Publications by authors named "Kenneth C Huber"

8 Publications

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Transesophageal echocardiographic diagnosis of a WATCHMAN left atrial appendage closure device thrombus 10 years following implantation.

Echocardiography 2017 Jan 16;34(1):128-130. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Saint Luke's Mid-America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Left atrial appendage closure with the WATCHMAN device is an alternative to chronic oral anticoagulation for thromboembolic prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation patients. Left atrial device-related thrombus (DRT) has been described in the first year after implant with an incidence of ~6%. A 79-year-old man underwent WATCHMAN device placement in 2006. Routine protocol specified follow-up transesophageal echocardiograms (TEE) at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year following implant showed no evidence for DRT or peri-device flow. A decade after device implant, the patient presented with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis and underwent repeat TEE, which revealed a 21 mm × 18 mm DRT on the LA aspect of the WATCHMAN device. He was prescribed apixaban 5 mg po BID. A TEE performed 111 days later demonstrated marked diminution in the DRT (9 mm in diameter). This case demonstrates that WATCHMAN DRT may occur late following implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.13413DOI Listing
January 2017

Assessment of Device-Related Thrombus and Associated Clinical Outcomes With the WATCHMAN Left Atrial Appendage Closure Device for Embolic Protection in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (from the PROTECT-AF Trial).

Am J Cardiol 2016 Apr 1;117(7):1127-34. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Left atrial appendage closure with the WATCHMAN device is an alternative to anticoagulation for stroke prevention in selected patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). LA device-related thrombus (DRT) is poorly defined and understood. We aimed to (1) develop consensus echocardiographic diagnostic criteria for DRT; (2) estimate the incidence of DRT; and (3) determine clinical event rates in patients with DRT. In phase 1 (training), a training manual was developed and reviewed by 3 echocardiographers with left atrial appendage closure device experience. All available transesophageal (TEE) studies in the WATCHMAN left atrial appendage system for embolic protection in patients with atrial fibrillation (PROTECT-AF) trial patients with suspected DRT were reviewed in 2 subsequent phases. In phase 2 (primary blind read), each reviewer independently scored each study for DRT, and final echo criteria were developed. Unanimously scored studies were considered adjudicated, whereas all others were reevaluated by all reviewers in phase 3 (group adjudication read). DRT was suspected in 35 of 485 patients by the site investigator, the echocardiography core laboratory, or both; 93 of the individual TEE studies were available for review. In phase 2, 3 readers agreed on 67 (72%) of time points. Based on phases 1 and 2, 5 DRT criteria were developed. In phase 3, studies without agreement in phase 2 were adjudicated using these criteria. Overall, at least 1 TEE was DRT positive in 27 (5.7%) PROTECT-AF patients. Stroke, peripheral embolism, or cardiac/unexplained death occurred in subjects with DRT at a rate of 3.4 per 100 patient-years follow-up. In conclusion, DRT were identified on at least 1 TEE in 27 PROTECT-AF patients, indicating a DRT incidence of 5.7%. Primary efficacy events in patients with DRT occurred at a rate of 3.4 per 100 patient-years follow-up, intermediate in frequency between event rates previously reported for the overall device and warfarin arms in PROTECT-AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.01.039DOI Listing
April 2016

Resolution (and Late Recurrence) of WATCHMAN Device-Related Thrombus Following Treatment with Dabigatran.

Echocardiography 2016 May 17;33(5):792-795. Epub 2016 Jan 17.

Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, Missouri.

The WATCHMAN left atrial (LA) appendage closure system is an alternative therapy for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation who are intolerant to chronic oral anticoagulation with warfarin. Infrequently, LA device-related thrombus (DRT) has been suspected. Optimal treatment of DRT is not known, and the efficacy of novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in this setting has not been previously described. A 69-year-old woman with permanent atrial fibrillation underwent WATCHMAN device placement. A transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) performed 45 days following implant revealed a well-seated device. A 1-year follow-up TEE revealed a 1.2 × 0.8 cm sized DRT on the LA aspect of the WATCHMAN device. She was prescribed dabigatran 150 mg po BID for 3 months and she remained on aspirin 325 mg per day. She returned approximately 4 months later (and several weeks after completing her 3-month course of dabigatran) for a repeat TEE, which revealed complete resolution of the DRT. A TEE was performed approximately 8 months later and revealed a new DRT measuring 1 cm in diameter on the LA aspect of the device. This is the first report of successful WATCHMAN DRT treatment with a NOAC, and the first report of late DRT recurrence following treatment to resolution with an anticoagulant. This case report demonstrates that (1) WATCHMAN DRT may form late following implantation, (2) DRT resolution is possible with NOACs, specifically dabigatran, and (3) late recurrence of DRT is possible, even after treatment to initial resolution with systemic anticoagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.13174DOI Listing
May 2016

