Publications by authors named "Kenneth A Simmen"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

TMC647055, a potent nonnucleoside hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase inhibitor with cross-genotypic coverage.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012 Sep 18;56(9):4676-84. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Janssen Infectious Diseases, Beerse, Belgium.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health burden and is associated with an increased risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There remains an unmet medical need for efficacious and safe direct antivirals with complementary modes of action for combination in treatment regimens to deliver a high cure rate with a short duration of treatment for HCV patients. Here we report the in vitro inhibitory activity, mode of action, binding kinetics, and resistance profile of TMC647055, a novel and potent nonnucleoside inhibitor of the HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In vitro combination studies with an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor demonstrated potent suppression of HCV RNA replication, confirming the potential for combination of these two classes in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. TMC647055 is a potent nonnucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor of HCV replication with a promising in vitro biochemical, kinetic, and virological profile that is currently undergoing clinical evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00245-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3421868PMC
September 2012

In vitro resistance profile of the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitor TMC435.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010 May 22;54(5):1878-87. Epub 2010 Feb 22.

Tibotec BVBA, Mechelen, Belgium.

TMC435 is a small-molecule inhibitor of the NS3/4A serine protease of hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently in phase 2 development. The in vitro resistance profile of TMC435 was characterized by selection experiments with HCV genotype 1 replicon cells and the genotype 2a JFH-1 system. In 80% (86/109) of the sequences from genotype 1 replicon cells analyzed, a mutation at NS3 residue D168 was observed, with changes to V or A being the most frequent. Mutations at NS3 positions 43, 80, 155, and 156, alone or in combination, were also identified. A transient replicon assay confirmed the relevance of these positions for TMC435 inhibitory activity. The change in the 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) observed for replicons with mutations at position 168 ranged from <10-fold for those with the D168G or D168N mutation to approximately 2,000-fold for those with the D168V or D168I mutation, compared to the EC(50) for the wild type. Of the positions identified, mutations at residue Q80 had the least impact on the activity of TMC435 (<10-fold change in EC(50)s), while greater effects were observed for some replicons with mutations at positions 43, 155, and 156. TMC435 remained active against replicons with the specific mutations observed after in vitro or in vivo exposure to telaprevir or boceprevir, including most replicons with changes at positions 36, 54, and 170 (<3-fold change in EC(50)s). Replicons carrying mutations affecting the activity of TMC435 remained fully susceptible to alpha interferon and NS5A and NS5B inhibitors. Finally, combinations of TMC435 with alpha interferon and NS5B polymerase inhibitors prevented the formation of drug-resistant replicon colonies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01452-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2863659PMC
May 2010

1a/1b subtype profiling of nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitors of hepatitis C virus.

J Virol 2010 Mar 13;84(6):2923-34. Epub 2010 Jan 13.

HCV Research, Tibotec, 2800 Mechelen, Belgium.

The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an unusually attractive target for drug discovery since it contains five distinct drugable sites. The success of novel antiviral therapies will require nonnucleoside inhibitors to be active in at least patients infected with HCV of subtypes 1a and 1b. Therefore, the genotypic assessment of these agents against clinical isolates derived from genotype 1-infected patients is an important prerequisite for the selection of suitable candidates for clinical development. Here we report the 1a/1b subtype profiling of polymerase inhibitors that bind at each of the four known nonnucleoside binding sites. We show that inhibition of all of the clinical isolates tested is maintained, except for inhibitors that bind at the palm-1 binding site. Subtype coverage varies across chemotypes within this class of inhibitors, and inhibition of genotype 1a improves when hydrophobic contact with the polymerase is increased. We investigated if the polymorphism of the palm-1 binding site is the sole cause of the reduced susceptibility of subtype 1a to inhibition by 1,5-benzodiazepines by using reverse genetics, X-ray crystallography, and surface plasmon resonance studies. We showed Y415F to be a key determinant in conferring resistance on subtype 1a, with this effect being mediated through an inhibitor- and enzyme-bound water molecule. Binding studies revealed that the mechanism of subtype 1a resistance is faster dissociation of the inhibitor from the enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01980-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826027PMC
March 2010

1,5-benzodiazepines, a novel class of hepatitis C virus polymerase nonnucleoside inhibitors.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008 Dec 13;52(12):4420-31. Epub 2008 Oct 13.

Tibotec BVBA, Generaal de Wittelaan L11B 3, 2800 Mechelen, Belgium.

