mitotic chromosomes to segregate episomes to progeny cell nuclei. To generate a tethering mechanism, N-terminal LANA binds histones H2A/H2B to attach to mitotic chromosomes, and C-terminal LANA binds TR DNA and also associates with mitotic chromosomes. Here, we test the importance of the internal LANA sequence for episome persistence. We generated LANA mutants that contain N- and C-terminal regions of LANA but have most of the internal sequence deleted. As expected, the LANA mutants bound mitotic chromosomes in a wild-type pattern and also bound TR DNA as assayed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). The mutants mediated TR DNA replication, although with reduced efficiency compared with LANA. Despite the ability to replicate DNA and exert the chromosome and DNA binding functions necessary for segregating episomes to daughter nuclei, the mutants were highly deficient for the ability to mediate both short- and long-term episome persistence. These data indicate that internal LANA sequence exerts a critical effect on its ability to maintain episomes, possibly through effects on TR DNA replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00304-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3147901PMC
August 2011

Rapid and quantitative assessment of KSHV LANA-mediated DNA replication.

Arch Virol 2011 Aug 7;156(8):1323-33. Epub 2011 Apr 7.

Channing Laboratory and Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates DNA replication of terminal repeat (TR) DNA to enable viral episome persistence in latently infected cells. Southern blotting is routinely used to detect LANA-replicated DNA. We developed and validated a real-time PCR assay for TR-associated DNA and compared it with Southern blot analysis. Both PCR and Southern blot detected LANA-replicated DNA, but the PCR assay was more rapid and did not require radioisotope. PCR detection at 24 and 72 hours post-transfection demonstrated rapid loss of transfected TR DNA. LANA, and to a lesser extent a moderately deficient LANA mutant, reduced the rate of DNA loss through addition of replicated TR DNA and reduction in the loss of non-replicated DNA, the latter of which is consistent with LANA's nuclear segregation function. Therefore, this work develops a rapid, sensitive, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect KSHV LANA-replicated DNA and demonstrates that LANA reduces TR DNA loss after transfection through replication and nuclear partitioning of TR DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-011-0985-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145832PMC
August 2011