Bleeding Outcomes After Left Atrial Appendage Closure Compared With Long-Term Warfarin: A Pooled, Patient-Level Analysis of the WATCHMAN Randomized Trial Experience.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2015 Dec 25;8(15):1925-1932. Epub 2015 Nov 25.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the relative risk of major bleeding with left atrial appendage (LAA) closure compared with long-term warfarin therapy.

Background: LAA closure is an alternative approach to chronic oral anticoagulation for the prevention of thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods: We conducted a pooled, patient-level analysis of the 2 randomized clinical trials that compared WATCHMAN (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) LAA closure with long-term warfarin therapy in AF.

Results: A total of 1,114 patients were included, with a median follow-up of 3.1 years. The overall rate of major bleeding from randomization to the end of follow-up was similar between treatment groups (3.5 events vs. 3.6 events per 100 patient-years; rate ratio [RR]: 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66 to 1.40; p = 0.84). LAA closure significantly reduced bleeding >7 days post-randomization (1.8 events vs. 3.6 events per 100 patient-years; RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.75; p = 0.001), with the difference emerging 6 months after randomization (1.0 events vs. 3.5 events per 100 patient-years; RR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.49; p < 0.001), when patients assigned to LAA closure were able to discontinue adjunctive oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy. The reduction in bleeding with LAA closure was directionally consistent across all patient subgroups.

Conclusions: There was no difference in the overall rate of major bleeding in patients assigned to LAA closure compared with extended warfarin therapy over 3 years of follow-up. However, LAA closure significantly reduced bleeding beyond the procedural period, particularly once adjunctive pharmacotherapy was discontinued. The favorable effect of LAA closure on long-term bleeding should be considered when selecting a stroke prevention strategy for patients with nonvalvular AF. (WATCHMAN Left Atrial Appendage System for Embolic PROTECTion in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation; NCT00129545; and Evaluation of the WATCHMAN LAA Closure Device in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Versus Long Term Warfarin Therapy [PREVAIL]; NCT01182441).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2015.08.035DOI Listing
December 2015

Contrast enhanced transesophageal echocardiographic guidance of left atrial appendage closure device implantation.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010 Sep 31;23(9):1007.e3-4. Epub 2010 Mar 31.

Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USA.

The percutaneous implantation of a left atrial appendage closure device offers an alternative to chronic oral anticoagulation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and concomitant risk factors for stroke. Transesophageal echocardiography plays a key role in defining left atrial appendage anatomy and in guiding device implantation. The authors describe a case in which contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiography was critically important in spatially resolving the borders of the left atrial appendage, which ultimately led to successful device implantation with cessation of warfarin therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2010.02.009DOI Listing
September 2010

Multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with multivessel disease and acute myocardial infarction.

Am Heart J 2004 Sep;148(3):493-500

Section of Cardiology, Biostatistics, and Outcomes Research, Mid America Heart Institute, St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Mo 64111, USA.

Background: The optimal percutaneous interventional strategy for dealing with significant non-culprit lesions in patients with multivessel disease (MVD) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at presentation remains controversial.

Methods: A total of 820 patients treated with primary angioplasty for AMI between 1998 and 2002 were classified in groups of patients with single vessel disease (SVD) or MVD (> or =70% stenosis of > or =2 coronary arteries). Patients with MVD were subdivided in 3 groups on the basis of the revascularization strategy: 1) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the infarct-related artery (IRA) only; 2) patients undergoing PCI of both the IRA and non-IRA(s) during the initial procedure; and 3) patients undergoing PCI of the IRA followed by staged, in-hospital PCI of the non-IRA(s). Procedural, 30-day, and 1-year outcomes are reported.