The exogenous control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication can be mediated through the inhibition of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity of NS5B. Small-molecule inhibitors of NS5B include nucleoside and nonnucleoside analogs. Here, we report the discovery of a novel class of HCV polymerase nonnucleoside inhibitors, 1,5-benzodiazepines (1,5-BZDs), identified by high-throughput screening of a library of small molecules. A fluorescence-quenching assay and X-ray crystallography revealed that 1,5-BZD 4a bound stereospecifically to NS5B next to the catalytic site. When introduced into replicons, mutations known to confer resistance against chemotypes that bind at this site were detrimental to inhibition by 1,5-BZD 7a. Using a panel of enzyme isolates that covered genotypes 1 to 6, we showed that compound 4a inhibited genotype 1 only. In mechanistic studies, 4a was found to inhibit the RdRp activity of NS5B noncompetitively with GTP and to inhibit the formation of the first phosphodiester bond during the polymerization cycle. The specificity for the HCV target was evaluated by profiling the 1,5-BZDs against other viral and human polymerases, as well as BZD receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00669-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2592889PMC
December 2008

Binding-site identification and genotypic profiling of hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitors.

J Virol 2007 Jul 25;81(13):6909-19. Epub 2007 Apr 25.

HCV Research, Tibotec BVBA, Generaal de Wittelaan L11B 3, 2800 Mechelen, Belgium.

The search for hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitors has resulted in the identification of several nonnucleoside binding pockets. The shape and nature of these binding sites differ across and even within diverse hepatitis C virus genotypes. These differences confront antiviral drug discovery with the challenge of finding compounds that are capable of inhibition in variable binding pockets. To address this, we have established a hepatitis C virus mutant and genotypic recombinant polymerase panel as a means of guiding medicinal chemistry through the elucidation of the site of action of novel inhibitors and profiling against genotypes. Using a genotype 1b backbone, we demonstrate that the recombinant P495L, M423T, M414T, and S282T mutant enzymes can be used to identify the binding site of an acyl pyrrolidine analog. We assess the inhibitory activity of this analog and other nonnucleoside inhibitors with our panel of enzyme isolates generated from clinical sera representing genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01543-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1933266PMC
July 2007

Application of the trak-C HCV core assay for monitoring antiviral activity in HCV replication systems.

J Virol Methods 2004 Jun;118(1):23-31

Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

The Ortho trak-C immunoassay has recently established detection of the HCV core antigen as a viable indirect marker of HCV replication in clinical samples. In this study, trak-C is used to monitor HCV replication in three pre-clinical models: the cellular HCV replicon system, transient transfection of HCV genomes, and the murine Alb-uPa/SCID HCV infection model. All of these systems utilize full-length HCV genomes that direct the expression of core, facilitating its detection with monoclonal antibodies. When performed with purified protein, the assay detects HCV core with a lower limit of detection at 1.5pg, and exhibits linear detection up to 100pg. When assaying extracts prepared from Huh-7 clone 21-5 cells harboring a full-length HCV replicon, core is detectable from as few as 63 cell equivalents. The assay was used to determine the sensitivity of Huh 21-5 cells to the antiviral effects of interferon (IFN). Inhibition by IFN-alpha using core detection was comparable to that observed using branched-DNA (bDNA 3.0) detection of HCV RNA. Replication of transfected full-length HCV 1a Con1 genomes in Huh-7 cells was also detectable using the trak-C assay. Finally, in the transgenic murine HCV infection model, the course of viral amplification was detected from serum using trak-C with kinetics similar to those observed with RNA detection. Given its ease of use and the lack of requirement for RNA purification, the trak-C assay has several advantages over RNA-based methods of viral monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2004.01.014DOI Listing
June 2004

Development of a novel influenza A antiviral assay.

J Virol Methods 2002 Aug;105(1):105-14

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Traditional methods used to monitor influenza infection typically require 2-5 days to perform, prompting a need for more rapid and quantitative methods for monitoring viral infection in 96-well formats. Such assays would find application in high-throughput screening for novel antiviral agents. A new method, based on branched DNA (bDNA) technology, is described for the specific detection of negative strand RNA of influenza A strains using a set of oligonucleotides designed for the A/PR/8/34 nucleoprotein (NP) transcript. By detecting the genomic strand, this signal amplification assay is appropriate for monitoring the kinetics of viral replication. Assay performance was monitored following infection of MDCK cells. The assay exhibited high reproducibility, good sensitivity over a range of multiplicity of infection and has a lower limit of detection of approximately 5 x 10 (5) RNA copies. Designed to quantitate the H1N1 strain A/PR/8/34, the assay also detects other influenza A subtypes, but not the evolutionarily more distant strain B/Yamagata/16/88. Validation as an antiviral assay was demonstrated with two influenza antivirals, zanamivir and rimantadine. The EC(50) values calculated following bDNA detection for zanamivir (265 nM) and rimantadine (9.4 microg/ml) in A/PR/8/34 infection correlate closely to data previously reported from visual CPE determinations, neutral red dye uptake and plaque assays, respectively. The advantages over the more time-consuming traditional assays suggest that the influenza bDNA assay is applicable to rapid screening of compound collections for antiviral activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0166-0934(02)00088-5DOI Listing
August 2002
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