Results: At 1 year, compared with patients with SVD, patients with MVD had a higher incidence of re-infarction (5.9% vs 1.6%, P =.003), revascularization (18% vs 9.6%, P <.001), mortality (12% vs 3.2%, P <.001), and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; 31% vs 13%, P <.001). In patients with MVD, compared with PCI restricted to the IRA only, multivessel PCI was associated with higher rates of re-infarction (13.0% vs 2.8%, P <.001), revascularization (25% vs 15%, P =.007), and MACEs (40% vs 28%, P =.006). Multivessel PCI was an independent predictor of MACEs at 1 year (odds ratio = 1.67, P =.01).

Conclusions: These data suggest that in patients with MVD, PCI should be directed at the IRA only, with decisions about PCI of non-culprit lesions guided by objective evidence of residual ischemia at late follow-up. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2004.03.051DOI Listing
September 2004

Improving in-hospital mortality in the setting of an increasing risk profile among patients undergoing catheter-based reperfusion for an acute myocardial infarction without cardiogenic shock.

J Invasive Cardiol 2003 Dec;15(12):711-6

Mid America Heart Institute, St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri 64111, USA.

Unlabelled: Prompt myocardial reperfusion is the therapeutic goal for patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, there remains a paucity of clinical data from single centers solely dedicated to a catheter-based reperfusion strategy. Therefore, we sought to identify significant predictors of in-hospital mortality, to determine the changing profile of patient demographics and to identify the mortality trend over time.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for an AMI between January of 1982 and December of 1999 were included in this multivariable analysis (excluding cardiogenic shock). AMI was defined as an evolving myocardial infarction within the preceding 24 hours. The primary endpoint for this analysis was in-hospital mortality.

Results: There were 2,745 patients identified in this study, of which 8.3% (n = 228) were non-survivors. The significant multivariable predictors of in-hospital mortality included creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl [relative risk (RR), 5.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0 8.1], ejection fraction < 40% (RR, 6.6; 95% CI, 4.3 10.0), multivessel disease (RR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.9 4.2), female (RR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6 3.1) and age > 70 years (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 2.2). The incidence of patients with these high-risk characteristics increased in recent years; thus, the unadjusted slope of the mortality trend over 20 years was not significant. However, following adjustment for the temporal shift in high-risk variables, there was a significant reduction in the adjusted in-hospital mortality rate (RR, 0.89; 95% CI 0.8 0.98; p = 0.017). Despite the changing risk profile, the short-term mortality continues to improve for patients undergoing AMI PCI.
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December 2003

Diabetes mellitus is associated with a shift in the temporal risk profile of inhospital death after percutaneous coronary intervention: an analysis of 25,223 patients over 20 years.

Am Heart J 2003 Feb;145(2):270-7

Mid America Heart Institute, Saint Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, MO 64111, USA.

Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with diabetes have higher rates of restenosis, late myocardial infarction, and late death after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, it remains unclear whether patients with diabetes mellitus also have an increased hazard for early death after either elective or urgent PCI.

Methods: Patients undergoing PCI at the Mid American Heart Institute between 1980 and 1999 were identified. The main end point was inhospital death. Patients were stratified both by diabetes status and whether they underwent elective or urgent PCI.

Results: There were 17,341 nondiabetic patients and 4308 patients with diabetes who underwent elective PCI. There were 2946 nondiabetic patients and 628 patients with diabetes who underwent urgent PCI. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that diabetes was associated with increased inhospital mortality rate after any PCI (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8, P =.003). The unadjusted inhospital mortality rates for the nondiabetic patients and patients with diabetes were 0.8% and 1.4%, respectively (P <.001), after elective PCI. The mortality rate was 6.9% for the nondiabetic patients and 12.7% for the patients with diabetes (P <.001) after urgent PCI. The inhospital mortality rates among diabetic patients appear to be decreasing over time among the elective cohort (elective PCI diabetes-time interaction, P =.007) but not in the urgent cohort (urgent PCI-diabetes-time interaction, P =.68).

Conclusions: There has been an improvement in the inhospital survival rate among patients with diabetes in the elective PCI cohort. This improved hospital survival has yet to be realized among patients with diabetes undergoing urgent PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mhj.2003.56DOI Listing
February 2003
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